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they lived, and who were supposed to preserve the innocence of a state of nature; and of them, therefore, he speaks collectively by epithets suited to such descriptions, and, among the rest, as &Stoi, poor, with scanty meant of life (from a and jBfor). The people thus described answer to the later notions respecting the Hyperboreans, whose name does not occur in Homer. Afterwards, the epithets applied by Homer to this supposed primitive people were taken as proper names, and were assigned to different tribes of the Scythians, so that we have mention of the Scythae Agavi, Hippcmolgi, Galactophagi (and Galactopotae) and Abii. The last are mentioned as a distinct people by Aeschylus, who prefixes a guttural to the name, and describes the Gabii as the most just and hospitable of men, living on the self-sown fruits of the untitled earth; but we have no indication of where he placed them {Prom, &>lut. Fr. 184). "Of those commentators, who take the word in Homer for a proper name, some place them in Thrace, some in Scythia, and some near the Amazons, who in vain urged them to take part in an expedition against Asia (Eustath. ad II. I. c. p. 916; Steph. Byz. /. c.)i in fact, like the correspondent fabulous people, the Hyperborei, they seem to have been moved back, as knowledge advanced, further and further into the unknown regions of the north. In the histories of Alexander's expedition we are told that ambassadors came to him at Maracanda (Samarkand) from the Abii Scythae, a tribe who had been independent since the time of Cyrus, and were renowned for their just and peaceful character (Arrian. A nab. iv. 1; Q. Curt. vii. 6); but the specific name of the tribe of Scythians who sent this embassy is probably only an instance of the attempts made to illustrate the old mythical geography by Alexander's conquests. In these accounts their precise locality is not indicated: Ammianus Marcellinus places them N. of Hyrcania (xxiii. 6). An extended discussion will be found in Strabo of the various opinions respecting the Abii up to his time (pp. 296, 303, 311, 553; Droysen, in the Rhein. Mas. vol. ii. p. 92, 1834). [P. S.]

A'BILA ('AftAa: Eth. 'Agi\vv6s). It would appear that there were several towns bearing this appellation in the districts which border upon Palestine. The most important of these was a place of strength in Coele-Syria, now Ntbi Abel, situated between Heliopolis and Damascus, in lat, 33°38'N., long. 36° 18' E. It was the chief town of the tetrarchy of Abilene, and is frequently termed, by way of distinction, Abila Lysaniae ("ASiAa beutaXotiiiivri tivaai/iov). [abilene.]

Believe has written a dissertation in the Transactions of the Academy of Belles Lettres to prove that this Abila is the same with Leucat on the river Chrysorrhoas, which at one period assumed the name of Claudiopolis, as we learn from some coins described by Eckhel. The qnestion is much complicated by the circumstance that medals have been preserved of a town in Coele-Syria called Abila Leucas, which, as can be demonstrated from the pieces themselves, must have been different from Abila Lysaniae. (Eckhel, vol. iii. pp. 337, 345; PtoL v. 15. § 22; Plin. v. 18; Antonin. Itiner. pp. 198, 199, cd. Wessel.) [W. R.]

ABILE'NE, or simply A'BILA ('AftX^, 'ASiAo), a district in Coele-Syria, of which the chief town was Abila. The limits of this region are nowhere exactly defined, but it seems to have included the eastern slopes of Antilibanus, and to

