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the Curctcs were said to have derived their name. It is a branch of Aracynthus. (Strab. x. p. 451.)

The two chief rivers of Aetolia were the Achelous and'thc Evenus, which flowed in the lower part of their course nearly parallel to one another. [achkIx>cs: Evenus.] There were no other rivers in the country worthy of mention, with the exception of the Cainpylus and Cyathus, both of which were tributaries of the Achelous. [achelous.]

There were several lakes in the two great plains of Aetolia. The upper plain, N. of Mt. Aracynthus, contained two large lakes, which communicated with each other. The eastern and the larger of the two was called Trichonis (Tpix<wfs, Pol. v. 7, xi. 4: Lake of Apolmro), the western was named Hyria {Lake *f Zygoa)\ and from the fatter issued the river Cyathus, which flowed into the Achelous near the town of Conope, afterwards Arsinoe (Ath. x. p. 424). This lake, named Hyrie by Ovid {Met. vii. 371, seq.) is called Hydra ("TSpa) in the common text of Strabo, from whom we learn that it was afterwards called I.ysimachia {\\jai\uo.y{a) from a town of that name upon its southern shore. (Strab. p. 460.) Its proper name appears to have been Hyria, which might easily be changed into Hydra. (Miillcr, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 481.) This lake is also named Conope by Antoninus Libcralis {Met. 12). The mountain Aracynthus runs down towards the shores of both lakes, and near the lake Hyrie there is a ravine, which Ovid (i c.) calls the "Cycneia Tempe," because Cycnus was said to have been here changed into a swan by Apollo. The principal sources which form both the lakes are at the foot of the steep mountain overhanging the eastern, or lake Trichonis; a current flows from E. to \V. through the two lakes; and the river of Cyathus is nothing more than a continuation of the same stream (Leake, vol. i. p. 154). In tho lower plain of Aetolia there were several smaller lakes or lagoons. Of these Strabo (pp. 459, 460) mentions three. 1. Cynia(Kwfa), which was 60 stadia long and 20 broad, and communicated with the sea. 2. Uria (Oupla), which was much smaller than the preceding and half a stadium from the sea. 3. A large lake near Calydon, belonging to the Romans of Patrae: this lake, according to Strabo, abounded in fish (ctfoif os), and the gastronomic poet Archestratus said that it was celebrated for the labrax {\A.6paQ, a ravenous kind of fish. (Ath. vii. p. 311, a.) There is some difficulty in identifying these lakes, as the coast has undergone numerous changes; but Leako supposes that the lagoon of Anatoliko was Cynia, that of Mesolonghi Uria, and that of Bokhori the lake of Calydon. The last of these lakes is perhaps the same as the lake Onthis ('OvfJfs), which Nicander (ap. Schol. ad Nicand. Ther. 214) speaks of in connection with Naupactus. (Leake, vol. iii. p. 573, &c.)

In the two great plains of Aetolia excellent corn was grown, and the slopes of the mountains produced good wine and oil. These plains also afforded abundance of pasture for horses; and the Aetolian horses were reckoned only second to those of Thcssaly. In the mountains there were many wild beasts, among which we find mention of boars and even of lions, for Herodotus gives the Thracian Nestus and the Achelous as tho limits within which lions were found in Europe. (Herod, v. 126.)

The original inhabitants of Aetolia are said to have been Cnrctes, who according to some accounts had come from Euboea. (Strab. x. p. 465.) They inhabited the plains between the Achelous and the

