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they lived, and who were supposed to preserve the have extended S. and SE. of Damascus as far as innocence of a state of nature, and of them, there- the borders of Galilaea, Batanaea, and Trachonitis. fore, he speaks collectively by epithets suited to such | Abilene, when first mentioned in history, was go descriptions, and, among the rest, as 86101, poor, verned by a certain Ptolemaeus, son of Mennaeus, with scanty means of life (from a and Bios). The who was succeeded, about B. c. 40, by a son named people thus described answer to the later notions Lysanias. Lysanias was put to death in B. C. 33, respecting the Hyperboreans, whose name does not at the instigation of Cleopatra, and the principality occur in Homer. Afterwards, the epithets applied passed, by a sort of purchase apparently, into the by Homer to this supposed primitive people were hands of one Zenodorus, from whom it was transtaken as proper names, and were assigned to dif- ferred (B.C. 31) to Herod the Great. At the death ferent tribes of the Scythians, so that we have of the latter (A. D. 3) one portion of it was annexed mention of the Scythae Agavi, Hippemolgi, Galac- to the tetrarchy of his son Philip, and the remainder tophagi (and Galactopotae) and Abii. The last are bestowed upon that Lysanias who is named by St. mentioned as a distinct people by Aeschylus, who Luke (iii. 1). Immediately after the death of Tiprefixes a guttural to the name, and describes the berius (A. D. 37), Caligula made over to Herod Gabii as the most just and hospitable of men, living Agrippa, at that time a prisoner in Rome, the teon the self-sown fruits of the untilled earth; but we trarchy of Philip and the tetrarchy of Lysanias, have no indication of where he placed them (Prom. while Claudius, upon his accession (A. D. 41), not Solut. Fr. 184). Of those commentators, who take only confirmed the liberality of his predecessor towards the word in Homer for a proper name, some place | Agrippa, but added all that portion of Judaea and them in Thrace, some in Scythia, and some near the Samaria which had belonged to the kingdom of his Amazons, who in vain urged them to take part in an grandfather Herod the Great, together(says Josephus) expedition against Asia (Eustath. ad Il. l. c. p. 916; with Abila, which had appertained to Lysanias Steph. Byz. I. c.); in fact, like the correspondent ("Aliday de Thy Avoavlov), and the adjoining region fabulous people, the Hyperborei, they seem to have of Libanus. Lastly, in A. D. 53, Claudius granted been moved back, as knowledge advanced, further to the younger Agrippa the tetrarchy of Philip with and further into the unknown regions of the north. Batanaea and Trachonitis and Abila_Avoavia de In the histories of Alexander's expedition we are aŰTn fyeyóvel Tetpapxia. (Joseph. Ant. xiv. 4. told that ambassadors came to him at Maracanda $ 4, 7. § 4, xviii. 7. $ 10, xix. 5. 81, xx. 6. § 1, (Samarkand) from the Abii Scythae, a tribe who B. J. i. 13. § 1, xx. 4.) Josephus, at first sight, had been independent since the time of Cyrus, and seems to contradict himself. in so far that in

| seems to contradict himself, in so far that in one were renowned for their just and peaceful character passage (Ant. xvii. 7. $ 10) he represents Caligula (Arrian. Anab. iv. 1; Q. Curt. vii. 6); but the as bestowing upon Herod Agrippa the tetrarchy of specific name of the tribe of Scythians who sent this Lysanias, while in another (Ant. xix. 5. § 1) he embassy is probably only an instance of the attempts states that Abila of Lysanias was added by Claumade to illustrate the old mythical geography by dius to the former dominions of Agrippa, but, in Alexander's conquests. In these accounts their reality, these expressions must be explained as reprecise locality is not indicated : Ammianus Mar - ferring to the division of Abilene which took place cellinus places them N. of Hyrcania (xxi. 6). An on the death of Herod the Great. We find Abila extended discussion will be found in Strabo of the mentioned among the places captured by Placidus, various opinions respecting the Abii up to his time one of Vespasian's generals, in A. D. 69 or 70 (pp. 296, 303, 311, 553; Droysen, in the Rhein. (Joseph. B. J. iv. 7. $ 5), and from that time forMus, vol. ï. p. 92, 1834).