have extended S. and SE. of Damascus as far a* the borders of Galilaca, Batanaea, and Traehonitis. Abilene, when first mentioned in history, was governed by a certain Ptolemaeus, son of Mennaeus, who was succeeded, about B. C. 40, by a son named Lysanias. Lysanias was put to death in n. c. 33, at the instigation of Cleopatra, and the principality passed, by a sort of purchase apparently, into the hands of one Zenodorus, from whom it was transferred (b. c. 31) to Herod the Great. At the death of the latter (a. n. 3) one portion of it was annexed to the tetrarchy of his son Philip, and the remainder bestowed upon that Lysanias who is named by St, Luke (iii. 1). Immediately after the death of Tiberius (a. D. 37), Caligula made over to Herod Agrippa, at that time a prisoner in Rome, the tetrarchy of Philip and the tetrarchy of Lysanias, while Claudius, upon his accession (a. r>. 41), not only confirmed the liberality of his predecessor towards Agrippa, but added all that portion of Judaea and Samaria which had belonged to the kingdom of his grandfather Herod theGreat,togetbcr(says Josephus) with Abila, which had appertained to Lysanias f AfiAar Si T)\v AwraWov), and the adjoining region of Libanus. Lastly, in A. D. 53, Claudius granted to the younger Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip with Batanaea and Trachonitis and Abila Amav'ia Si aurn iyty6vti rerpapx^ (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 4. § 4, 7. § 4, xviii. 7. § 10, xix. 5. § 1, xx. 6. § 1, B. J. i. 13. § 1, xx. 4.) Josephus, at first sight, seems to contradict himself, in so far that in one passage (Ant. xviii. 7. § 10) he represents Caligula as bestowing upon Herod Agrippa the tetrarchy of Lysanias, while in another (Ant. xix. 5. § 1) he Btates that Abila of Lysanias was added by Claudius to the former dominions of Agrippa, but, in reality, these expressions must be explained as referring to the division of Abilene which took place on the death of Herod the Great. We find Abila mentioned among the places captured by Placidus, one of Vespasian's generals, in A. D. 69 or 70 (Joseph. B. J. iv. 7. § 5), and from that time forward it was permanently annexed to the province of Syria. [W. R.]

KmOXik(M»aea:Schwarzwald,BlackFore4t\ a range of hills in Germany, extending from the Oberland of Baden northward as far as the modern town of Pforzheim. In later times it was sometimes called Silva Marciana. On its eastern side are the sources of the Danube. Its name is sometimes spelt Arnoba or Arbona, but the correct orthography is established by inscriptions. (Orelli, Inter. Lot. no. 1986.) Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 7) incorrectly places the range of the Abnoba too far X. between the Maine and the source of the Ems. (Tacit. Germ. 1; Fest. Avien. Detcript. Orb. 437; Plin. iv. 12. s. 24; Martian. Capell. vi. § 662; comp.'Creuzer, Zur Getch. der Alt-Rom. Cullur, pp. 65, 108.) f_L. S.]

ABOCCIS or ABUNCIS ('Aeoiryicfr, PtoL iv. 7. § 16; Plin. vi. 29. s. 35. § 181, Aboccis in old editions, Abuncis in SiUig's: Aboosimbel or Ipsambul), a town in Aethiopia, between the Second Cataract and Syene, situated on the left bank of the Nile, celebrated on account of the two magnificent grotto temples, which were discovered at this place by Belzoni. The walls of the larger of the two temples are covered with paintings, which record the victories of Ramses III. over various nations of Africa and Asia. (Kenrick, Ancient Egypt, vol. L p. 24, scq.)

ABODI'ACUM, AUODI'ACUM ('AeouStaKoy, Tab. Peut.; Ttol. ii. 13. § 5 Aitozacum, Vit. S. Magn. 28), a town of Vindelicia, probably coinciding with the modem Epfoch on the river Lech, ■where remains of Roman buildings are still extant The stations, however, in the Itineraries and the Peutingerian Table are not easily identified with the site of Epfach; and Abodiacnm is placed by some topographers at the hamlet of PeUenberg, on the slope of a hill with the same name, or in the neighbourhood of Rosenheim in Bavaria. (Itin. Anton.; Muchar, Noricum, p. 263.) [W. B. D.-]

ABOLLA ("AffoAAa), a city of Sicily, mentioned only by Stephanus Byzantinus (*. r.), who affords no clue to its position, but it has been supposed, on account of the resemblance of the name, to have occupied the site of A tola, between Syracuse and Noto. A coin of this city has been published by D'Orville (Stcufa, pt. ii. tab. 20), but is of very uncertain authority. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 189 ; CastelL Sicil. Vet. Num. p. 4.) [E. H. B.]