Evenus, and the country received in consequence the name of Curetis. Besides them we also find mention of the Leleges and the Hyantes, the latter of whom had been driven out of fioeotia. (Strab. pp. 322, 464.) These three peoples probably belonged to tho great Pelasgic race, and were at all events not Hellenes. The first great Hellenic settlement in the country is said to have been that of the Epcans, led by Aetolus, the son of Endymion, who crossed over from Elis in Peloponnesus, subdued the Curetes, and gave his name to the country and the people, six generations before the Trojan war. Aetolus founded the town of Calydon, which he called after his son, and which became the capital of his dominions. Tho Curetes continued to reside at their ancient capital Plcuron at the foot of Mt, Curium, and for a long time carried on war with the inhabitants of Calydon. Subsequently the Curetes were driven out of Pleuron, and are said to have crossed over into Acarnania. At the timo of the Trojan war Pleuron as well as Calydon were governed by the Aetolian chief Thoas. (Pans. v. 1. § 8; Horn. II. ix. 529, seq.; Strab. p. 463.) Since Pleuron appears in the later period of the heroic age as an Aetolian city, it is represented as such from the beginning in some legends. Hence Pleuron, like Calydon, is said to have derived its name from a son of Aetolus (Apollod. i. 7. § 7); and at the very time that some legends represent it as the capital of the Curetes, and engaged in war with Oeneus, king of Calydon, others relate that it was governed by his own brother Thestius. Aetolia was celebrated in the heroic age of Greece on account of the hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the exploits of Tydcus, Meleagcr and tho other heroes of Calydon and Pleuron. Tho Aetolians also took part in the Trojan war under the command of Thoas; they cam« in 40 ships from Pleuron, Calydon, Olenus, Pylene and Chalcis (Horn. II. ii. 638). Sixty years after the Trojan war some Aeolians, who had been driven out of Thessaly along with the Boeotians, migrated into Aetolia, and settled in the country around Plcuron and Calydon, which was hence called Aeolis afU'r them. (Strab. p. 464; Thuc. iii. 102.) Ephonis (ap. Strab. p. 465) however places this migration ot the Aeolians much earlier, for he relates " that the Aeolians once invaded the district of Pleuron, which was inhabited by the Curetes and called Curetis, and expelled this people." Twenty years afterwards occurred the great Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus under the command of the descendants of Heracles. The Aetolian chief Oxylus took part in this invasion, and conducted the Dorians across the Corinthian gulf. In return for his services he received Klis upon the conquest of Peloponnesus.

From this timo till the commencement of the Peloponnesian war we know nothing of the history of the Aetolians. Notwithstanding their fame in the heroic age, they appear at the time of tho Peloponnesian war as one of the most uncivilized of the Grecian tribes; and Thucydides (i. 5) mentions them, together with their neighbours the Ozolian Locrians and Acamanians, as retaining all the habits of a rude and barbarous age. At this period there were three main divisions of the Aetolians, the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes. The last, who were the most numerous of the throe, spoke a language which was unintcUigilde, and were in the habit of eating raw meat. (Thuc. iii. 102.) Thucydides, however, docs not call them Bdp€apoi; and notwithstanding their low culture and uncivilized habits, tho Aetolians ranked as Hellenes, partly, it appears, on account of their legendary renown, and partly on account of their acknowledged connection with the Eleans in Peloponnesus. Each of these three divisions was subdivided into several village tribes. Their villages were unfortified, and most of the inhabitants lived by plunder. Their tribes appear to have been independent of each other, and it was only in circumstances of common danger that they acted in concert. The inhabitants of the inland mountains were brave, active, and invincible. They were unrivalled in the use of the javelin, for which they are celebrated by Euripides. (Phoenisa. 139, 140; comp. Thuc. iii. 97.)

The Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, inhabited only the central districts of Aetolia, and did not occupy any part of the plain between the Evenus and the Achelous, which was the abode of the more civilized part of the nation, who bore no other name than that of Aetolians. The Apodoti ('Airo'Swroi, Thuc. iii. 94; 'AwdSoroi, Pol. xvii. 5) inhabited the mountains above Naupactus, on the borders of Locris. They are said by Polybius not to have been Hellenes. (Comp. Liv. xxxii. 34.) North of these dwelt the Ophionenses or Ophienses ('Ocpioi/fij, Thuc. I. cj '0<pius, Strab. pp. 451,465), and to them belonged the smaller tribes of the Bomienses (Bayuijj, Thuc. iii. 96; Strab. p. 451; Sleph. Byz.«.r.BaJMo()and Callicnses(Ka\Ai^s>Thuc. i.e.), both of which inhabited the ridge of Oeta running down towards the Malic gulf: the former are placed by Strabo (i c.) at the sources of the Evenus, and the position of the latter is fixed by that of their capital town Gallium. [caluum.] The Eurytanes (EtynrrSvcs, Thuc iii. 94, et alii) dwelt north of the Ophionenses, as far, apparently, as Mt. Tymphrestus, at the foot of which was the town Occhalia, which Strabo describes as a placo belonging to this people. They are said to have possessed an oracle of Odysseus. (Strab. pp. 448, 451, 465; Schol. ad Lycophr. 799.)

The Agraei, who inhabited the north-west corner of Aetolia, bordering upon Ambracia, were not a division of the Aetolian nation, but a separate people, governed at the time of the Peloponnesian war by a king of their own, and only united to Aetolia at a later period. The Aperanti, who lived in the same district, appear to have been a subdivision of the Agraei. [aoraei; Aperanti.] Pliny(iv. 3)mentions various other peoples as belonging to Aetolia, such as the Athamanes, Tymphaei, Dolopes, &c; but this statement is only true of the later period of the Aetolian League, when the Aetolians had extended their dominion over most of the neighbouring tribes of Epirus and Thessaly.

At the commencement of the Peloponnesian war the Aetolians had formed no alliance either with Sparta or Athens, and consequently are not mentioned by Thucydides (ii. 9) in his enumeration of the allied forces of the two nations. It was the unprovoked invasion of their country by the Athenians in the sixth year of the war (it. c. 455), which led them to espouse the Lacedaemonian side. In this year the Messenians, who had been settled at Naupactus by the Athenians, and who had suffered greatly from the inroads of the Aetolians, persuaded the Athenian general, Demosthenes, to march into the interior of Aetolia, with the hope of conquering the three great tribes of the Apodoti, Ophionenses, and Eurytanes, since if they were subdued the Athenians would become masters of the whole country between the Ambracian gulf and

Parnassus. Having collected a considerable force, Demosthenes set out from Naupactus; but the expedition proved a complete failure. After advancing a few miles into the interior, he was attacked at Aegitium by the whole force of the Aetolians, who had occupied the adjacent hills. The rugged nature of the ground prevented the Athenian hoplites from coming to close quarters with their active foe; Demosthenes had with him only a small number t.f light-armed troops; and in the end the Athenians were completely defeated, and fled in disorder to the coast. Shortly afterwards the Aetolians joined the Peloponnesians under Eurylochus in making an attack upon Naupactns, which Demosthenes saved with difficulty, by the help of the Acamanians. (Thuc. iii. 94, &c.) The Aetolians took no further part in the Peloponnesian war; for those of the nation who fought under the Athenians in Sicily were only mercenaries. (Thuc. vii. 57.) From this time till that of the Macedonian supremacy, we find scarcely any mention of the Aetolians. They appear to have been frequently engaged in hostilities with their neighbours and ancient enemies, the Acamanians. [acaiixania.]

