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ling, was at the strong natural fort of Cieta (Co»iantineh): regular cities were, in their earlier history, almost, if not altogether, unknown to the Numidians. The relations of these tribes to Carthage are most important, as affecting the boundaries of Roman Africa.

The first chief of the Massylii mentioned in history, Gala, is supposed to have already deprived the Carthaginians of the important town of Hippo (Bonah), inasmuch as it is mentioned with the epithet of Regius in Livy's narrative of the Second Punic War (Liv. nix, 3); but, for an obvious reason, we cannot lay much stress on this point of evidence. Much more important is it to bear in mind that, in these jarts, the epithet Regius applied to a city does prove that it belonged, at some time, to theNumidian princes. In the Second Punic War we find Gala in league with the Carthaginians; but their cause was abandoned in B. c. 206 by his son Masinissa, whose varied fortunes this is not the place to follow out in detail. Defeated again and again by the united forces of the Carthaginians and of Syphax, chief of the Massacsylii, he retired into the deserts of Inner Numidia, that is, the SE. part, about the Lesser Syrtis, and there maintained himself till the landing of Scipio in Africa, B. c. 204, when he joined the Romans and greatly contributed to their success. At the conclusion of the war, his services were amply rewarded. He was restored to his hereditary dominions, to which was added the greater part of the country of the Massaesylii; Syphax having been taken prisoner in B. c. 203, and sent to Rome, where he soon died. The conduct of the Romans on this occasion displayed quite as much policy as gratitude, and Masinissa's conduct soon showed that he knew he had been set as a thorn in the side of Carthage. Under cover of the terms of the treaty and with the connivance of Rome, he made a series of aggressions on the Carthaginian territory, both on the NW. and on the SE., seizing the rich Emporia on the latter side, and, on the former, the country W. of the river Tusca, and the district called the Great Plain, SE. of the Bagradas around 36° N. lat., where the name of Zama Regia is a witness of Numidian rule. Thus, when his constant persecution at length provoked the Carthaginians to the act of resistance which formed the occasion of the Third Punic War, Masinissa's kingdom extended from the river Malva to the frontier of Cyrenaica, whilo the Carthaginians were hemmed up in the narrow NE. corner of Zeugitana which they had at first possessed, and in the fmall district of Byzacium ; these, their only remaining possessions, extending along the coast from the Tusca to the N. extremity of the Lesser Syrtis, opposite Cercina.

Now, here we have the original limits of Vie lioman province of Africa. The treaty of peace, at the close of the Second Punic War, had assigned to Masinissa all the territory which his ancestors had ever possessed; he had succeeded in carrying out this provision to its full extent, if not beyond it; and at the close of the Third Punic War, the Romans left his sons their inheritance undiminished, Masinissa himself having died in the 2nd year of the war, B. c. 148. (Appian. Pun. 106.) Thus, the Roman province of Africa, which was constituted in B. c 146, included only the possessions which Carthage had Iic last. Sallust {Jug. 19) accurately describes the Mate of the rase under the successors of Masinissa:

—" Igitur hello Jugurthino plcraque ex Punicis oppida et finis Carthaginiensium, quos novissume habuerant, populus Romanus per magistrate administrabat : Gaetulorum magna pars et Nnrnidae usque ad flumen Mulucham sub Jugurtha erant." And, as to the SE. frontier of the Roman province, we learn from Pliny (v. 4. s. 3) that it remained as under Masinissa, and that Scipio Africanus marked out the boundary line between the Roman province and the princes (reges) of Numidia, by a fossa which reached the sea at Thenae, thus leaving the Emporia and the region of the Syrtes to the latter. Thus the province of Africa embraced the districts of Zeugitana and Byzacium, or the N. and E. parts of the Regency of Tunis, from the river Tusca to Thenae at the N. end of the Lesser Syrtis. It was constituted by Scipio, with the aid of ten legati, or commissioners, appointed by the senate from its own body, as was usual when a conquered country was reduced to a province, and on the following terms. (Appian. Pun. 135; Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 19.) Such ruins of Carthage as remained were to be utterly destroyed, and men were forbidden, under a curse, to dwell upon its site; the cities which had taken part with Carthage were devoted to destruction, and their land was partly made ager publims (comp. Cie. I. c. 22), and partly assigned to those cities which had sided with Rome, namely, Utica, Thapsus, Leptis Minor, Acholla, Usalis, Teudalis, and probably Hadmmetum {Lex Thoria, lin. 79; Marquardt, Becker's Bandbuch d. Rom. Alterth. vol. iii. pt. 1. p. 226). Utica received all the land from Hippo Zarytus to Carthage, and was made the seat of government. The inhabitants, except of the favoured cities, were burthened with heavy taxes, assessed on persons as well as on tho land. The province was placed under praetorian government, and was divided into convenlus, we are not told how many, but from the mention of those of Zcngis (Oros. i. 2) and Hadrnmetum (Hirt. Bell. Afr. 97), we may perhaps infer that the former included the whole N. district, Zcngis or Zeugitana, and the latter the S. district, Byzacium.

