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pulsory labour in the mines for the punishment of reason to consider these, who from their name may death. Diodorus also celebrates the mildness and have once composed the left wing of the Egyptian justice of another Aethiopiau king, whom he calls army, the exiled war-caste. In that frontier poActisanes, and rumours of such virtues may have sition they would have been available to their procured for the Aethiopian race the epithet of “the adopted country as a permanent garrison against blameless." (Hom. Il. i. 423.)

| invasion from the north. Sebichus, the So or Seva of the Scriptures, was The Persian dynasty was scarcely established in the sun and successor of Sabaco. He was an ally Egypt, when Cambyses undertook an expedition of Hoshea, king of Israel; but he was unable, or too | into Aethiopia. He prepared for it by sending tardy in his movements, to prevent the capture of certain Icthyophagi from Elephantine as envoys, or Samaria by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, in B. C. rather as spies, to the king of the Macrobians. 722. One result of the captivity of Israel was an (Herod. ii. 17-25.) But the invasion was so influx of Hebrew exiles into Egypt and Aethiopia, ill-planned, or encountered such physical obstacles and eventually the dissemination of the Mosaic re- | in the desert, that the Persian army returned to ligion in the country north of Elephantine. Before Memphis, enfeebled and disheartened. Of this inthis catastrophe, the Psalmist and the Prophets road the magazines of Cambyses (Tauieia Kaubú(Psalm, lxxxvii. 4; Isaiah, xx. 5; Nahum, iii. 9; rov, Ptol. iv. 7. § 15), probably the town of Cambysis Ezek. xxx. 4) had celebrated the military power of (Plin. H. N. vi. 29), on the left bank of the Nile, the Aethiopians, and the historical writings of the near its great curve to the west, was the only perJews record their invasions of Palestine. Isaiah manent record. The Persian occupation of the Nile(xix. 18) predicts the return of Israel from the land valley opened the country above Philae to Greek of Cush; and the story of Queen Candace's treasurer, travellers. The philosopher Democritus, a little in the Acts of the Apostles (ch. viii.), shows that younger than Herodotus, wrote an account of the the Hebrew Scriptures were current in the more hieroglyphics of Meroë (Diog. Laert. ix. 49), and civilised parts of that region. Sebichus was suc- from this era we may probably date the establishceeded by Tirhakah — the Tarcus or Taracus of ment of Greek emporia upon the shore of the Red Manetho. The commentators on the Book of Kings Sea. Under the Ptolemies, the arts, as well as the (iii. 19) usually describe this monarch as an Ara- enterprise of the Greeks, entered Aethiopia, and led to bian chieftain; but his name is recorded on the the destruction of the sacerdotal government, and to propylon of a temple at Medinet-Aboo, and at Gebel- the foundation or extension of the Hellenic colonies cl-Birkel, or Barkal, in Nubia. He was, therefore, Dire-Berenices, Arsinoë, Adule, Ptolemais-Therôn, of Aethiopian lineage. Strabo (i. p. 61, xv. p. 687) on the coast, where, until the era of the Saracen says, that Tirhakah rivalled Sesortasen, or Ra invasion in the 7th century A. D., an active trade meses III., in his conquests, which extended to the was carried on between Libya, Arabia, and Western Pillars of Hercules, meaning, probably, the Phoe- India or Ceylon (Ophir? Taprobane). nician settlements on the northern coast of Africa. In the reign of Augustus, the Aethiopians, under From Hebrew records (2 Kings, xviii, xix. ; Isaiah, their Queen Candace, advanced as far as the Roman xxxvi, xxxvii.), we know that Tirhakah was on his garrisons at Parembole and Elephantine. They march to relieve Judaea from the invasion of Sen- were repulsed by C. Petronius, the legatus of the nacherib (B. c. 588); but his advance was rendered prefect of Egypt, Aelius Gallus, who placed a Roman unnecessary by the pestilence which swept off the garrison in Premnis (Ibrim), and pursued the reAssyrian army near Pelusium (Herod. i. 141; treating army to the neighbourhood of Napata. Horapoll. Hierogl. i. 50). Tirhakah, however, was (Dion Cass. liv. 5.) In a second campaign Pesovereign only in the Thebaid: one, if not two, tronius compelled Candace to send overtures of native Egyptian kings, reigned contemporaneously peace and subrnission to Augustus (B. C. 22-23) with him at Memphis and Sais. According to the But the Roman tenure of Aethiopia above Egypt inscription at Gebel-el-Birkel, Tirbakah reigned at was always precarious; and in Diocletian's reign least twenty years in Upper Egypt. Herodotus, in- (A. D. 284—305), the country south of Philae was deed, regards the 25th or Aethiopian dynasty in ceded generally by that emperor to the Nubae. Egypt as comprised in the reign and person of Sa- Under the Romans, indeed, if not earlier, the popubaco alone, to whom he assigns a period of fifty lation of Aethiopia had become almost A