{P. S.] ward it was permanently annexed to the province of A'BILA (Abina: Eth. 'AbiAnvós). It would Syria.

sW. R.] appear that there were several towns bearing this A'BNOBA(Advoba: Schwarzwald, Black Forest), appellation in the districts which border upon Pa- a range of hills in Germany, extending from the Oberlestine. The most important of these was a place of land of Baden northward as far as the modern town strength in Coele-Syria, now Nebi Abel, situated of Pforzheim. In later times it was sometimes called between Heliopolis and Damascus, in lat. 33° 38' N., Silva Marciana. On its eastern side are the sources long. 36° 18' E. It was the chief town of the of the Danube. Its name is sometimes spelt Arnoba tetrarchy of ABILENE, and is frequently termed, by or Arbona, but the correct orthography is established way of distinction, Abila Lysaniae ("Abiau Aika- by inscriptions. (Orelli, Inscr. Lat. no. 1986.) nouuévn Avoaviou). [ABILENE.]

Ptolemy (ii. 11. $ 7) incorrectly places the range of Belleye has written a dissertation in the Trans- the Abnoba tou far N. between the Maine and the actions of the Academy of Belles Lettres to prove source of the Ems. (Tacit. Germ. 1; Fest. Avien, that this Abila is the same with Leucas on the Descript. Orb. 437; Plin. iv. 12. s. 24; Martian. river Chrysorrhoas, which at one period assumed Capell. vi. § 662; comp. Creuzer, Zur Gesch. der the name of Claudiopolis, as we learn from some Alt-Röm. Cultur, pp. 65, 108.) (LS.] coins described by Eckhel. The question is much ABOCCIS or ABUNCIS ('Abovykis, Ptol. iv. 7. complicated by the circumstance that medals have | $ 16; Plin. vi. 29. s. 35. § 181, Aboccis in old been preserved of a town in Coele-Syria called | editions, Abuncis in Sillig's: Aboosimbel or IpsamAbila Leucas, which, as can be demonstrated from bul), a town in Aethiopia, between the Second the pieces themselves, must have been different from Cataract and Syene, situated on the left bank of Abila Lysaniae. (Eckhel, vol. ii. pp. 337, 345; the Nile, celebrated on account of the two magnifiPtol. v. 15. § 22; Plin. v. 18; Antonin. Itiner. cent grotto temples, which were discovered at this pp. 198, 199, ed. Wessel.)

[W.R.] place by Belzoni. The walls of the larger of the two ABILE'NE, or simply A'BILA ('Abanvh, temples are covered with paintings, which record "Aina), a district in Coele-Syria, of which the the victories of Ramses III. over various nations of chief town was ABILA. The limits of this region Africa and Asia (Kenrick, Ancient Egypt, vol. i. are nowhere exactly defined, but it seems to have p. 24, seq.) included the castern slopes of Antilibanus, and to | ABODI'ACUM, AUODI'ACUM ('Abovdlakov, Tab. Peut.; Ptol. ii. 13. & 5 AruZACUM, Vit. S. | for (if we may trust the accuracy of Dionysius) it Magn. 28), a town of Vindelicia, probably coin was already used by Callias, the historian of Aga. ciding with the modern Epfach on the river Lech, thocles, who termed Latinus “ king of the Aboriwhere remains of Roman buildings are still extant. gines" (Dionys. i. 72): and we find that Lycophron The stations, however, in the Itineraries and the (writing under Ptolemy Philadelphus) speaks of Peutingerian Table are not easily identified with | Aeneas as founding thirty cities " in the land of the the site of Epfach; and Abodiacum is placed by Boreigonoi," a name which is evidently a mere corsome topographers at the hamlet of Peisenberg, on ruption of Aborigines. (Lycophr. Alex. 1253; Tzetz, the slope of a hill with the same name, or in the ad loc.; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 80.) neighbourhood of Rosenheim in Bavaria (Itin. A tradition recorded both by Cato and Varro, and Anton.; Muchar, Noricum, p. 283.) (W. B. D. which Niebuhr justly regards as one of the most cre.