The war with Jugurtha caused no alteration of territories; but the Romans gained possession of some cities in the SE. part of Numidia, the chief of which was Leptis Magna, between the Syrtes. (Sail. Jug. 77.)

Africa played an important part in the Civil War of Pompey and Caesar. Early in the war, it was seized for the senate by Attius Varus, who, aided by Juba, king of Numidia, defeated and slew Caesar's lieutenant Curio: of the remains of Caesar's army, some escaped to Sicily, and some surrendered to Juba; and the province remained in the bands of the Pompeian party, B. c. 49. (Caes. B. C. ii. 23— 44.) After Pompey's death, and while Caesar played the lover at Alexandria, and "came, saw, conquered" in Pontus (b. C. 47), the Pompeians gathered their forces for a final stand in Africa, under Q. Metellus Scipio, Afranius, and Petreius. These leaders were joined by Cato, who, having collected an army at Cyrene, performed a most difficult march round the shores of the Syrtes, and undertook the defence of Utica, the chief city of the province: how he performed the task, his surname and the story of his death have long borne witness. The Pompeians were supported by Juba, king of Numidia, but lie was kept in check by the army of Bocchus and Bogud, kings of Mauretania, under P. Sittius, rn adventurer, who had taken advantage of the disco: da between the kings of Mauretania and Numidia to make a party of lus own, composed of adventurers like himself, and who now espoused the cause of Caesar. (Appian. B. C. iv. 54; Dion Cass. xliv. 3.) Just before the close of B. C. 47, Caesar landed in Africa; and, after a brief but critical campaign, overthrew the united forces of the other party in the battle of Thapsus, in April, 46. The kingdom of Numidia was now taken possession of by Caesar, who erected it into a province, and committed its government to Sallustius, the historian, as proconsul, " in name," says Dion Cassius., "to govern, but in deed to plunder." (Hirt. B. Afr. 97; Dion Cass, xliii. 9; Appian. B.C. ii. 100.) Henceforth Numidia became known by the name of New Africa, and the former Roman province as Old Africa. (Appian. B. C. iv. 53; Plin. v. 4. s. 3.) Hut further, within the province of New Africa itself, Caesar is said to have made a partition, to reward the services of Sittius and of the kings of Maurctania; giving to the latter the W. part of Numidia, as far K. (probably) as Saldae (possibly to the Ampsaga), and to the former the territory about Cirta. (Appian. B. C. iv. 54.) Very probably this partition amounted to nothing more than leaving his allies, for the present, in possession of what they had already seized, especially as, in his anxiety to return to Rome, Caesar settled the aftairs of Africa in great haste. (Dion, xliii. 14, rd re oAAa iv rf) 'A«J>/j(«p 5i& jSpaj^os, us Iv^v fi&Kurra, KaTa<rHjo-aj.) Among the exiles from Africa of the defeated party, who had taken refuge with the sons of Pompcy in Spain, was a certain Arabion, whom Appian (iv. 54) calls a son of a certain Masinissa, the ally of Juba. This man, after Caesar's murder, returned to Numidia, expelled Iiocchus, and slew Sittius by stratagem. This story of Appians is confused and doubtful, even with the help of a few obscure words in a letter of Cicero which have some appearance of confirming it. {Ad Att. xv. 17, Arabioni cU Sitio nihil irascor; comp. Dion Cass, xlviii. 22.)