lation of Ae

1, and years. But there were certainly three monarchs of continued so after the establishment of Christian this line, and a fourth, Armeris, is mentioned in churches and sees, until the followers of Mahomet the list of Eusebius. The historian (ii. 139) as-overran the entire region from the sources of the cribes the retirement of the last Aethiopian monarch Astaboras to Alexandria, and confirmed the preto a dream, which may perhaps be interpreted as a dominance of their race. mandate from the hierarchy at Napata to forego his Such were the general divisions, tribes, and history conquests below Philae.

of Aethiopia in the wider import of the term. In In the reign of Psammetichus (B. C. 630), the the interior, and again beginning from the south entire war-caste of Egypt migrated into Aethiopia. near the sources of the Astaboras we find the folHerodotus (ii. 30) says that the deserters (Auto- lowing districts. Near the headland Elephas were moii) settled in a district as remote from the Aethio- | the Mosyli (Mbouhoi), the Molibae (MoAlbai), and pian metropolis (Napata) as that city was from Soboridae (Zobopídai) (Ptol. iv. 7. $ 28). Next, the Elephantine. But this statement would carry them Regio Axiomitarum (AXUME], immediately to the below lat. 16°, the extreme limit of Aethiopian north of which was a province called Tenesis (Tnvecivilisation. Diodorus (i. 67) describes the Auto ois) occupied by the Sembritae of Strabo (p. 770), moli as settled in the most fertile region of Aethio- or Šemberritae of Pliny (H. N. vi. 30. $ 35). North pia. North-west of Meroë, however, a tribe had of Tenesis was the Lake Coloe, and between the established themselves, whom the geographers call Adulitae and Mount Taurus on the coast were the Egonymitae, the Asmach of Herodotus (ii. 30; | Colobi, who according to Agatharcides (ap. Diod. iii. Strab. xvii. p. 786 ; Plin. vi. 30), and there is | 32) practised the rite of circumcision, and dwelt in

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a woody and mountainous district (

ågos Kolofwv, | Phturis (Farras), and Aboccis or Abuncis (AbooStrab. I. c.; opos Kołobwv, Ptol. iv. 8). Above these simbel, Ipsambut on the left, Cambysis (Taureia were the Memnones (Meuvoveis), a name celebrated | Kauúrov) and Atteva or Attoba, near the third by the post-Homeric poets of the Trojan war, and cataract. If Josephus can be relied upon indeed, who are supposed by some to have been a colony | the Persians must have penetrated the Nile-valley from Western India (Philological Museum, vol. ii. / much higher up than the Romans, and than either p. 146); and above these, north of the Blemmyes Herodotus or Diodorus (i, 34) will permit us to and Megabari, are the Adiabarae, who skirted to the suppose. For the Jewish historian (Antiq. ii. 10) east the province of Dodecaschoenus or Aethiopia represents Cambyses as conquering the capital of above Egypt. But of all these tribes we know the Aethiopia, and changing its name from Saba to names only, and even these very imperfectly. Modern travellers can only conjecturally connect them with The architectural remains of Nubia belong to the Bedjas, Bischáries, Shangallas, and other Nubian Mervë and are briefly described under that head. To or Arabian races; and neither Greeks nor Romans Meroë also, as the centre and perhaps the creature xurveyed the neighbourhood of their colonies beyond of the inland trade of Aethiopia, we refer for an acthe high roads which led to their principal havenscount of the natural and artificial productions of the on the Red Sea.