After the death of Alexander the Great (b. c. 323) the Aetolians joined the confederate Greeks in what is usually called the Lamian war. This war was brought to a close by the defeat of the confederates at Crannon (b. c. 322); whereupon Antipater and Craterus, having first made peace; with Athens, invaded Aetolia with a large army. The Aetolians, however, instead of yielding to the invaders, abandoned their villages in the plains and retired to their impregnable mountains, where they remained in safety, till the Macedonian generals were obliged to evacuate their territory in order to march against Perdiccas. (Diod. xviii. 24, 25.) In the wars which followed between the different usurpers of the Macedonian throne, the alliance of the Aetolians was eagerly courted by the contending armies; and their brave and warlike population enabled them to exerciso great influence upon the politics of Greece. The prominent part they took in the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece (b. C. 279) still further increased their reputation. In the army which the Greeks assembled at Thermopylae to oppose the Gauls, the contingent of the Aetolians was by far the largest, and they here distinguished themselves by their bravery in repulsing the attacks of the enemy; but they earned their chief glory by destroying the greater part of a body of 40,000 Gauls, who had invaded their country, and had taken the town of Callium, and committed tho most horrible atrocities on the inhabitants. The Aetolians also assisted in the defence of Delphi when it was attacked by the Gauls, and in the pursuit of the enemy in their retreat. (Paus. x. 20—23.) To commemorate the vengeance they had inflicted upon the Gauls for the destruction of Callium, tho Aetolians dedicated at Delphi a trophy and a statue of an armed heroine, representing Aetolia. They also dedicated in tho same temple the statues of tho generals under whom thev had fought in this war. (Pans. x. 18. § 7, x. 15. § 2.)

From this time the Aetolians appear as one of the three great powers in Greece, the other two being the Macedonians and Aehaeans. Like the Achaeans, the Aetolians were united in a confederacy or league. At what time this league was first formed is uncertain. It is inferred that the Acto| lians must have been united into some form of con

r

fedcracy at least as early as the time of Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, from an inscription on the statue of Aetolus at Thcnnum, quoted by Kphoros (Strab. p. 463: AlruKbv Tov5" ir&ipuu' AtVwAol atptrtpat iivriii aperris tavpav'), and from the cession of Naupactus, which was made to them by Philip. (Strab. p. 427: &tt! Si vvv AiraiAaiy, 4>tAiTirov rpofficpivavToi, quoted by Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. viii. p. 207.) But it was not till after the death of Alexander the Great that the league appears to have come into full activity; and it was probably the invasion of their country by Antipater and Craterus, and the consequent necessity of concerting measures for their common defence, that brought the Actolians into a closer political association. The constitution of the league was democratical, like that of the Aetolian towns and tribes. The great council of the nation, called the Panaetolicon (Liv. xxxi. 9), in which it is probable tliat every freeman above the age of thirty had the right of voting, met every autumn at Thermum, for the election of magistrates, general legislation, and the decision of all questions respecting peace and war with foreign nations. There was also another deliberative body, called Apocleti ('Aird*Ai)Toi), which appears to have been a kind of permanent committee. (Pol. xx. 1; Liv. xxxvi. 28.) The chief magistrate bore the title of Strategus (STpaTTj • 71ft). He was elected annually, presided in the assemblies, and had the command of the troops in war. * The officers next in rank were the Hipparchus (*Imnu>xoi), or commander of the cavalry, and the chief Secretary (TpafAfLaTtCs'), both of whom were elected annually. (For further details respecting the constitution of the league, see Diet, of Aniiq. art. Aetolicum Foedus.')

After the expulsion of the Gauls from Greece, the Aetolians began to extend their dominions over the neighbouring nations. They still retained the rude and barbarous habits which had characterised them in the time of Thucydidcs, and were still accustomed to live to a great extent by robbery and piracy. Their love of rapine was their great incentive to war, and in their marauding expeditions they spared neither friends nor foes, neither things sacred nor profane. Such is tho character given to them by Polybius (e. g. ii. 45, 46, iv. 67, ix. 38), and his account is confirmed in the leading outlines by the testimony of other writers; though justice requires us to add that tho enmity of the Aetolians to the Achaeans has probably led the historian to exaggerate rather than underrate the vices of the Aetolian people. At the time of their greatest power, they were masters of tho whole of western Acamania, of tho south of Epirus and Thessaly, and of Locris, Phocis, and Boeotia. They likewise assumed the entire control of tho Delphic oracle and of the Amphictyonic assembly. (Plut. Demetr. 40; Pol. iv. 25; Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 210.) Their league also embraced several towns in the heart of Peloponnesus, tho island of Cephallenia, and even cities in Thrace and Asia Minor, such as Lysimachia on the Hellespont, and Cios on the Propontis. The relation of these distant places to the league is a matter of uncertainty. They could not have taken any part in tho management of the business of the confederacy; and the towns in Asia Minor and Thrace probably joined it in order to protect themselves against the attacks of the Aetolian privateers.