In the arrangements of the second triumvirate, B. c. 43, the whole of Africa was assigned to Octavian. (Dion Cass. xlvi. 55; Appian. B. C. iv. 53.) T. Sextius, a former legate of Julius Caesar, was governor of the New Province; while Q. Cornificius and D. Laelius held Old Africa for the Bo-called republican party, and to them many betook themselves who had escaped from the cruelties of the triumvirs at Rome. A war ensued, the events of which are related differently by the historians; but it ended in the defeat and death of Cornificius and Laelius, B. C. 42. (Appian. B. C. iii. 85, iv. 36, 52—56; Didu Cass, xlviii. 21.) After another and successful struggle with C. Kango, which there is not space to relate (see Dion Cass, xlviii. 22 ■—24; Appian. B. C. v. 12,26, 75), Sextius found himself obliged to give up both the African provinces to Lepidus, to whom they had been assigned in the new arrangements made by the triumvirs after the battle of Philippi, and confirmed after the war of Perusia, B. c. 41. By the surrender and retirement of Lepidus, both the African provinces came into the power of Octavian, B, c. 36. In the general settlement of the empire after the overthrow of Antony, B. C. 30, Augustus restored to the young Juba, son of Juba I., his paternal kingdom of Numidia (Dion Cass. li. 15); but shortly afterwards, B. i\ 25, he resumed the possession of Numidia, giving Juba in exchange the two Mauretanias, the E. boundary of his kingdom being fixed at Saldae.

(Strab. pp. 828, 831.) [mauretania.] Thus the two provinces of Africa were finally united fc> the Roman empire, consisting of Old Africa, or the ancient Carthaginian territory, namely, Zeugitan* and Byzacium, and New Africa, or, as it was also called, Numidia Provincia; the boundaries being, on the W., at Saldae, where Africa joined Mauretania Caesariensis, and on the E., the monument of the Philaeni, at the bottom of the Great Syrtis, where Africa touched CyrcnaTca. The boundaries between Old and New Africa remained as before, namely, on the N. coast, the New Province was divided from the Old by the river Tusca, and on the E. coast by the dyke of Scipio, which terminated at Thenae. at the N. entrance of the Syrtis Minor. (Plin. v. 4. s. 3.) This province of Africa was assigned to the senate, and made a proconsular province, B. C. 27 (Strab. p. 840; Dion Cass, hii. 12).

A further change was made by Caligula, in two particulars. First, as to the western boundary: when, having put to death Ptolemy, the son of Juba II., lie made his kingdom of Mauretania a Roman province, he also extended its boundary eastwards from Saldae to the river Ampsaga, which became thenceforth the W. boundary of Numidia, or New Africa. (Tac. Hist. i. 11.) But he also changed the government of the province. Under Augustus and Tiberius, the one legion (III*), which was deemed sufficient to protect the province against the barbarians on the S. frontier, had been under the orders of the proconsul; but Caligula, moved by fear of the power and popularity of the proconsul M. Silanus, deprived him of the military command, and placed the legion under a legatus of his own. (Tac. Hist. iv. 48.) From the account of Dion Cassius, which is, however, obviously inexact in some points, it would seem that Numidia was altogether separated from Africa, and made an imperial province under the legatus Caesaris. (Dion Cass. lix. 20: tax 5£x* To t&vos vtifias, irdpw T6 arpantuTiKhv Kcu robs vouAbas robs Tfpl curb wp<Hr«Ta£«.) Tacitus does not mention this separation, but rather points out the evil results of the divided authority of the proconsul and legatus in a way which seems to imply that they had coordinate powers in the same province. A recent writer suggests that Numidia was always regarded, from the time of the settlement by Augustus, as a province distinct from Old Africa; that it may have been governed by a legatus under the proconsul; and that the onlychange made by Caligula was the making the legatus immediately dependent on the emperor (Marquardt, Beckers Rom. Alt. vol. iii. p. 229); and certainly, in the list given by Dion Cassius (liii. 12) of the provinces as constituted by Augustus, Numidia is mentioned as well as Africa. On the whole, however, it seems that the exact relation of the New Province of Africa to the Old, from the time of Caligula to that of Diocletian, must be considered as somewhat doubtful.