ABOLLA ('Abonda), a city of Sicily, mentioned dible of those transmitted to us from antiquity, related only by Stephanus Byzantinus (8. o.), who affords that these Aborigines first dwelt in the high mountain no clue to its position, but it has been supposed, on districts around Reate and in the vallies which exaccount of the resemblance of the name, to have tend from thence towards the Mt. Velino and the occupied the site of Arola, between Syracuse and Lake Fucinus. From hence they were expelled by Noto. A coin of this city has been published by the Sabines, who descended upon them from the still D'Orville (Sicula, pt. ii. tab. 20), but is of very more elevated regions around Amiternum, and drove uncertain authority. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 189; Castell. them forwards towards the W. coast; yielding to this Sicil. Vet. Num. p. 4.)

[E. H. B.] pressure, they descended into the valley of the Anio, ABONI-TEICÃOS ('ABÚvov teixos: Eth. 'Abwvo- and from thence gradually extended themselves into Teixeitns: Ineboli), a town on the coast of Paphla- the plains of Latium. Here they came in contact gonia with a harbour, memorable as the birthplace with the Siculi, who were at that time in possession of the impostor Alexander, of whom Lucian has of the country; and it was not till after a long conleft us an amusing account in the treatise bearing test that the Aborigines made themselves masters of his name. (Dict. of Biogr. vol. i. p. 123.) Ac- the land, expelled or reduced to slavery its Siculian cording to Lucian (Alex. § 58), Alexander pe- population, and extended their doininion not only titioned the emperor (probably Antoninus Pius) over Latium itself, but the whole plain between the that the name of his native place should be changed Volscian mountains and the sea, and even as far as from Aboni-Teichos into Ionopolis ; and whether the river Liris. (Dionys. i. 9, 10, 13, 14, i. 49; the emperor granted the request or not, we know Cato, ap. Priscian. v. 12. § 65.) In this war we that the town was called Ionopolis in later times. are told that the Aborigines were assisted by a PeNot only does this name occur in Marcianus and lasgian tribe, with whom they became in some deHierocles; but on coins of the time of Antoninus gree intermingled, and from whom they first learned and L. Verus we find the legend INNONOAITON, the art of fortifying their towns. In conjunction as well as ABANOTEIXITAN. The modern Ine with these allies they continued to occupy the plains boli is evidently only a corruption of Ionopolis. of Latium until about the period of the Trojan war, (Strab. p. 545; Arrian, Peripl. p. 15 ; Lucian, when they assumed the appellation of Latini, from Aler., passim; Marcian. Peripl. p. 72; Ptol. v. 4. their king Latinus. (Dionys. i. 9, 60; Liv. i. 1, 2.) 82; Hicrocl. p. 696; Steph. B. 8. e'. 'Alúvov Whatever degree of historical authority we may Teixos.)