The Aetolians were at the height of their power in Ii. c 220, when their unprovoked invasion of

Messenia engaged them in a war with the Achaeans usually called tho Social War. The Achaeans were supported by the youthful monarch of Macedonia*, Philip V., who inflicted a severe blow upon the Aetolians in B. c. 218 by an unexpected march into the interior of their country, where he surprised the capital city of Thermum, in which all the wealth and treasures of the Aetolian leaders were deposited. The whole of these fell into the hands of the king, and were either carried off or destroyed; and before quitting the place, Philip set fire to the sacred buildings, to retaliate for the destruction of Dium and Dodona by the Aetolians. (Pol. v.2—9,13,14; for the details of Philip's march, Bee Thermum.) The Social war was brought to a close by a treaty of peace concluded in B.C. 217. Six years afterwards (b.C. 211) the Aetolians again declared war against Philip, in consequence of having formed an offensive and defensive alliance with the Romans, who were then engaged in hostilities with Philip. The attention of the Romans was too much occupied by the war against Hannibal in Italy to enable them to afford much assistance to the Aetolians, upon whom, therefore, the burden of the war chiefly fell. In the course of this war Philip again took Thermum (Pol. xi. 4), and the Aetolians became so disheartened that they concluded peace with him in B. C. 205. This peace was followed almost immediately by one between Philip and the Romans.

On the renewal of the war between Philip and the Romans in B. c. 200, the Aetolians at first resolved to remain neutral; but the success of the consul Galba induced them to change their determination, and before the end of the first campaign they declared war against Philip. They fought at the battle of Cynoscephalae in B. c. 197, when their cavalry contributed materially to the success of the day. (Liv. xxxiii. 7.) The settlement of the affairs of Greece by Flamininus after this victory caused great disappointment to the Aetolians; and as soon as Flamininus returned to Italy, they invited Antiochus to invade Greece, and shortly afterwards declared war against the Romans, (b. C 192.) Tho defeat of Antiochus at Thermopylae (b. C. 191) drove the monarch back to Asia, and left the Aetolians exposed to the full vengeance of the Romans. They obtained a short respite by a truce which they solicited from the Romans; but having subsequently resumed hostilities on rumours of some success of Antiochus in Asia, the Roman consul M. Fulvius Nobilior crossed over into Greece, and commenewl operations by laying siege to Ambracia (b. C. 189), which was then one of the strongest towns belonging to the league. Meantime news had arrived of the total defeat of Antiochus at the battle of Magnesia, and the Aetolians resolved to purchase peace at any price. It was granted to them by the Romans, but on terms which destroyed for ever their independence, and rendered them only the vassals of Rome. (Pol. xxii. 15; Liv. xxxviii. 11.) After the cooquest of Perseus (b. C. 167), the Roman party in Aetolia, assisted by a body of Roman soldiers, massacred 550 of the leading patriots. All the survivors, who were suspected of opposition to the Roman policy, were carried off as prisoners to Italy. It was at this time that the league was formally dissolved. (Liv. xlv. 28, 31; Justin, xxxiii. ProL and 2.) Aetolia subsequently formed part of the province of Achaia; though it is doubtful whether it formed part of this province as it was at first constituted. [aciiaia.] The inhabitants of several

of its towns were removed by Augustus to people the city of Nicopulis, which he founded to commemorate his victory at Actium, B. c. 31; and in his time the country is described by Strabo as utterly worn out and exhausted. (Strab. p. 460.) Under the Romans the Aetolians appear to have remained in the same rude condition in which they bad always been. The interior of Aetolia was probably rarely visited by the Romans, for they had no road in the inland part of the country; and their only road was one leading from the coast of Acarnania across the Achelous, by Pleuron and Calydon to Chalcis and Molycreia on the Aetolian coast. (Comp. Brandstiiten, Die Geschichten des AttolUchen Landes, Yolkes und Bundet, Berlin, 1844.)