ABONI-TEICHOS ('Astfrw Tux°' : Eth.'AgumTf Ix«'t»s: Ineboli), a town on the coast of Paphlagonia with a harbour, memorable as the birthplace of the impostor Alexander, of whom Lucian has left us an amusing account in the treatise bearing his name. {Diet, of JSiogr. vol. i. p. 123.) According to Lucian (Alex. § 58), Alexander petitioned the emperor (probably Antoninus Pius) that the name of his native place should be changed from Aboni-Teichos into Ionopolis; and whether the emperor granted the request or not, we know that the town was called Ionopolis in later times. Not only does this name occur in Marcianus and Hierocles; but on coins of the time of Antoninus and L. Verus we find the legend inNOnOAITON, as well as ABnNOTEIXITQN. The modern Ineboli is evidently only a corruption of Ionopolis. (Strab. p. 545; Arrian, Peripl. p. 15; Lucian, Alex., passim; Marcian. Peripl. p. 72; Ptol. v. 4. §2; Hicrocl. p. 696; Steph. B. t. v. '\Gwvov

ABORI'GINES ('ASopquyes), a name given by all the Roman and Greek writers to the earliest inhabitants of Latium, before they assumed the appellation of Latini. There can be no doubt that the obvious derivation of this name (ao origitus) is the true one, and that it could never have been a national title really home by any people, but was a mere abstract appellation invented in later times, and intended, like the Autochthones of the Greeks, to designate the primitive and original inhabitants of the country. The other derivations suggested by later writers, — such as Aberrigines, from their wandering habits, or the absurd one which Dionysius seems inclined to adopt, " ab 6ptot," from their dwelling in the mountains, — are mere etymological fancies, suggested probably with a view of escaping from the difficulty, that, according to later researches, they were not really autochthones, but foreigners coining from a distance (Dionys. i. 10; Aur. Vict. Orig. Gent. Rom. 4). Their real name appears to have been Casci (Saufeius, ap. Serv. ad A en. i. 6), an appellation afterwards used among the Romans to signify anything primitive or old-fashioned. The epithet of Sacrani, supposed by Niebuhr to have been also a national appellation, would appear to have had a more restricted sense, and to have been confined to a particular tribe or subdivision of the race. But it is certainly remarkable that the name of Aborigines must have been established in general use at a period as early as the fifth century of Rome;

for (if we may trust the accuracy of Dionysius) it was already used by Callias, the historian of Agathoclcs, who termed Latinus "king of the Aborigines" (Dionys. i. 72): and we find that Lycophron (writing under Ptolemy Philadelphus) speaks of Aeneas as founding thirty cities "in the land of the Boreigonoi," a name which is evidently a mere corruption of Aborigines. (Lyeophr. Alex. 1253; Tzetz. ad loc.; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 80.)

A tradition recorded both by Cato and Varro, and which Niebuhr justly regards as one of the most credible of those transmitted to us from antiquity, related that these Aborigines first dwelt in the high mountain districts around Reate and in the vallies which extend from thence towards the Mt. Velino and the Lake Fucinus. From hence they were expelled by the Sabines, who descended upon them from the still more elevated regions around Amiternnm, and drove them forwards towards the W. coast: yielding to this pressure, they descended into the valley of the Anio, and from thence gradually extended themselves into the plains of Latium. Here they came in contact with the Siculi, who were at that time in possession of the country; and it was not till after a long contest that the Aborigines made themselves masters of the land, expelled or reduced to slavery its Siculian population, and extended their dominion not only over Latium itself, but the whole plain between the Volscian mountains and the sea, and even as far as the river Liris. (Dionys. i. 9, 10, 13, 14, ii. 49; Cato, ap. Prucian. v. 12. § 65.) In this war we are told that the Aborigines were assisted by a Pelasgian tribe, with whom they became in some degree intermingled, and from whom they first learned the art of fortifying their towns. In conjunction with these allies they continued to occupy the plains of Latium until about the period of the Trojan war, when they assumed the appellation of Latini, from their king Latinus. (Dionys. i. 9, 60; Liv. i. 1, 2.)