attach to this tradition, there can be no doubt that ABORI'GINES ('Alopigives), a name given by it correctly represents the fact that the Latin race, all the Roman and Greek writers to the earliest in- such as we find it in historical times, was composed habitants of Latium, before they assumed the appel- of two distinct elements: the one of Pelasgic origin, lation of LATINI. There can be no doubt that the and closely allied with other Pelasgic races in Italy; obvious derivation of this name (ab origine) is the the other essentially different in language and origin. true one, and that it could never have been a national Both these elements are distinctly to be traced in the title really borne by any people, but was a mere ab- | Latin language, in which one class of words is closely stract appellation invented in later times, and in related to the Greek, another wholly distinct from it, tended, like the Autochthones of the Greeks, to de and evidently connected with the languages of the signate the primitive and original inhabitants of the Oscan race. The Aborigines may be considered as country. The other derivations suggested by later representing the non-Pelasgic part of the Latin writers, such as Aberrigines, from their wander- people; and to them we may refer that portion of the ing habits, or the absurd one which Dionysius seems Latin language which is strikingly dissimilar to the inclined to adopt, "ab õpeci," from their dwelling in Greek. The obvious relation of this to the Oscan the mountains, -are mere etymological fancies, sug- dialects would at once lead us to the same conclusion gested probably with a view of escaping from the with the historical traditions above related: namely, difficulty, that, according to later researches, they that the Aborigines or Casci, a mountain race from were not really autochthones, but foreigners coming the central Apennines, were nearly akin to the Aequi, from a distance (Dionys. i. 10; Aur. Vict. Orig. Volsci, and other ancient nations of Italy, who are Gent. Rom. 4). Their real name appears to have generally included under the term of Oscans or Aubeen Casci (Saufeius, ap. Serv. ad Aen. i. 6), an sonians; and as clearly distinct from the tribes of appellation afterwards used among the Romans to Pelasgic origin, on the one hand, and from the great signify anything primitive or old-fashioned. The Sabellian family on the other. (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. epithet of Sacrani, supposed by Niebuhr to have 78–84; Donaldson, Varronianus, p. 3; Abeken, been also a national appellation, would appear to have Mittelitalien, pp. 46, 47.) had a more restricted sense, and to have been con- ' Dionysius tells us that the greater part of the fined to a particular tribe or subdivision of the race. cities originally inhabited by the Aborigines in their But it is certainly remarkable that the name of mountain homes had ceased to exist in his time; but Aborigines must have been established in general use he has preserved to us (i. 14) a catalogue of them, at a period as early as the fifth century of Rome; as given by Varro in his Antiquities, which is of much interest. Unfortunately most of the names 1 7. CORSULA (Kopoolaa), a city destroyed shortly contained in it are otherwise wholly unknown, and before the time of Varro, is placed by him at 80 stathe geographical data are not sufficiently precise to dia from Reate, along the Via CURIA, at the foot enable us to fix their position with any certainty of MT. CORETUM. This road is otherwise unThe researches of recent travellers have, however, known", but was probably that which led from Reate of late years given increased interest to the passage towards Terni (Interamna), and if so, Corsula must in question, by establishing the fact that the neigh- have been on the left bank of the Velinus, but its bourhood of Reate, and especially the valley of the site is unknown. Salto, a district commonly called the Cicolano, In the same direction were: 8. Issa, a town situabound with vestiges of ancient cities, which, fromated on an island in a lake, probably the same now the polygonal, or so-called Cyclopean style of their called the Lago del Piè di Lugo: and 9. MARRUconstruction, have been referred to a very early period VIUM (Mapoúčov), situated at the extremity of the of antiquity. Many attempts have been consequently same lake. Near this were the SEPTEM AQUAE, made to identify these sites with the cities mentioned the position of which in this fertile valley between by Varro; but hitherto with little success. The Reate and Interamna is confirmed by their mention most recent investigations of this subject are those in Cicero (ad Att. iv. 15). by Martelli (an Italian antiquarian whose local 10. Returning again to Reate, and proceeding knowledge gives weight to his opinions) in his Storia along the valley of the Salto towards the Lake dei Siculi (Aquila, 1830, 8vo.), and by Bunsen Fucinus (Dionysius has thy & Aativny oddy clos(Antichi Stabilimenti Italici, in the Annali dell' owowv, for which Bunsen would read Thy do níunny: Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica, vol. vi. but in any case it seems probable that this is the p. 100, seq.). But the complete diversity of their direction meant), Varro mentions first Batia or results proves how little certainty is to be attained. VATIA (Batía), of which no trace is to be found: In the following enumeration of them, we can only then comes attempt to give the description of the localities 11. TIORA, surnamed MATIENE (Tipa, Kalouaccording to Varro, and to notice briefly their sup- uévn Marihun), where there was a very ancient posed identifications.