land above Egypt. The western portion of Aethiopia, owing to its The principal modern travellers who have explored generally arid character, was much more scantily or described the country above Egypt are Bruce, peopled, and the tribes that shifted over rather than Burckhardt, Belzoni, Minutoli, Gau and Rosellini. occupied its scanty pastures were mostly of Libyan | Lord Valentia and Mr. Salt's Travels, Waddington and origin, a mixed Negro and Barabra race. Parallel Hanbury's Journals, Rüppel's and Cailleaud's Travels, with the Astapus and the Nile after their confluence, &c., “Heeren's Historical Researches," vol. i. pp. 285 stretched a limestone range of hills, denominated by 473, and the geographical work of Ritter have been Ptolemy the Aethiopian mountains (rà Aidiotiká consulted for the preceding article. (W. B. D.] öpm, iv. 8). They separated Aethiopia from the AETNA (AYTvn: Eth. Aitvaiol, Aetnensis), a city Garamantes. West of the elbow land which lay of Sicily, situated at the foot of the mountain of the between Meroë and Napata was a district called same name, on its southern declivity. It was oriTergedum. North of Tergedum the Nubae came ginally a Sicelian city, and was called INESSA or down to the Nile-bank between the towns of Primis INESSUM ('Ivnoga, Thuc. Strab.; "Ivnosov, Step!ı. Parva and Phturi; and northward of these were the Byz. V. Altun; Diodorus has the corrupt form 'Evabove-mentioned Euonymitae, who extended to Pselcis moia): but after the death of Hieron I. and the in lat. 23°

expulsion of the colonists whom he had established at In the region Dodecaschoenus or Aethiopia above Catana, the latter withdrew to Inessa, a place of Egypt were the following towns: HIERA SYCAMINUS great natural strength, which they occupied, and ('lepà Lukáuivos: Prol; Plin. vi. 29. s. 32; Itin. transferred to it the name of Aetna, previously given Anton. p. 162: Eukduivov, Philostrat. Apoll. Tyan. by Hieron to his new colony at Catana. (Catana.] iv. 2), the southernmost town of the district (Wady | In consequence of this they continued to regard Maharrakah, Burckhardt's Travels, p. 100); CORTE Hieron as their pekist or founder. (Diod, xi. 76; (Kopria mpúrn, Agartharcides, p. 22; It. Anton. Strab. vi. p. 268.) The new name, however, appears p. 162), Korti, four miles north of Hiera Sycaminos; not to have been universally adopted, and we find and on the right bank of the Nile TACHOMPSO | Thucydides at a later period still employing the old (Taxouvá: Herod. ii. 29; Mela, i. 9. § 2: Meta- appellation of Inessa. It seems to have fallen into kout, Prol. iv. 5; Tacompsos, Plin. vi. 29. s. 35) the power of the Syracusans, and was occupied ty was situated upon an island (probably Deraz) upon them with a strong garrison; and in B. C. 426 we the eastern side of the river, and was occupied by find the Athenians under Laches in vain attempting Aethiopians and Egyptians. Upon the opposite bank to wrest it from their hands. (Thuc.ü. 103.) During was PsELCIS (Yennis, Strab. p. 820; Aristid. Aegin. the great Athenian expedition, Inessa, as well as the i. p. 512). It was built in the era of the Ptolemies, neighbouring city of Hybla, continued steadfast in the and its erection was so injurious to Tachompso, that alliance of Syracuse, on which account their lands the latter came to be denominated Contra Pselcis, and were ravaged by the Athenians. (Id. vi. 96.) At lost its proper appellation. Pselcis was eight miles a subsequent period the strength of its position as a from Hiera Sycaminos, and the head-quarters of a fortress, rendered it a place of importance in the civil cohort of German horse (Not. Imp.) in the Roman dissensions of Sicily, and it became the refuge of the period. On the left bank of the Nile was Turzis Syracusan knights who had opposed the elevation of (Dschirdscheh), where some remarkable monuments Dionysius. But in B.C. 403, that despot made himstill exist: and TAPHIS (Taris, Olympiad. ap. Pho- self master of Aetna, where he soon after established tium, 80, p. 194; Tadis, Ptol. iv. 5), opposite to a body of Campanian mercenaries, who had previously which was Contra-Taphis (Teffah), where ruins have been settled at Catana. These continued faithful to been discovered, and in the neighbourhood of which Dionysius, notwithstanding the general defection of are large stone-quarries. Finally, PAREMBOLE, his allies, during the Carthaginian invasion in B.C. the frontier-garrison of Egypt, where even so late as 396, and retained possession of the city till B.C. 339, the 4th century A. D. a Roman legion was stationed. when it was taken by Timoleon, and its Campanian