Whatever degree of historical authority we may attach to this tradition, there can be no doubt that it correctly represents the fact that the Latin race, such as we find it in historical times, was composed of two distinct elements: the one of Pelasgic origin, and closely allied with other Pelasgic races in Italy; the other essentially different in language and origin. Both these elements are distinctly to be traced in the Latin language, in which one class of words is closely related to the Greek, another wholly distinct from it, and evidently connected with the languages of the Oscan race. The Aborigines may be considered as representing the non-Pelaegic part of the Latin people; and to them wo may refer that portion of the Latin language which is strikingly dissimilar to the Greek. The obvious relation of this to the Oscan dialects would at once lead us to tho same conclusion with the historical traditions above related: namely, that tho Aborigines or Casci, a mountain race from the central Apennines, were nearly akin to the Aequi, Volsci, and other ancient nations of Italy, who are generally inclnded under tho term of Oscans or Ausordans; and as clearly distinct from tho tribes of Pelasgic origin, on the one hand, and from the great Sabellian family on the other. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 78—84; Donaldson, Varronianut, p. 3; Abeken, Mittelitalien, pp. 46, 47.)

Dionysius tells us that the greater part of the cities originally inhabited by the Aborigines in their mountain homes had ceased to exist in his time; but he has preserved to us (i. 14) a catalogue of them, as given by Varro in his Antiquities, which is of much interest. Unfortunately most of the names contained in it are otherwise wholly unknown, and the geographical data are not sufficiently precise to enable us to fix their position with any certainty. Tho researches of recent travellers have, however, of late years given increased interest to the passage in question, by establishing the fact that the neighbourhood of Reate, and especially the valley of the Salto, a district commonly called tho Cicolano, abound with vestiges of ancient cities, which, from the polygonal, or so-called Cyclopean style of their construction, have been referred to a very early period of antiquity. Many attempts have been consequently made to identify these sites with the cities mentioned by Varro; but hitherto with little success. The most recent investigations of this subject are those by Martelli (an Italian antiquarian whose local knowledge gives weight to his opinions) in his Storia dei Siculi (Aquila, 1830, 8vo.), and by Bunsen (Antichi Stabilimenti Italici, in the Atmali dell Imtituto di Corritpondema Archeologica, vol. vL p. 100, seq.). But the complete diversity of their results proves how little certainty is to be attained. In the following enumeration of them, we can only attempt to give the description of the localities according to Varro, and to notice briefly their supposed identifications.

1. Palatium, from which the city on the Palatine hill at Rome was supposed to have derived its name (Varr. de L.L. v. § 53 ; Solin. 1. § 14), is placed by Varro at 25 stadia from Reate; and would appear to have been still inhabited in his time. (See Bunsen, p. 129, whose suggestion of w<iAis oiKovpLivr) for *i\tm Oikoujmvtij is certainly very plausible.) Ruins of it aro said to exist at a place still called Pallanii, near Torrieella, to tho right of the Via Solaria, at about tho given distance from Reate. (Martelli, p. 195.) Gel!, on the other hand, places it near the convent of La Foresta, to tho N. of Rieti, where remains of a polygonal character are also found. Bunsen concurs in placing it in this direction, but without fixing the site.

2. Tribuia (TpISoAa), about 60 stadia from Reate; placed by Bunsen at Santa Felice, below the modern town of Cantalice, whose polygonal walls wore discovered by DodwelL Martelli appears to confound it with Tribula Mutusca, from which it is probably distinct.

3. Suesbula, or Vesbula (the MSS. of Dionysius vary between 2uco€6ka and OofffSdAa), at tho same distance (60 stadia) from Tribula, near the Ceraunian Mountains. These are otherwise unknown, but supposed by Bunsen to be the Monti di Leonesta, and that Suesbula was near tho sito of the little city of Leonetaa, from which they derive their name,

4. Suna (Sown), distant 40 stadia from Suesbola, with a very ancient temple of Mars: 5. MkriiYLA (Mij<pvAa), about 30 stadia from Suna, of which some ruins and traces of walls were still visible in tho time of Varro: and 6. Orvinium Q'Opoviviov'), 40 stadia from Mephyla, the ruins of which, as well as its ancient sepulchres, attested its former magnitude; — are all wholly unknown, but arc probably to be sought between the Monli di Leonessa and the valley of the Velino. Martelli, however, transfers this whole group of cities (including Tribula and Suesbula), which are placed by Bunsen to tho N. of Rieti, to the vallies of tho Turano and Satio S. of that city.