oracle of Mars, the responses of which were delivered 1. PALATIUM, from which the city on the Pala by a woodpecker. This is placed, according to Varro, tine hill at Rome was supposed to have derived its at 300 stadia from Reate, a distance which so much name (Varr. de L. L. v. $ 53 ; Solin. 1. $ 14), is exceeds all the others, that it has been supposed to placed by Varro at 25 stadia from Reate ; and be corrupt; but it coincides well with the actual would appear to have been still inhabited in his distance (36 miles) from Rieti to a spot named time. (See Bunsen, p. 129, whose suggestion of Castore, near Sla. Anatolia, in the upper valley of πόλις οικουμένη for πόλεως οικουμένης is certainly the Salto, which was undoubtedly the site of an very plausible.) Ruins of it are said to exist at a ancient city, and presents extensive remains of walls place still called Pallanti, near Torricella, to the of polygonal construction. (Bunsen, p. 115; Abeken, right of the Via Salaria, at about the given dis- Mittelitalien, p. 87.) We learn also from carly tance from Reate. (Martelli, p. 195.) Gell, on Martyrologies, that Sta. Anatolia, who has given the other hand, places it near the convent of La name to the modern village, was put to death " in Foresta, to the N. of Rieti, where remains of a civitate Thora, apud lacum Velinum." (Cluver. polygonal character are also found. Bunsen concurs Ital. p. 684.) Hence it seems probable that the in placing it in this direction, but without fixing name of Castore is a corruption of Cas-Tora (Casthe site.

| tellum Torae), and that the ruins visible there are 2. TRIBULA (Tpibona), about 60 stadia from really those of Tiora.t Reate; placed by Bunsen at Santa Felice, below the 12. Lista (Niota), called by Varro the metromodern town of Cantalice, whose polygonal walls polis of the Aborigines, is placed by him, according were discovered by Dodwell. Martelli appears to to our present text of Dionysius, at 24 stadia from confound it with TRIBULA MUTUSCA, from which Tiora ; but there seem strong reasons for supposing it is probably distinct.

that this is a mistake, and that Lista was really 3. SUESBULA, or VESBULA (the MSS. of Dio- situated in the immediate neighbourhood of Reate. nysius vary between Συεσβόλα and Ουεσβόλα), at | LISTA.) the same distance (60 stadia) from Tribula, near 13. The last city assigned by Varro to the Abothe Ceraunian Mountains. These are otherwise rigines is COTYLIA, or CUTILIA (Kotúla), celeunknown, but supposed by Bunsen to be the Monti brated for its lake, concerning the site of which di Leonessa, and that Suesbula was near the site of (between Civita Ducale and Antrodoco) there the little city of Leonessa, from which they derive exists no doubt. [CUTILIA.] their name.

1 Among the cities of Latium itself, Dionysius 4. Suna (Zoúvn), distant 40 stadia from Snes- (i. 44, ii. 35) expressly assigns to the Aborigines bola, with a very ancient temple of Mars: 5. ME- the foundation of Antemnae, Caenina, Ficulnea, PHYLA (Mnoúła), about 30 stadia from Suna, of Tellenae, and Tibur: some of which were wrested which some ruins and traces of walls were still visible in the time of Varro: and 6. ORVINIUM * The MSS. of Dionysius have dià tñs 'Ioupías ('Opoviviov), 40 stadia from Mephyla, the ruins of doll, a name which is certainly corrupt. Some which, as well as its ancient sepulchres, attested its editors would read 'lovvias, but the emendation of former magnitude; — are all wholly unknown, but Koupías suggested by Bunsen is far more probable. are probably to be sought between the Monti di For the further investigation of this point, see Leonessa and the valley of the Velino. Martelli, REATE. however, transfers this whole group of cities (in- † Holstenius, however (Not. ad Cluver. p. 114), cluding Tribula and Suesbula), which are placed by places Tiora in the valley of the Turano, at a place Bunsen to the N. of Rieti, to the vallies of the called Colle Piccolo, where there is also a celebrated Turano and Salto S. of that city.

church of Sta. Anatolia.

by them from the Siculians, others apparently new German Ocean south of Ocelum Promontorium settlements. Little historical dependence can of (Spurn Head). Its left bank was inhabited by course be placed on these statements, but they were the Celtic tribe, whom the Romans entitled Parisi, probably meant to distinguish the cities in question but according to a medieval poet cited by Camfrom those which were designated by tradition as of den, no great town or city anciently stood on its Pelasgian origin, or colonies of Alba.