Pliny, in his account of the war with Candace occupants put to the sword. (Diod. xjj. 113, xiv. 7, (B. C. 22), has preserved a brief record of the route 8, 9, 14, 58, 61, xvi. 67, 82.) We find no mention of Petronius in his second invasion of Meroë, which of it from this time till the days of Cicero, who recontains the names of some places of importance. peatedly speaks of it as a municipal town of consiThe Roman general passed by the valley of the Nile derable importance; its territory being one of the through Dongola and Nubia, and occupied or halted most fertile in corn of all Sicily. Its citizens suffered at the following stations: Pselcis, Primis Magna, or severely from the exactions of Verres and his agents, Premnis (Ibrim) on the right bank of the river, (Cic. Verr. iii. 23, 44, 45, iv. 51.) The Aetnenees

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are also mentioned by Pliny among the “populi sti- | on the fact recorded by Diodorus (v. 6), that the pendiarii ” of Sicily; and the name of the city is Sicanians were compelled to abandon their original found both in Ptolemy and the Itineraries, but its settlements in the E. part of the island in consesubsequent history and the period of its destruction quence of the frequency and violence of these outare unknown.

bursts, we should have sufficient evidence that it was Great doubt exists as to the site of Aetna. Strabo in a state of active operation at the earliest period at tells us (vi. p. 273) that it was near Centuripi, and which Sicily was inhabited. It is difficult, however, was the place from whence travellers usually as to believe that any such tradition was really precended the mountain. But in another passage (ib. served; and it is far more probable, as related by Thup. 268) he expressly says that it was only 80 cydides (vi. 2), that the Sicanians were driven to the stadia from Catana. The Itin. Ant. (p. 93) places W. portion of the island by the invasion of the Siit at 12 M. P. from Catana, and the same distance celians, or Siculi: on the other hand, the silence of from Centuripi; its position between these two cities Homer concerning Aetna has been frequently urged is further confirmed by Thucydides (vi. 96). But as a proof that the mountain was not then in a state notwithstanding these unusually precise data, its of volcanic activity, and though it would be absurd exact situation cannot be fixed with certainty. Si- to infer from thence (as has been done by some ancilian antiquaries generally place it at Sta Maria di thors) that there had been no previous eruptions, it Licodia, which agrees well with the strong position may fairly be assured that these phenomena were of the city, but is certainly too distant from Catana. not very frequent or violent in the days of the poet, On the other hand S. Nicolo dell Arena, a convent otherwise some vague rumour of them must have just above Nicolosi, which is regarded by Cluverius reached him among the other marvels of “the far as the site, is too high up the mountain to have ever west.” But the name at least of Aetna, and probeen on the high road from Catana to Centuripi. bably its volcanic character, was known to Hesiod Mannert, however, speaks of ruins at a place called (Eratosth. ap. Strab. i. p. 23), and from the time of Castro, about 2 miles N. E. from Paternò, on a hill the Greek settlements in Sicily, it attracted general projecting from the foot of the mountain, which he attention. Pindar describes the phenomena of the regards as the site of Aetna, and which would cer- mountain in a manner equally accurate and poetical tainly agree well with the requisite conditions. He — the streams of fire that were vomited forth from does not cite his authority, and the spot is not de- its inmost recesses, and the rivers (of lava) that gave scribed by any recent traveller. (Cluver. Sicil p. 123; forth only smoke in the daytime, but in the darkness Amic. Lex. Topogr. Sic. vol. iii. p. 50; Mannert, assumed the appearance of sheets of crimson fire Ital. vol. ii. p. 293.)