7. Corshla (Kopo-oDAo), a city destroyed shortly before the time of Varro, is placed by him at 80 stadia from Reate, along the Via Curia, at the foot of Mt. Coretum. This road is otherwise unknown*, but was probably that which led from Reate towards Terni (Interamna), and if so, Corsula must have been on the left bank of the Velinus, but its site is unknown.

In the same direction were: 8. Issa, a town situated on an island in a lake, probably the same now called the Logo del Pie di Lugo: and 9. MarkuVium (Mapo&toi'), situated at the extremity of tho same lake. Near this were the Sefteh Aquae, the position of which in this fertile valley between Reate and Interamna is confirmed by their mention in Cicero (ad Att. iv. 15).

10. Returning again to Reate, and proceeding along the valley of tho Salto towards the Lake Fucinus (Dionysius has *H)v liri Aajivqv bhbv ttoiovatv, for which Bunsen would read T)\v inl \lfiv7jv: but in any case it seems probable that this is tho direction meant), Varro mentions first Batia or Vatia (botio), of which no trace is to be found: then comes

11. Tiora, sumamed Matiene (TitSpa, ?) Koaoufifrn Moti^otj), where there was a very ancient oracle of Mars, the responses of which were delivered by a woodpecker. This is placed, according to Varro, at 300 stadia from Reate, a distanco which so much exceeds all the others, that it has been supposed to be corrupt; but it coincides well with the actual distance (36 miles) from Rieti to a spot named Castore, near Sta. Anatolia, in the upper valley of tho Salto, which was undoubtedly the sito of an ancient city, and presents extensive remains of walls of polygonal construction. (Bunsen, p. 115; Abeken, Mittelitalim, p. 87.) We learn also from early Martyrologics, that Sta. Anatolia, who lias given name to the modern village, was put to death "in civitate Thora, apud lacum Vchnum." (Cluver. Ital. p. 684.) Hence it seems probable that tho name of CoMore is a corruption of Cas-Tora (Castellum Torae), and that the ruins visible there aro really those of Tiora-f

12. Lista (Mora), called by Varro the metropolis of tho Aborigines, is placed by him, according to our present text of Dionysius, at 24 stadia from Tiora; but there seem strong reasons for supposing that this is a mistake, and that Lista was really situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Reate. [lista.]

13. The last city assigned by Varro to the Aborigines is Cottlia, or Cbtilia (kotaaio), celebrated for its lake, concerning the site of which (between Civita Jhicale and Antrodoco) there exists no doubt. [cutilia.]

Among tho cities of Latium itself, Dionysius (i. 44, ii. 35) expressly assigns to the Aborigines the foundation of Antemnae, Caenina, Ficnlnea, Tellenae, and Tibur: some of which were wrested

* The MSS. of Dionysius havo Sia Tys 'lovpias Aiov, a name which is certainly corrupt. Some editors woukl read 'Iowlar, but the emendation of Koupi'as suggested by Bunsen is far more probable. For tho further investigation of this point, see Reate.

f Holstenins, however (Not. ad Cluver. p. 114), places Tiora in the valley of the Turano, at a place called Colle Piccolo, where there is also a celebrated church of Sta. Anatolia.

by them from the Siculions, others apparently new settlements. Little historical dependence can of course be placed on these statements, but they were probably meant to distinguish the cities in question from those which were designated by tradition as of Pelasgian origin, or colonies of Alba.

Sallust (Cat. 6) speaks of the Aborigines as a rude people, without fixed laws or dwellings, but this is probably a mere rhetorical exaggeration: it is clear that Varro at least regarded them as possessed of fortified towns, temples, oracles, &c.; and the native traditions of the Latins concerning Janus and Saturn indicate that they had acquired all the primitive arts of civilisation before the period of the supposed Trojan colony. [E. H. B.]

ABOBRHAS. [chaboras.]