The above historical review may aid in removing the difficulty often found in understanding the statements of the ancient writers respecting the limits of Africa. Mela (i. 7; comp. c 6), writing in the reign of Claudius, gives Africa its widest extent, from the river Ampsaga and the promontory Metagonites on the W. (the same, doubtless, as the Tretum of Strain), Has Stba Rous, i. c. 7 Capes) to the Arae Philaenoram on the E.; while Pliny (v. 4. s. 3), making Numidia extend from the Ampsaga to the Tusca, and Africa from the Tusca to the frontier of Cyrena'ica, yet speaks of the 2 provinces in tlio closest connection (Numidiae e(Africae abAmptaga longitude Dlxxx. M. 1'.), and seems even to include them both under the name of Africa {Africa a ftuvio Ampsaga populos xxvi. habet). Ptolemy (iv. 3) gives Africa the same extent as Mela, from the Ampsaga to the bottom of the Great Syrtis; while he applies the name New Numidia (NovfuSia Wa) to a part of the country, evidently corresponding with the later Numidia of other writers (§ 29), the epithet A'ew being used in contradistinction to the ancient Numidia, the W. and greater part of which had been added to Mauretania. In Ptolemy's list of the provinces (viii. 29), Africa and Numidia are mentioned together.

In the 3rd century, probably under Diocletian, the whole country, from the Ampsaga to CyrenaTca, was divided into the four provinces of Numidia, Africa Propria or Zeugitana, Byzacium or Byzacena, and Tripoli* or TripoUtana. (Sext Ruf. Brev. 8.) Numidia no longer extended S. of Zeugitana and Byzacium, but that part of it was added to Byzacium; while its E. part, on and between the Syrtes, formed the province of Tripolitana. We are enabled to draw the boundary-lines with tolerable exactness by means of the records of the numerous ecclesiastical councils of Africa, in which the several bishoprics have the names of thenprovinces appended to them. (For the fullest information, see Morcelli, Africa Christiana, Brixiae, 1817, 3 vols. 4to.) Zeugitana, to which, in the revolution of time, the name of Africa had thus come 10 be again appropriated, remained a senatorial province under the Proconnd Africae, and was often called simply Provincia Proconsularit; the rest were imperial provinces, Byzacium and Numidia being governed by Consularet, and Tripolit by a Praeges. The Proconsul Africae (who was the only one in the W. empire, and hence was often called simply Proconsul) had under him two legati and a quaestor, besides legati for special branches of administration. His residence was at the restored city of Carthage. The other three provinces, as well as the two Maurctanias, were subject to the praetorian praefect of Italy, who governed them by his representative, the Vicarittt Africae. (Becking, Notitia JHgnitatum, vol. ii. c. 17, 19, &c.) Referring for the remaining details to the articles on the separate provinces, we proceed to a brief account of the later ancient history of Africa.

At the time referred to, the name of Africa, besides its narrowest sense, as properly belonging to the proconsular province, and its widest meaning, as applied to the whole continent, was constantly used to include all the provinces of N. Africa, W. of the Great Syrtis, and the following events refer, for the most part, to that extent of country. At the settlement of the empire undei Constantine, the African provinces were among the most prosperous in the Roman world. The valleys of Mauretania and Numidia, and the plains of Zeugitana and Byzacium, had always been proverbial for their fertility; and the great cities along the coast had a flourishing commerce. The internal tranquillity of Africa was seldom disturbed, the only formidable insurrection being that under the two Gordians, which was speedily repressed, A. n. 238. The emperors Septimius Severus and Macrinus were natives of N. Africa. Amidst the prosperous population of these peaceful provinces, Christianity had early taken firm root; the records of ecclesiastical history attest the

great number of the African churches and bishoprics, and the frequency of their synods; and the fervid spirit of the Africans displayed itself alike in the steadfastness of their martyrs, the energy of their benevolence, the vehemence of their controversies, and the genius of their leading writers, as, for example, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Augustine.