rolling down into the deep sea. (Pyth. i. 40.) AesThere exist coins of Aetna in considerable numbers, chylus also alludes distinctly to the “rivers of fire, but principally of copper; they bear the name of the devouring with their fierce jaws the smooth fields of people at full, AITNAION. Those of silver, which the fertile Sicily.” (Prom. V. 368.) Great eruptions, are very rare, are similar to some of Catana, but bear accompanied with streams of lava, were not, however, only the abbreviated legend AITN. [E. H. B.] frequent. We learn from Thucydides (iii. 116) that

the one which he records in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian war (B. C. 425) was only the third which had taken place since the establishment of the Greeks in the island. The date of the earliest is not mentioned; the second (which is evidently the one more particularly referred to by Pindar and Aeschylus) took place, according to Thucydides, 50 years before the above date, or B. C. 475; but it is placed by the

Parian Chronicle in the same year with the battle COIN OF AETNA.

of Plataea, B. C. 479. (Marm. Par. 68, ed. C. Müller.) AETNA (Alton), a celebrated volcanic mountain | The next after that of B.C. 425 is the one recorded by of Sicily, situated in the NE. part of the island, Diodorus in B. c. 396, as having occurred shortly beadjoining the sea-coast between Tauromenium and fore that date, which had laid waste so considerable Catana. It is now called by the peasantry of Sicily a part of the tract between Tauromenium and Catana, Mongibello, a name compounded of the Italian Monte, as to render it impossible for the Carthaginian general and the Arabic Jibel, a mountain; but is still well- Mago to advance with his army along the coast. known by the name of Etna. It is by far the loftiest (Diod. xiv. 59; the same eruption is noticed by mountain in Sicily, rising to a height of 10,874 feet Orosius, ii. 18.) From this time we have no account above the level of the sea, while its base is not less of any great outbreak till B. c. 140, when the mounthan 90 miles in circumference. Like most volcanic tain seems to have suddenly assumed a condition of mountains it forms a distinct and isolated mass, extraordinary activity, and we find no less than four having no real connection with the mountain groups violent eruptions recorded within 20 years, viz. in B.C. to the N. of it, from which it is separated by the 140, 135, 126, 121; the last of which inflicted the valley of the Acesines, or Alcantara; while its limits most serious damage, not only on the territory but on the W. and S. are defined by the river Symaethus the city of Catana. (Oros. v. 6, 10, 13; Jul. Obseq. (the Simeto or Giarretta), and on the E. by the sea. 82, 85, 89.) Other eruptions are also mentioned as The volcanic phenomena which it presents on a far | accompanying the outbreak of the civil war between greater scale than is seen elsewhere in Europe, early Pompey and Caesar, B. C. 49, and immediately preattracted the attention of the ancients, and there is ceding the death of the latter, B. C. 44 (Virg. G. i. scarcely any object of physical geography of which 471; Liv. ap. Serv. ad Virg. I. c.; Petron. de B. C. we find more numerous and ample notices.

135; Lucan. i. 545), and these successive outbursts It is certain from geological considerations, that appear to have so completely devastated the whole the first eruptions of Aetna must have long preceded tract on the eastern side of the mountain, as to have the historical era; and if any reliance could be placed rendered it uninhabitable and almost impassable from