ABBAUANNUS (As>aoi>a*Koj, Ptol. ii. 3. § 2), a river of Britannia Barbara, which discharged itself a little northward of the Promontorium Novontum, or Hull of Galloway into Luce-Bay. Abravannus is probably the stream which flows through Loch Iiyon into the sea—Ab-Ryan, or the offspring of Ryan, being easily convertible into the Roman form of the word Ab-Ryan-us—Abravannus. [W. B. D.]

ABRETTK'NE. [hysia.]

ABRINCATUI, a Gallic tribe (Plin. iv. 18), not mentioned by Caesar, whose frontier was near the Curiosolites. Their town Ingena, called Abrincatae in the Notitia Imperii, has given its name to the modem Avranches; and their territory would probably correspond to the division of Avranchin. [G. L.]

ABRO'TONUH ('\Spi-rorov), a Phoenician city on the coast of N. Africa, in the district of Tripolitana, between tho Syrtes, usually identified with Sabrata, though Pliny makes them different places. (Scylox, p. 47; Strab. p. 835; Steph. B. «. v.; Plin. v.4.) * [P.S.]

ABSY'RTIDES or APSYTITIDES QA^uftOn: Eth. 'Afj/vfrreiis, 'ktyvpros: Cherso and 0&cr6), the name of two islands off the coast of Illyricum, so called because, according to one tradition, Absyrtus was slain here by his sister Medea and by Jason. Ptolemy mentions only ono island Apsobrus ('A+ojlios), on which he places two towns Crepsa (Kptya) and Apsorrus. (Strab. p. 315; Steph. Byz. t. v.; Mel. ii. 7; Plin. iii. 26; Ptol. ii. 16. § 13.)

ABUS (4 "Aft)s) or ABA < Plin. v. 24. s. 20), a mountain in Armenia, forming a part of the E. prolongation of tho Anti-Taurus chain, and separating the basins of the Araxcs and of the Arsanias or S. branch of the Euphrates (Muratt). The latter of these great rivers rises on its S. side, and, according to Strabo, the former also rises on its N. side. According to this statement, the range must be considered to begin as far W. as tho neighbourhood of Erzeroom, while it extends E. to the Araxes S. of Artaxata. Here it terminates in the great isolated peak, 17,210 feet high, and covered with perpetual snow, which an almost uniform tradition has pointed out as the Ararat of Scripture (Gen. viii. 4), and which is still called Ararat or AgriDagh, and, by the Persians, Kuh-i-Nuh (mountain of Noah): it is situated in 39° 42' N. lat., and 44° 35' E. long. This summit forms the culminating point of W. Asia. The chain itself is called A la-dagh. (Strab. pp. 527,531; Ptol. v. 13.) [P. S.]

ABUS ("asoj, Ptol. ii. 3. § 6: number), one of the principal rivers, or rather estuaries in the Roman province of Maxima Caesariensis in Britain. It receives many tributaries, and discharges itself into the

German Ocean south of Ocelum Promontorium (Spurn Head). Its left bank was inhabited by the Celtic tribe, whom the Romans entitled Parisi, but according to a medieval poet cited by Camden, no great town or city anciently stood on its banks. [W. B. D.]

ABUSraA, ABUSENA, a town of Vindelicia, situated on the river Abens, and corresponding nearly to the modern Abensberg. Abusina stood near to the eastern termination of the high mod which ran from the Roman military station Vindenissa on the Aar to the Danube. Roman walls are still extant, and Roman remains still discovered at Abensberg. [W. B. D.]