But here, as on the other frontiers of the empire, the diminished vitality of the extremities bore witness to the declining energy of the heart. That perfect subjection of the native tribes, which forms such a singular contrast with the modern history of Algeria, had already been disturbed; and we read of increased military forces, insurrections of native princes, and incursions of the Numidians, or, as they now came to be generally called, the Moors, even before the end of the 3rd century. There is not space to recount the wars and troubles in Africa during the struggles of Constantine and his competitors for the empire; nor those wider his successors, including the revolt of Firmus, and the exploits of the count Theodosins, under the 1st and 2nd Valentinian (a. D. 373—376), the usurpation of Maximus, after the death of Valentinian II.; and the revolt of the count Gildon, after the death of Theodosius the Great, Bupproscd by Stilicho, A. i>. 398. At the final partition of the empire, on the death of Theodosius (a. D. 395), the African provinces were assigned to the W. empire, under Honorius, whose dominions met those of his brother, Arcadius, at the Great Syrtis.

Under Valentinian III., the successor of Honorius, the African provinces were lost to the W. empire. Boniface, count of Africa, who had successfully defended the frontiers against the Moors, was recalled from his government by the intrigues of Aetius, and on his resistance an army was sent against him ( A. r>. 427). In his despair, Boniface sought aid from the Vandals, who were already established in Spain; and, in May, 429, Gciserich (or Gcnserich) the Vandal king, led an army of about 50,000 Vandals, Goths, and Alans, across the Straits of Gades into Mauretania. He was joined by many of the Moors, and apparently favoured by the Donntists, a sect of heretics, or rather schismatics, who had lately suffered severe persecution. But, upon urgent solicitations from the court of Ravenna, accompanied by the discovery of the intrigues of Aetius, Boniface repented of his invitation, and tried, too late, to repair his error. He was defeated and shut up in Hippo Regius; the only other cities left to the Romans being Carthage and Cirta. The Vandals overran the whole country from the Straits to the Syrtes; and those fertile provinces were utterly laid waste amidst scenes of fearful cruelty to the inhabitants. The siege of Hippo lasted fourteen months. At length, encouraged by reinforcements from the eastern empire, Boniface hazarded another battle, in which he was totally defeated, A. D. 431. But the final loss of Africa was delayed by negotiation for some years, during which various partitions of the country were made between the Romans and the Vandals; but the exact terms of these truces are as obscure as their duration was uncertain. The end of one of them was signalized by the surprise and sack of Carthage, Oct. 9, 439; and before the death of Valentinian 111. the Vandals were in undisputed possession of the African provinces. Leo, the emperor of the East, sent an unsuccessful expedition against them, under Heraclius, A. r>. 468; and, in 476. Zcno made a treaty with Geiscric, which lasted till the time of Justinian, under whom the country wns recovered for the Eastern Empire, and the Vandals almost exterminated, by Belisarius, A. D. 533—534. (For an account of the Vandal kings of Africa, see Vandali: for the history of this period, the chief authority is Procopius, Bell.Vand.)

Of the state and constitution of Africa under Justinian, we have most interesting memorials in two rescripts, addressed by the emperor, the one to Archelaus, the praetorian praefect of Africa, and the other to Belisarius himself. (Booking, Notit. Dign. vol. ii. pp. 154, foil.) From the former we learn fhat the seven African provinces, of which the island of Sardinia now made one, were erected into a separate praefecture, under a Praefectus Praetorio Magnijicus; and the two rescripts settle their civil and military constitution respectively. It should be observed that Mauretania Tingitana (from the river Mulucha to the Ocean), which had formerly belonged to Spain, was now included in the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis. [Comp. MauKetania.] The seven African provinces were (from E. to W.), (I) Tripolis or Tripolitana, (2) Byzacium or Byzacena, (3) Africa or Zeugis or Carthago, (4) Numidia, (5) Mauretania Sitifensis or Zaba, (6) Mauretania Caesariensis, and (7) Sardinia: the first three were governed by Consulares, the last four by Praesides.