The towns in Aetolia were: I. In Old Aetolia. 1. In the lower plain, between the sea and Mount Aracynthus, Calydon, Pleuron, Olenus, PyLene, Chalcis (these 5 arc the Aetolian towns mentioned by Homer), Halicyrna, Elaeus, PaeAnium or Piiana, Proschium, Itiioria, CoNorE (afterwards Arsinoe), Lysluaciiia. In the upper plain N. of Mount Aracynthus, Acrae, Metata, Pamphia,piiyteum, Trichonium, Thestienseb, Thermum. In Aetolia Epictetus, on the sea-coast, Macynia, Molycreium or Molycreia: a littlo in the interior, on the borders of Locris, Potidania, Ckocyleium, Teichium, Aegitium: further in the interior, Callium, Oechalia[see p.65,a.], AteRantxa, Agrinium, Ephyra, the last of which was a town of the Agraei. [agraei.] The site of the following towns is quite unknown: — Ellopium ('EAA(SinoF, Pol. ap. Steph. B. s. v.); Thorax (0«pa£, s.v.); Pherae (*«po(, Steph. B. s.v.).

[graphic]

Coin Of Aetoi.lv. AEXO'NE. [attica.]

AFFILAE (isfA. Aflilanus), a town of Latinm, in the more extended sense of the term, but which must probably have in earlier times belonged to the Hcrnicans. It is still called Affile, and is situated in the mountainous district S. of the valley of the Anio, abont 7 miles from Subiaco. We learn from the treatise ascribed to Frontinus (rfe Colon, p. 230), that its territory was colonized in the time of the Gracchi, but it never enjoyed the rank of a colony, and Pliny mentions it only among the " oppida " of Latium. (77. .V. iii. 5. § 9.) Inscriptions, fragments of columns, and other ancient relics are still visible in the modern village of Affile. (Nibby, Dintomi di Roma, vol. i. p. 41.) [E. H. B.]

AFFLIA'NTJS or AEFLLANUS MONS (the latter form of the name appears to be the more correct) was the name given in ancient times to a mountain near Tibur, fronting the plain of the Campagna and now called Monte S. Angela, though marked on Gell's map as Monte Affiiano. The Claudian aqueduct was carried at its foot, where the remains of it still visible are remarkable for the boldness and grandeur of their construction. An inscription which records the completion of some of these works has preserved to us the ancient name of

the mountain. (Nibby, DitUorni di Roma, vol. L p. 25; Fabretti, Inter, p. 637.) [E. II. B.]

A'FRICA CA<ppiieti: Adj. Afer, Africus, Africanus), the name by which the quarter of the world still called Afr'ca was known to the Romans, who received it from the Carthaginians, and applied it first to that part of Africa with which they became first acquainted, namely, tho part about Carthage, and afterwards to the whole continent. In tho latter sense the Greeks used the name Libya ('A#pur^ only occurring as the Greek form of the Latin Africa); and the same name is continually used by Roman writers. In this work the continent is treated of under Libya; and the present article is confined to that portion of N. Africa which the Romans called specifically Africa, or Africa Propria (or Vera), or Africa Provincia CAtppuc^i rj i$ta>s), and which may be roughly described as the old Carthaginian territory, constituted a Roman province after the Third Punic War (b. C. 146).

The >}. coast of Africa, after trending W. and E. with a slight rise to the N., from the StraiU of Gibraltar to near the centre of the Mediterranean, suddenly falls off to the S. at C.Bon (Mercurii Pr.) in 37° 4' 20" N. lat,, and 10° 53' 35" E. long., and preserves this general direction for about 3° of latitude, to tho bottom of the Gulf of Khattt, the ancient Lesser Syrtis; the three chief salient points of this E. part of the coast, namely, the promontories of Clypea (at the N., a little S. of C. Bon) and Caput Vada (Kapoudiah, about the middle), and the island of Mcninx (Jerbah, at the S.), lying on tho same meridian. The country within this angle, formed of the last low ridges by which the Atlas sinks down to the sea, bounded on the S. and S\\\ by the Great Desert, and on the W. extending about as far as 9° E. long., formed, roughly speaking, the Africa of the Romans; but the precise limits of the country included under the name at different periods can only be understood by a brief historical account.