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want of water. (Appian, B. C. v. 114.) Agair, an only one crater, sometimes more. (Strab. vi. pp. 269. B. C. 38, the volcano appears to have been in at least 273, 274.) It is evident from this account that a partial state of eruption (Id. v. 117), and 6 years the ascent of the mountain was in his time a comafterwards, just before the outbreak of the civil war | mon enterprize. Lucilius also speaks of it as not between Octavian and Antony, Dion Cassius re unusual for people to ascend to the very edge of the cords a more serious outburst, accompanied with a crater, and offer incense to the tutelary gods of the stream of lava which did great damage to the ad- mountain (Lucil. Aetna, 336; see also Seneca, Ep. joining country. (Dion Cass. 1. 8.) But from this 79), and we are told that the emperor Hadrian, when time forth the volcanic agency appears to have been he visited Sicily, made the ascent for the purpose of comparatively quiescent; the smoke and noises which seeing the sun rise from thence. (Spart. Hadr. 13.) terrified the emperor Caligula (Suet. Cal. 51) were | It is therefore a strange mistake in Claudian (de probably nothing very extraordinary, and with this Rapt. Proserp. i. 158) to represent the summit as exception we hear only of two eruptions during the inaccessible. At a distance of less than 1400 feet period of the Roman empire, one in the reign of Ves- from the highest point are some remains of a brick pasian, A. D. 70, and the other in that of Decius, | building, clearly of Roman work, commonly known A. D. 251, neither of which is noticed by contem- | by the name of the Torre del Filosofo, from a vulporary writers, and may therefore be presumed to gar tradition connecting it with Empedocles: this have been of no very formidable character. Orosius, has been supposed, with far more plausibility, to de writing in the beginning of the fifth century, speaks rive its origin from the visit of Hadrian. (Smyth's of Aetna as having then become harmless, and only Sicily, p. 149; Ferrara, Descriz, dell Etna, p. 28.) smoking enough to give credit to the stories of its Many ancient writers describe the upper part of past violence. (Idat. Chron. ad ann. 70; Vita | Aetna as clothed with perpetual snow. Pindar calls St. Agathae, ap. Cluver. Sicil. p. 106 ; Oros. ii. it “ the nurse of the keen snow all the year long" 14.) *

(Pyth. i. 36), and the apparent contradiction of its From these accounts it is evident that the vol- | perpetual fires and everlasting snows is a favourite canic action of Aetna was in ancient, as it still con- subject of declamation with the rhetorical poets and tinues in modern times, of a very irregular and inter- prose writers of a later period. (Sil. Ital. xiv. 58– mittent character, and that no dependence can be 69; Claudian. de Rapt. Pros. i. 164; Solin. 5. $ 9.) placed upon those passages, whether of poets or prose Strabo and Pliny more reasonably state that it was writers, which apparently describe it as in constant covered with snow in the winter; and there is no and active operation. But with every allowance for reason to believe that its condition in early ages exaggeration, it seems probable that the ordinary differed from its present state in this respect. The volcanic phenomena which it exhibited were more highest parts of the mountain are still covered with striking and conspicuous in the age of Strabo and snow for seven or eight months in the year, and ocPliny than at the present day. The expressions, casionally patches of it will lie in hollows and rifts however, of the latter writer, that its noise was heard throughout the whole summer. The forests which in the more distant parts of Sicily, and that its clothe the middle regions of the mountain are alluded ashes were carried not only to Tauromenium and to by many writers (Strab. vi. p. 273; Claud, bc. Catana, but to a distance of 150 miles, of course re- | 159); and Diodorus tells us that Dionysius of Syrafer only to times of violent eruption. Livy also re-cuse derived from thence great part of the materials cords that in the year B. C. 44, the hot sand and for the construction of his fleet in B. C. 399. (Diod. ashes were carried as far as Rhegium. (Plin. H. N. xiv. 42.) ii. 103. 106, iii. 8. 14; Liv. ap. Serv. ad Georg. i. It was natural that speculations should early be 471.) It is unnecessary to do more than allude to directed to the causes of the remarkable phenomena the well-known description of the eruptions of Aetna exhibited by Aetna. A mythological fable, adopted in Virgil, which has been imitated both by Silius by almost all the poets from Pindar downwards, asItalicus and Claudian. (Virg. Aen. üi. 570-577; cribed them to the struggle of the giant Typhocus (or Sil. Ital. xiv. 58–69; Claudian de Rapt. Proserp. Enceladus according to others), who had been buried i. 161.)