The history of Africa under the E. empire consists of a scries of intestine troubles arising from court intrigues, and of Moorish insurrections which became more and more difficult to repel. The splendid edifices and fortifications, of which Justinian was peculiarly lavish in this part of his dominions, were a poor substitute for the vital energy which was almost extinct. (Procop.cfe.4erf(/I Justin.) At length the deluge of Arabian invasion swept over the choicest parts of the Eastern Empire, and the conquest of Egypt was no sooner completed, than the Caliph Othman sent an army under Abdallah against Africa, A. D. 647. The praefect Gregory was defeated and slain in the great battle of Sufetula in the centre of Byzacena ; but the Arab force was inadequate to complete the conquest. In 665 tho enterprize was renewed by Akbah, who overran the whole country to the shores of the Atlantic; and founded the great Arab city of Al-Kaincan (i. c. the caravan), in the heart of Byzacium, about 20 miles S. W. of the ancient Hiidrumetum. Its inland position protected it from the fleets of the Greeks, who were still masters of the coast. But the Moorish tribes made common cause with the Africans, and the forces of Akbah were cut to pieces. His successor, Zuheir, gained several battles, but was defeated by an army sent from Constantinople. The contest was prolonged by the internal dissensions of the successors of the prophet; but, in A. D. 692, a new force entered Africa under Hassan, the governor of Egypt, and Carthage was taken and destroyed in 698. Again were the Arabs driven out by a general insurrection of the Moors, or, as we now find them called, by the name ever since applied to the natives of N. Africa, the Berbers (from jSdpSopoi); but the Greeks and Komans of Africa found their domination more intolerable than that of tho Arabs, and welcomed tho return of their conquerors under Musa, who subdued the country finally, and enlisted most of the Moors under the faith and standard of the prophet, A. D. 705—709. With the Arab conquest ends the ancient history of Africa. [I'. S.]

AGANIPPE FONS. [helicon.]

A'G ARI (*A7<tpoi), a Scythian people of Sarmatia Europaea, on the N. shore of the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov), about a promontory Agarum and a river Agarus, probably not far E. of the Isthmus. They were skilful in medicine, and are said to have cored wounds with serpents' venom 1 Some of them always attended on Mitllridatcs the Great, as physicians. (Appian.J/irAr88; Ptol. iii. 5. § 13.) A fungus called Agaricum (prob. German tinder), mnch used in ancient medicine, was said to grow in their country (Plin. xxv. 9. s. 57; Diosoor. iii. 1; Galen, de fac. simp. med. p. 150). Diodorus (xx. 24), mentions Agarus, a king of the Scythians, near the Cimmerian Bosporus, B. c. 240. (Bockh, Corpus Jnscr. vol. ii. p. 82; Ukert, voL iii. pt. 2, pp. 250, 433.) [P. S.]

AGASSA or AGASSAE, a town in Pieria in Macedonia, near the river Mitys. Livy, in relating the campaign of B. c. 169 against Perseus, says that the Roman consul made three days' marrh beyond Dium, the first of which terminated at the river Mitys, the second at Agassa, and the third at the river Ascordus. The last appears to be the same as the Acerdos, which occurs in the Tabular Itinerary, though not marked as a river. Leake supposes that the Mitys was the river of Katerina, and that Acerdos was a tributary of the Haliacmon. (Liv. xliv. 7, xlv. 27; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 423, seq.)

AGATHUSA [telos.]