ABY'DUS. 1. (v'ASvto!, Abydum, Plin. v. 32: Eth. *A6v$nv6$, Abydenus), a city of Mysia on the Hellespontus, nearly opposite Sestus on the European shore. It is mentioned as one of the towns in alliance with the Trojans. (//. ii. 836.) Aidot or Avido, a modem village on the Hellespont, may be the site of Abydos, though the conclusion from a name is not certain. Abydus stood at the narrowest point of the Hellespontus, where the channel is only 7 stadia wide, and it hod a small port. It was probably a Thracian town originally, but it became a Milesian colony. (Thuc. viii. 61.) At a point a little north of this town Xerxes placed his bridge of boats, by which his troops were conveyed across the channel to the opposite town of Sestus, B. c. 480. (Herod, vii. 33.) The bridge of boats extended, according to Herodotus, from Abydus to a promontory on the European shore, between Sestus and Madytus. The town possessed a small territory which contained some gold mines, but Strabo speaks of them as exhausted. It was burnt by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, after his Scythian expedition, for fear that the Scythians, who were said to be in pursuit of him, should take possession of it (Strab. p. 591); but it must soon have recovered from this calamity, for it was afterwards a town of some note; and Herodotus (v. 117) states that it was captured by the Persian general, Daurises, with other cities on the Hellespont (b. C. 498), shortly after the commencement of the Ionian revolt. In B. c. 411, Abydus revolted from Athens and joined Dercyllidas, the Spartan commander in those parts. (Thuc. viii. 62.) Subsequently, Abydus made a vigorous defence against Philip II., king of'Macedonia, before it surrendered. On the conclusion of tho war with Philip (b. C. 196), the Romans declared Abydus, with other Asiatic cities, to be free. (Liv. xxxiii. 30.) Tho names of Abydus and Sestus aro coupled together in tho old story of Hero and Leander, who is said to have swam across the channel to visit his mistress at Sestus. The distance between Abydus and Sestus, from port to port, was about 30 stadia, according to Strabo. [G. L.j

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2. In ancient times termed This, in Coptic F.bM, now Ardbat el Malfoon, was the chief town of tho Nomos Thikites, and was situated on the Balir Yusuf at a short distance from the point where that water-course strikes off from the Kile, being about miles to the west of the river, in lat. 26° 10' N., long. 32° 3' E. It was one of tlio most important cities in Egypt under the native kings, and in the Thcbaid ranked next to Thebes itself. Here, according to the belief generally prevalent, was the borying-place of Osiris: here Menes, the first mortal monarch, was born, and the two first dynasties in Manetho are composed of Thinite monarchs. In the time of Strabo it had sunk to a mere village, but it was still in existence when Ammianus Marcellinus wrote, and the seat of an oracle of the god Besa.

Abydus has acquired great celebrity of late years in consequence of the important ruins, nearly buried in sand, discovered on the ancient site, and from the numerous tombs, some of them belonging to a very remote epoch, which are found in the neighbouring hills. Indeed I'lutarch expressly states that men of distinction among the Egyptians frequently selected Abydus as their place of sepulture, in order that their remains might repose near those of Osiris. The two great edifices, of which remains still exist, are: — 1. An extensive pile, called tho Palace of Mcmnon (MejwoViov &aul\uot>, Memnonis regia) by Strabo and Pliny; and described by the former as resembling the Labyrinth in general plan, although neither so extensive nor so complicated. It has been proved by recent investigations that this building was tho work of a king belonging to the 18th dynasty, Kamses II., father of Ramses the Great. 2. A templo of Osiris, built, or at least completed by Kamses the Great himself. In one of the lateral apartments, Mr. Bankes discovered in 1818 the famous list of Egyptian kings, now in the British Museum, known as the Tablet of Abydos, which is one of tho most precious of all the Egyptian monuments hitherto brought to light. It contains a double series of 26 shields of the predecessors of Ramses the Great.

It must be observed that the identity of Abydus with This cannot be demonstrated. We find frequent mention of tho Thinite Nome, and of Abydus as its chief town, but no ancient geographer names This except Stephanus Byzantinus, who tells us that it was a town of Egypt in the vicinity of Abydus. It is perfectly clear, however, that if they were distinct they must have been intimately connected, and that Abydus must have obscured and eventually taken the place of This. (Strab. p. 813, seq.; Plut. Is. et Os. 18; Plin. v. 9; Ptol. iv. 5; Antonin. Itiner. p. 158, ed. Weasel.) Steph. B. t.v. Sis; Amm. Marc. xix. 12. § 3; Wilkiason, Topography of Thebes, p. 397; Kcnrick, Ancient Egypt, vol. i p. 45.) [W.R.]