under the lofty pile by Zeus after the defeat of the The general appearance of the mountain is well giants. (Pind. Pyth. i. 35; Aesch. Prom. 365; Virg. described by Strabo, who tells us that the upper Aen. iii. 578; Ovid. Met. v. 346; Claud. I. c. 152; parts were bare and covered with ashes, but with Lucil. Aetna, 41–71.) Others assigned it as the snow in the winter, while the lower slopes were workshop of Vulcan, though this was placed by the clothed with forests, and with planted grounds, the more ordinary tradition in the Aeolian islands. Later volcanic ashes, which were at first so destructive, and more philosophical writers ascribed the eruptions ultimately producing a soil of great fertility, espe to the violence of the winds, pent up in subterranean cially adapted for the growth of vines. The summit caverns, abounding with sulphur and other inflamof the mountain, as described to him by those who mable substances; while others conceived them to had lately ascended it, was a level plain of about 20 originate from the action of the waters of the sea stadia in circunference, surrounded by a brow or upon the same materials. Both these theories are ridge like a wall. In the midst of this plain, which discussed and developed by Lucretius, but at much consisted of deep and hot sand, rose a small hillock greater length by the author of a separate poem enof similar aspect, over which hung a cloud of smoke titled “ Aetna," which was for a long time ascribed rising to a height of about 200 feet. He, however, to Cornelius Severus, but has been attributed by its justly adds, that these appearances were subject to more recent oditors, Wernsdorf and Jacob, to the constant variations, and that there was sometimes | younger Lucilius, the friend and contemporary of

Seneca.t It contains some powerful passages, but * For the more recent history of the mountain is disfigured by obscurity, and adds little to our and its eruptions, see Ferrara, Descrizione dell Etna, Palermo, 1818; and Daubeny on Volcanoes, 2d

† For a fuller discussion of this question, see the edit. pp. 283–290.

| Biogr. Dict. art. Lucilius Junior.

knowledge of the history or phenomena of the moun. / or modern times. The following mountains are tain. (Lucret. vi. 640—703; Lucil. Aetna, 92, et mentioned by special names by the ancient wnters: set.; Justin, iv. 1 ; Seneca, Epist. 79; Claudian, l. c. - 1.TYMPHRESTUS (TumoprotóS), on the northern 169-176.) The connection of these volcanic phe. frontier, was a southerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, noinena with the earthquakes by which the island and more properly belongs to Dryopis. [DRYOPIS.] was frequently agitated, was too obvious to escape 2. Bomi (Bwuoi), on the north-eastern frontier, was notice, and was indeed implied in the popular tra the most westerly part of Mt. Oeta, inhabited by the dition. Some writers also asserted that there was a Bomienses. In it were the sources of the Evenus. subterranean communication between Aetna and the (Strab. X. p. 451; Thuc. iii. 96; Steph. B. 8. v. Aeolian islands, and that the eruptions of the former Bwuol.) 3. CORAX (Kópas), also on the northwere observed to alternate with those of Hiera and eastern frontier, was a south-westerly continuation Strongyle. (Diod. v. 7.)

of Oeta, and is described by Strabo as the greatest The name of Aetna was evidently derived from its mountain in Aetolia. There was a pass throngh it fiery character, and has the same root as axow, to leading to Thermopylae, which the consul Acilius burn. But in later times a mythological origin was Glabrio crossed with great difficulty and the loss of found for it, and the mountain was supposed to have many beasts of burthen in his passage, when he received its name from a nymph, Aetna, the daughter marched from Thermopylae to Naupactus in B. C. of Uranus and Gaea, or, according to others, of 191. Leake remarks that the route of Glabrio was Briareus. (Schol. ad Theocr. Id. i. 65.) The moun probably by the vale of the Vistritza into that of tain itself is spoken of by Pindar (Pyth. i. 57) as the Kokkino, over the ridges which connect Velukhi consecrated to Zeus; but at a later period Solinus with Vardhusi, but very near the latter mountain, calls it sacred to Vulcan; and we learn that there which is thus identified with Corax. Corax is deexisted on it a temple of that deity. This was not, scribed on that occasion by Livy as a very high however, as supposed by some writers, near the sum mountain, lying between Callipolis and Naupactus. mit of the mountain, but in the middle or forest (Strab. x. p. 450; Liv. xxxvi. 30; Steph. B. 8. v.; region, as we are told that it was surrounded by a Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ï. p. 624.) 4. TAgrove of sacred trees. (Solin. 5. § 9; Aelian, H. A. PHIASSUS (Tapiao oós: Kaki-skala), a southerly xi. 3.)