AGATHYRNA or AGATHYRNUM CAyievpra, Polyb. ap. Steph.Byz.'A'yo9iipi'o>',Ptol.: Agathyma, Sil. ItaL xiv.259; Liv.; Agathyrnum, Plin.), a city on the N. coast of Sicily between Tyndaris and Calacte. It was supposed to have derived its name from Agathyrnus, a son of Aeolus, who is said to have settled in this part of Sicily (Diod. v. 8). But though it may be inferred from hence that it was an ancient city, and probably of Sicelinn origin, we find no mention of it in history until after Sicily became a Roman province. During the Second Punic War it became the head-quarters of a band of robbers and freebooters, who extended their ravages over tho neighbouring country, but were reduced by the consul Laevinus in B. C. 210, who transported 4000 of them to Rhegium. (Liv. xxvi. 40, xxvii. 12.) It very probably was deprived on this occasion of the municipal rights conceded to most of the Sicilian towns, which may account for our finding no notice of it in Cicero, though it is mentioned by Strabo among the few cities still subsisting on the N. coast of Sicily, as well as afterwards by Pliny, Ptolemy and the Itineraries. (Strab. vi. p. 266; Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. iii. 4. § 2; Itin. Ant. p. 92; Tab. Pent.) Its situation has been much disputed, on account of the great discrepancy between the authorities just cited. Strabo places it 30 Roman miles from Tyndaris, and the same distance from Alaesa. The Itinerary gives 28 M. P. from Tyndaris and 20 from Calacte: while the Tabula (of which the numbers seem to be mora trustworthy for this part of Sicily than those of the Itinerary) gives 29 from Tyndaris, and only 12 from Calacte. IS this last measurement be supposed correct it would exactly coincide with the distance from Caronia (Calacte) to a place near the seaconst called Acque Dolci below S. FUadetfo (called on recent maps & Fratello) and about 2 miles W. of Sta Agata, where Fazello describes ruins of considerable magnitudo as extant in his day: but which he, in common with Cluverius, regarded as the remains of Alunuum. Tho latter city may, however, be placed with much more probability at S. Marco [aluktium]: and the rains near S. Fratello would thus be those of Agathyma, there being no other city of any magnitude that we know of in this part of Sicily. Two objections, however, remain: 1. that the distance from tliis site to Tyndaris is greater than that given by any of the authorities, being certainly not less than 36 miles: 2. that both Pliny and Ptolemy, from the order of their enumeration, appear to place Agathyma between Aluntium and Tyndaris, and therefore if the former city be correctly fixed at S. Marco, Agathyma must be looked for to the E. of that town. Fazello accordingly placed it near Capo Orlando, but admits that there were scarcely any vestiges visible there. The question is one hardly susceptible of a satisfactory conclusion, as it is impossible on any view to reconcile the data of all our authorities, but the arguments in favour of the Acque Dolci seem on the whole to predominate. Unfortu ■ nately the ruins there have not been examined by any recent traveller, and havo very probably disappeared. Captain Smyth, however, speaks of the remains of a fine Roman bridge as visible in the Fiumara di Rosa Marina between this place and S. Marco. (Fazcll. ix. 4, p. 384, 5. p. 391; Cluver. Sicil. p. 295; Smyth's Siciig, p. 97.) [E. H. B.] AGATHYRSI CAyiBvpvoi, 'AyaMpaioi), a people of Sarmatia Europaea, very frequently mentioned by the ancient writers, but in different positions. Their name was known to the Greeks very early, if the Pcisander, from whom Suidas (t. v.) and Stephanus Byzantinus (s. v.~) quote an absurd mythical etymology of tho name (euro ru.v dilpo-vv rov Aioviktou) be the poet Pcisander of Rhodes, i>. c. 645; but he is much more probably the younger Peisander of Larauda, A.d. 222. Another myth is repeated by Herodotus, who heard it from the Greeks on the Euxine; that Hercules, on his return from his adventure against Geryon, passed through the region of Hylaea, and there met the Echidna, who bore him three sons, Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scythes; of whom the last alone was able to bend a bow and to wear a belt, which Hercules had left behind, in tho same manner as Hercules himself had used them; and, accordingly, in obedience to their father's command, the Echidna drove the two elder out of the land, and gave it to Scythes (Herod, iv. 7—10: comp. Tzetz. Chil. viii. 222, 759). Herodotus himself, also, regards the Agathyrsi as not a Scythian people, bat as closely related to the Scythians. He places them about the upper course of the river Maris (MaroscK), that is, in the SE. part of Dacia, or the modem Transylvania (iv. 4: the Maris, however, does not fall directly, as he states, into the Ister, Danube, but into that great tributary of the Danube, the Thews). They were the first of the peoples bordering on Scythia, to one going inland from the Ister; and next to them the Neuri (iv. 100). Being thus separated by the E. Carpathian mountains from Scythia, they were able to refuse tho Scythians, flying before Dareius, an entrance into their country (Herod, iv. 125). How far N. they extended cannot be determined from Herodotus, for he assigns an erroneous course to the Ister, N. of which he considers the land to be quite desert. [scythia.] The later writers, for the most part, place the Agathyrsi further to the N., as is the case with nearly all the Scythian tribes; some place them on the Palus Maeotis and some inland; and they arc generally spoken