(W. B. D.] Sallust (Cat. 6) speaks of the Aborigines as a ABUSI'NA, ABUSENA, a town of Vindelicia, rude people, without fixed laws or dwellings, but situated on the river Abens, and corresponding this is probably a mere rhetorical exaggeration; it nearly to the modern Abensberg. Abusina stood is clear that Varro at least regarded them as pos- near to the castern termination of the high road sessed of fortified towns, temples, oracles, &c.; and which ran from the Roman military station Vindethe native traditions of the Latins concerning Janus nissa on the Aar to the Danube. Roman walls are and Saturn indicate that they had acquired all the still extant, and Roman remains still discovered at primitive arts of civilisation before the period of the Abensberg.

(W. B. D.] supposed Trojan colony.

[E. H. B.] ABY'DUS. 1. (Aludos, Abydum, Plin. v. 32: ABORRHAS. [CHABORAS.]

Eth. 'Abuenvós, Abydenus), a city of Mysia on the ABRAUANNUS ('A6paovávvos, Ptol. i. 3. & 2), Hellespontus, nearly opposite Sestus on the Euroa river of Britannia Barbara, which discharged itself pean shore. It is mentioned as one of the towns in a little northward of the Promontorium Novantum, alliance with the Trojans. (Il. ii. 836.) Aidos or Mull of Galloway into Luce-Bay. Abravannus or Avido, a modern village on the Hellespont, may is probably the stream which flows through Loch be the site of Abydos, though the conclusion from a Ryan into the sea - Ab-Ryan, or the offspring of name is not certain. Abydus stood at the narrowest Ryanı, being easily convertible into the Roman form point of the Hellespontus, where the channel is only of the word Ab-Ryan-us-Abravannus. (W. B. D.] 7 stadia wide, and it had a small port. It was ABRETTE'NE. [Mysia.]

probably a Thracian town originally, but it became ABRINCATUI, a Gallic tribe (Plin. iv. 18), à Milesian colony. (Thuc. viii. 61.) At a point a not mentioned by Caesar, whose frontier was near little north of this town Xerxes placed his bridge of the Curiosolites. Their town Ingena, called Abrin- boats, by which his troops were conveyed across the catae in the Notitia Imperii, has given its name channel to the opposite town of Sestus, B. C. 480. to the modern Avranches ; and their territory (Herod. vii. 33.) The bridge of boats extended, would probably correspond to the division of Ar- according to Herodotus, from Abydus to a promonranchin.

[G. L.] tory on the European shore, between Sestus and ABROʻTONUM ('A@pótovov), a Phoenician city Madytus. The town possessed a small territory on the coast of N. Africa, in the district of Tripoli which contained some gold mines, but Strabo speaks tana, between the Syrtes, usually identified with of them as exhausted. It was burnt by Darius, the SABRATA, though Pliny makes them different places. son of Hystaspes, after his Scythian expedition, for (Scylax, p. 47; Strab. p. 835; Steph. B. 8. v.; Plin. fear that the Scythians, who were said to be in purV. 4.)

[P. S.] suit of him, should take possession of it (Strab. ABSY'RTIDES or APSY'RTIDES ('Ajuptides: p. 591); but it must soon have recovered from this Eth. 'Ayupreus, "Aquptos: Cherso and Osero), the calamity, for it was afterwards a town of some note; name of two islands off the coast of Illyricum, so called and Herodotus (v. 117) states that it was captured because, according to one tradition, Absyrtus was by the Persian general, Daurises, with other cities slain here by his sister Medea and by Jason. Ptolemy on the Hellespont (B. C. 498), shortly after the mentions only one island APSORRUS ("Ayoppos), on commencement of the Ionian revolt. In B. C. 411, which he places two towns Crepsa (Kpéya) and Abydus revolted from Athens and joined Dercyllidas, Apsorrus. (Strab. p. 315; Steph. Byz. 8. v.; Mel. the Spartan commander in those parts. (Thuc. ii. 7; Plin. iii. 26; Ptol. ii. 16. § 13.)