[E. H. B.] continuation of Corax, extended down to the Com AÉTO'LIA (Altwila: Eth. Aitwrós, Aetolus), a rinthian gulf, where it terminated in a lofty moundistrict of Greece, the boundaries of which varied tain near the town of Macynia. In this mountain at different periods. In the time of Strabo it was Nessus and the other Centaurs were said to have bounded on the W. by Acarnania, from which it was been buried, and from their corpses arose the stinking separated by the river Achelous, on the N. by the waters which flowed into the sea, and from which mountainous country inhabited by the Athamanes, the western Locrians are said to have derived the Dolopes, and Dryopes, on the NE. by Doris and name of Ozolae, or the Stinking. Modern travellers Malis, on the SE. by Locris, and on the S. by the have found at the base of Mt. Taphiassus a number entrance to the Corinthian gulf. It contained about | of springs of fetid water. Taphiassus derives its 1165 square miles. It was divided into two dis- modern name of Kaki-skala, or “ Bad-ladder," from tricts, called Old Aetolia (ń åpxaia Airwaía), and the dangerous road, which runs along the face of a Aetolia Epictetus (ỹ étríKTITOS), or the Acquired. | precipitous cliff overhanging the sea, half way up The former extended along the coast from the the mountain. (Strab. pp. 427, 451, 460; Antig. Achelous to the Evenus, and inland as far as Ther Caryst. 129; Plin. iv. 2; Leake, vol. i. p. 111; mum, opposite the Acarnanian town of Stratus: the Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 135; Gell, Itiner. latter included the northern and more mountainous | p. 292.) 5. CHALCIS or CHALCEA (Xáxxis part of the province, and also the country on the Xarkia: Varássova), an offshoot of Taphiassus, coast between the Evenus and Locris. When this running down to the Corinthian gulf, between the division was introduced is unknown; but it cannot mouth of the Evenus and Taphiassus. At its foot have been founded upon conquest, for the inland was a town of the same name. Taphiassus and Aetolians were never subdued. The country between Chalcis are the ancient names of the two great the Achelous and the Evenus appears in tradition mountains running close down to the sea-coast, a as the original abode of the Aetolians; and the little west of the promontory Antirrhium, and sepaterm Epictetus probably only indicates the subse- / rated from each other by some low ground. Each quent extension of their name to the remainder of of these mountains rises from the sea in one dark the country. Strabo makes the promontory An- gloomy mass. (Strab. pp. 451, 460; Hom. II. ü. tirrhium the boundary between Aetolia and Locris, 640; Leake, l. c.; Mure, vol. i. p. 171.) 6. ARAbut some of the towns between this promontory and CYNTHUS ('Apákuvbos: Zygos), a range of mounthe Evenus belonged originally to the Ozolian Lo tains running in a south-easterly direction from the crians. (Strab. pp. 336, 450, 459.)

Achelous to the Evenus, and separating the lower The country on the coast between the Achelous plain of Aetolia near the sea from the upper plain and the Evenus is a fertile plain, called Parache- above the lakes Hyria and Trichonis. (Strab. x. loītis (Napaxelwitis), after the former river. This p. 450.) [ARACYNTHUS.) 7. PANAETOLIUM plain is bounded on the north by a range of hills (Viena), a mountain NE. of Thermum, in which called Aracynthus, north of which and of the lakes city the Aetolians held the meetings of their league. Hyria and Trichonis there again opens out another (Plin. iv. 2; Pol. v. 8; Leake, vol. i. p. 131.) extensive plain opposite the town of Stratus. These 8. MYENUS (To opos Múnvov, Plut. de Fluviis, are the only two plains in Aetolia of any extent. p. 44), between the rivers Evenus and Hylaethus. The remainder of the country is traversed in every 9. MACYNIUM, mentioned only by Pliny (l. c.), direction by rugged mountains, covered with forests, must, from its name, have been near the town of and full of dangerous ravines. These mountains Macynia on the coast, and consequently a part of are a south-westerly continuation of Mt. Pindus, and Mt. Taphiassus. 10. CURIUM (Koúplov), a mounhave never been crossed by any road, either in ancient tain between Pleuron and lake Trichonis, from which

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