of in close connection with the Sarmatians and the Geloni, and are regarded as a Scythian tribe (Ephor. ap. Scymn. Fr. v. 123, or 823, ed. Meineke; Mela ii. 1; Plin. iv. 26; PtoL iii. 5; Dion. Perieg. 310; Avien. Descr. Orb. 447; Steph. B. *. r.; Suid. s. v. &c). In their country was found gold and also precious stones, among which was the diamond, aoduas irafMpalroav (Herod, iv. 104; A nun. Marc, xxii. 8; Dion. Perieg. 317). According to Herodotus, they were a luxurious race (affpordVoi, Bitter explains this as referring to fine clothing), and wore much gold; they had a community of wives, in order that all the people might regard each other as brethren; and in their other customs they resembled the Thracians (iv. 104). They lived under kingly government; and Herodotus mentions their king Spargapeithes as the murderer of the Scythian king, Ariapeithes (iv. 78). Frequent allusions are made by later writers to their custom of painting (or rather tattooing) their bodies, in a way to indicato their rank, and staining their hair a dark blue (Virg. Am. iv. 146; Serv. ad he; Plin. iv. 26; Solin. 2(1; Avien. /. c; Ammian. I c; Mela ii. 1: Agathyrsi ora artusque pingunt: ut quique majoribus praestant, ita magis, vel minus: ceterum iisdem omnes notis, tt sic ut ablui nequeant). Aristotle mentions their practice of solemnly reciting their laws lest they should forget them, as observed in Ids time (Prob. xix. 28). Finally, they are mentioned by Virgil (/. c.) among the worshippers of the Delian Apollo, where their name is, doubtless, used as a specific poetical synonym for the Hyperboreans in general; —

u mixtiqne altaria circum Cretesque Dryopesque fremunt pictique Agathyrsi."

Niebuhr (ATfeine Schriften, vol. i. p. 377) regards the Agathyrsi of Herodotus, or at least the people who occupied the position assigned to them by Herodotus, as the same people as the Getae or Dacians (Ukert, vol.iii.pt. 2, pp. 418-421; Georgii,vol. ii.pp. 302, 303; Patter, Vorhatte, pp. 287, foil.) [P. S.]

AGBATANA. [ecbatan'a.] AGENDICUM, or AGETINCUM in the Teutinger Table, one of the chief towns of the Senones in the time of Caesar (i?. G. vi. 44, vii. 10, 57). The orthography of tho word varies in the MSS. of Caesar, where there is Agendicum, Agedincum, and Agedicum. If it is the town which was afterwards called Senones (Amm. Marc. xvi. 3, Senonas oppidum), we may conclude that it is represented by the modem town of Sen*, on the river Yonne. Some critics have supposed that I'rovins represents Agendicum. Under the Roman empire, in the later division of Gallia, Agendicum was the chief town of Lugdunensis Quarta, and it was the centre of several Roman roads. In the walls of the city there are some 6toncs with Roman inscriptions and sculptures. The name Agredicum in the Antonino Itinerary may be a corruption of Agendicum. [G. L.]

AGINNUM or AGENNUM (Agen), was the chief town of the Nitiobriges, a tribe situated between the Garumna and the Ligeris in Caesar's time (jb. G. vii. 7, 75). Aginnum was on the road from Burdigala to Argentomagus (It Antonin.). It is the origin of the modern town of Agen, on the river Garonne, in the department of Lot and Garonne, and contains some Roman remains. Aginnum is mentioned by Ausonins (JEjp. xxiv. 79); and it wna the birthplace of SnJpicius Severus. [G. L.~l AGISYMBA ('AytovnGa), the general name

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