That part of tho continent of Africa, which forms tho S. shore of the Mediterranean, W. of tho Delta of the Nile, consists of a strip of habitablo land, hemmed in between the sea on the N. and the Great Desert (Sahara) on the S., varying greatly in breadth in its E. and W. halves. The W. part of this sea-board has tho great chain of Atlas interposed as a barrier against the torrid sands of tho Sahara; and the N. slope of this range, descending in a series of natural terraces to the sea, watered by many streams, and lying on the S. margin of the N. temperate zone, forms ono of the finest regions on tho surfaco of the earth. But, at the great bend in the coast above described (namely, about C. Bon). the chain of the Atlas ceases; and, from the shores of the Lesser Syrtis, tho desert comes close to tho sea, leaving only narrow slips of habitable land, till, at the bottom of another great bend to the S., forming the Greater Syrtis {Gulf of Sidra), the sand and water meet (about 19° E. long.), forming a natural division between the 2 parts of N. Africa. E. of this point lay Cyrenaica, the history of which is totally distinct from that of tho W. portion, with which we are now concerned.;

For what follows, certain land-marks must be borne in mind. Following the coast E. of the Fretum Gaditanum {Straits of Gibraltar) to near 2° W. long., we reach the largest river of N. Africa, the Malva, Mulncha, or Molochath (Wady Mulwia or Mohalou), which now forms the boundary of Ma~, rocco and Alyier, and was an equally important frontier in ancient times. The next point of refer ence is a headland at about 4° E. long., the site of the ancient city of Saldae. E. of this, again, somewhat beyond 6° E. long., is another frontier river, the Ampsaga ( Wady el Kebir): further on, near 8° E. long., another river, the RuBRiCATtJS ( Wady Seibout), at the month of which stood Hippo ReGius (BonaA); and, about 1° further E., the river TuscA (Wady-ez-Zain). The last great river of this coast, W. of the great turning point (C. Bon), is the Bagradas (Majerdak), falling into the sea jest below C. Farina, the W. headland (as C. Bon is the eastern) of the great Gulf of Tunit, near the centre of which a rocky promontory marks the site of Carthage. Lastly, let us note the bottom of the great gulf called the Lesser Syrtis, at the S. extremity of the E. coast already noticed, with the neighbouring great salt-lake of Al-Siblcah, the ancient Palus Tritonis, between 33° and 34° N. lat.; N. and NW. of which the country is for the most part desert, as far as the SE. slopes of the Atlas chain. The country immediately around the lake itself forms the E.-most of a series of oases, which stretch from E. to W. along the S. foot of the Atlas chain, and along the N. margin of the Sahara, and thus mark out a natural S. frontier for this portion of N. Africa.