A'BYLA, or A'BILA MONS or COLUMNA ('Affi)A7j or 'ASkij <rrf)Aij, "ASi/Au^, Eratosth.: Ximiera, Jebel-eUMina, or Monte del Hacho), a high precipitous rock, forming the E. extremity of the S., or African, coast of the narrow entrance from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (Fretum Gaditanum or Hcrculoum, Straits of Gibraltar). It forms an outlying spur of the range of mountains which runs parallel to the coast under the name of Septan Fratrcs (Jebel Zatout, i. e. Ape's Bill), and which appear to have been originally included under the name of Abyla. They may be regarded

as tho NW. end of the Lesser Atlas. Tho rock is connected with the main range by a low and narrow tongue of land, about 3 miles long, occupied, in ancient times, by a Roman fortress (Castellum ad Septem Fratres), and now by the Spanish town of Ctuta or Sebta, the citadel of which is on the hill itself. The rock of Abyla, with the opposite rock of Calpe (Gibraltar) on the coast of Spain, formed the renowned " Columns of Hercules" (^HpaxKficu <m(Aai, or simply O-t^aoi), So called from the fable that they were originally one mountain, which was torn asunder by Hercules. (Strab. pp. 170, 829 ; Plin. iii. prooem., v. 1; Mela, ii. 6 ; Exploration Scientiftque de tAlge'rie, torn. viii. p. 301.) [P. 8.]

ACACE'SIUM ('Amwfiffio!': Eth. Akok^o-ioj), a town of Arcadia in the district of larrhasia, at the foot of a hill of the same name, and 36 stadia on the road from Megalopolis to Pbigalea. It is said to have been founded by Acacus, son of Lycaon; and according to some traditions Hermes was brought up at this place by Acacus, and hence derived tho surname of Acacesius. Upon the hill there was a statue in stone, in the time of Pausanias, of Hermes Acacesius; and four stadia from the town was a celebrated temple of Despoena. This temple probably stood on the hill, on which are now the remains of the church of St. Elias. (Paus. viii. 3. § 2, viii. 27. § 4, viii. 36. § 10; Steph. Byz. I. v.; Ross, Jleiten im Pelopmnes, vol. i. p. 87.)

ACADEMI'A [atiienae.]

ACADE'RA or ACADITtA, a region in tho NW of India, traversed by Alexander. (Curt. viii. 10. §19.) [P.S.]

ACALANDRUS ( AKikcwSpos), a river of Lucania, flowing into the gulf of Tarentum. It is mentioned both by Pliny and Strabo, the former of/ivhom appears to place it to the north of Heraclea: but lus authority is not very distinct, and Strabo, on the contrary, clearly states that it was in tho territory of Thurii,on which account Alexander of Epirus sought to transfer to its banks the general assembly of the Italian Greeks that had been previously held at Heraclea. [heraclea.] Cluverius and other topographers, following the authority of Pliny, have identified itwith theSalandrella, a small river between the Basiento and Ayri ; but there can be little doubt that Barrio and Romanelh are correct in supposing it to be a small stream, still called the Calandro, flowing into the sea a little N. of Roseto, and about 10 miles S. of the mouth of the Siris or Sinno. It was probably the boundary between the territories of Heraclea and Thurii. (Plin. iii. 11. § 15; Strab. p. 280; Cluver. Ital. p. 1277; Barrius de Ant. Catabr. v. 20; Romanclli, vol. i. p. 244.) [E.H.'B.]


ACANTHUS ("AKacfloi: Eth. 'fucdvOios: Erisso), a town on the E. side of tho isthinus, which connects the peninsula of Acte with Chalcidice, and about 1J mile above the canal of Xerxes. [athos.] It was founded by a colony from Andres, and became a place of considerable importance. Xerxes stopped here on his march into Greece (b. C. 480) and praised the inhabitants for the zeal which they displayed in his service. Acanthus surrendered to Brasidas B c.424, and its independence was shortly afterwards guaranteed in the treaty of peace made between Athens and Sparta. The Acantliians main • taincd their independence against the Olynthians, but eventually became subject to the kings of Macedonia. In tho war between the Romans and Philip

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