In the earliest times recorded, the whole N. coast of the continent W. of Egypt was peopled by various tribes of the great Libyan race, who must be carefully distinguished from the Ethiopian or negro races of the interior. S. of the Libyan tribes, and on the N. limits of the Sahara, dwelt tho Gaetuli and Garamastes, and S. of these, beyond the desert, tho proper Ethiopians or negroes. The Libyans were of the Caucasian family of mankind, and for tho most part of nouiade habits. At periods so early as to be still mythical to the Greeks, colonists from the W. coasts of Asia settled on the Bhores of Africa, and especially on the part now treated of. Sal lust has preserved a curious tradition respecting the earliest Asiatic colonists, to which a bare reference is enough (Jugurth. 18). The chief colonies were those of the Phoenicians, such as Hippo Zarttus, Utica, Tuses, Hadrumetum, Leptis, and above all, though one of the latest, Carthago. In these settlements, the Phoenicians established themselves as traders rather than conquerors; and they do not seem to have troubled themselves about bringing the native peoples into subjection, except so far as was needful for their own security. Carthage, which was built on the most commanding position on the whole coast, gradually surpassed all the other Phoenician colonies, and brought them, as allies, if not as subjects, to acknowledge her supremacy. She also founded colonies of her own along the whole coast, from the Straits to the bottom of the Great Syrtis. The question of the extent and character of t he Carthaginian dominion belongs to another article [carThago]; but it is necessary here to advert briefly to its condition when the Romans first became acquainted with the country. At that time the proper territory of Carthage was confined within very narrow limits around the city itself. The sea-coast W. and S. of C. Bon, as far as the river Rubricatus and Hippo Regius on the W. and a point N. of Hadrumetum (about 36° N. lat.) on the S., and the parts inland along the river Bagradas, and between it and the sea, appear to have formed the original territory of Carthage, corresponding nearly to the region after

wards known as Zeucitana, but reaching further along the W. coast, and not so far inland on the SW. This, or even less, was the extent of country at first included by the Romans under the name of Africa, and to this very day it bears the same name, Frikiak or Afrikeah. It is remarkable that, neither in tbwars of Agathocles nor of the Romans with Carthage in Africa, does any mention occur of military operations out of this limited district. But still, before the wars with Rome, the territory of Carthage hail received some accession. On the E. coast, S. of 36° N. lat., flourishing maritime cities had been established, some — as Leptis and Hadrumetum — even before Carthage, and some by the Carthaginians. These cities were backed by a fertile hot narrow plain, bounded on the W. by a range tf mountains, which formal the original Byzacicm, a district, according to Pliny, 250 Roman miles iu circuit, and extending S.-wards as far as Thenar, opposite the island of Cercina (in about 34° 30' X. lat.), where the Lesser Syrtis was considered to begin. This district had been added to the possessions of the Carthaginians, and Polybius (iii. 23) speaks of their anxiety to conceal it from the knowledge of the Romans, as well as their commercial settlements further along the coast, called Emporia. This word, Emporia, though afterwards used as the name of a district, denoted at first, according to ita proper meaning, settlements established for the sake of commerce; and it appears to have included all the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonics along the whole coast from the N. extremity of the Lesser Syrtis to the bottom of the Greater Syrtis. Any possession of the E. part of this region, in a strictly territorial sense, would have been worthless from the nature of the country, but the towns were maintained as centres of commerce with the inland tribes, and as an additional security, besides the desert, against any danger from the Greek states of Cyrenaica.

Such was the general position of the Carthaginian dominion in Africa at the time of the Punic Wars; extending over their own immediate territory to about 80 miles S. of the capita], and along the E. coast of Tunis and isolated points on the W. part of the coast of Tripoli. The whole iimer district in the central and SW. parts of the later province of Africa was in the possession of the Libyan tribes, whose services as mercenaries Carthage could obtain in war, but whom she never even attempted to subdue. These tribes are spoken of by Greek and Latin writers under a general name which describes their mode of life as wandering herdmen, NouASft, or, in tho Latin form, Numidae. They possessed the country along the N. coast as for W. as the Straits; but those of them that were settled to the W. of the river Mulucha were called by another name, Mavpoi, perhaps from a greater darkness of complexion, and, after them, the Romans called the country W. of the Mulucha Mauretajoa; while that E. of the Mulucha, to the W. frontier of Carthage, and also SW. and S. of the Carthaginian possessions as far as the region of tho Syrtes, was included under the general designation of Numidia.

In this region, at the time of the Second Punic War, two tribes were far more powerful than all the rest, namely, in the W.and larger portion,between the rivers Mulueha and Ampsaga, the Massaesylii, occupying the greater part of the modem Algier; and E. of them, from the river Ampsaga and round the whole inland frontier of Carthage, the Masstui, the residence of whose chieftain, called by the Romans

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