viï. 62.) Subsequently, Abydus made a vigoABUS (D'Acos) or ABA (Plin. v. 24. s. 20), a rous defence against Philip II., king of Macedonia, mountain in Armenia, forming a part of the E. before it surrendered. On the conclusion of the prolongation of the Anti-Taurus chain, and sepa war with Philip (B. C. 196), the Romans declared rating the basins of the Araxes and of the Arsanias Abydus, with other Asiatic cities, to be free. or S. branch of the Euphrates (Murad). The latter (Liv. xxxiii. 30.) The names of Abydus and of these great rivers rises on its S. side, and, ac Sestus are coupled together in the old story of cording to Strabo, the former also rises on its N. Hero and Leander, who is said to have swam side. According to this statement, the range must across the channel to visit his mistress at Sestus. be considered to begin as far W. as the neighbour The distance between Abydus and Sestus, from hood of Erzeroom, while it extends E. to the Araxes port to port, was about 30 stadia, according to S. of Artaxata. Here it terminates in the great Strabo.

[G. L.] isolated peak, 17,210 feet high, and covered with perpetual snow, which an almost uniform tradition has pointed out as the Ararat of Scripture (Gen. viii. 4), and which is still called Ararat or AgriDagh, and, by the Persians, Kuh-i-Nuh (mountain of Noah): it is situated in 39° 42' N. lat., and 44° 35' E. long. This summit forms the culminating point of W. Asia. The chain itself is called Ala-dagh. (Strab. pp. 527,531; Ptol. v. 13.) [P. S.]

ABUS ('Abos, Ptol. ii. 3. $ 6: Humber), one of the principal rivers, or rather estuaries in the Roman province of Maxima Caesariensis in Britain. It re

COIN OF ABYDUS. ceives many tributaries, and discharges itself into the

2. In ancient times termed This, in Coptic as the NW. end of the Lesser Atlas. The rock is Ebot, now Arábat el Matfoon, was the chief connected with the main range by a low and narrow town of the Nomos THINITES, and was situated tongue of land, about 3 miles long, occupied, in on the Bahr Yusuf, at a short distance from the ancient times, by a Roman fortress (Castellum ad point where that water-course strikes off from the Septem Fratres), and now by the Spanish town of Nile, being about 7 miles to the west of the river, Ceuta or Sebta, the citadel of which is on the hill in lat. 26° 10' N., long. 32° 3' E. It was one of itself. The rock of Abyla, with the opposite rock the most important cities in Egypt under the native of Calpe (Gibraltar) on the coast of Spain, formed kings, and in the Thebaid ranked next to Thebes the renowned “ Columns of Hercules" ('Hpak, elau itself. Here, according to the belief generally pre othrai, or simply othai), so called from the valent, was the burying-place of Osiris: here Menes, fable that they were originally one mountain, which the first mortal monarch, was born, and the two first was torn asunder by Hercules. (Strab. pp. 170, dynasties in Manetho are composed of Thinite mo- 829 ; Plin. iii. prooem., v. 1; Mela, ii. 6; Exnarchs. In the time of Strabo it had sunk to a ploration Scientifique de l'Algérie, tom. viii. p. mere village, but it was still in existence when 301.)

[P. S.] Ammianus Marcellinus wrote, and the seat of an ACACE'SIUM ('Akakholov: Eth. 'Akarnoios), oracle of the god Besa.

a town of Arcadia in the district of Parrhasia, at Abydus has acquired great celebrity of late years the foot of a hill of the same name, and 36 stadia in consequence of the important ruins, nearly buried on the road from Megalopolis to Phigalea. It is in sand, discovered on the ancient site, and from the said to have been founded by Acacus, son of Lycaon; numerous tombs, some of them belonging to a very and according to some traditions Hermes was brought remote epoch, which are found in the neighbouring up at this place by Acacus, and hence derived the hills. Indeed Plutarch expressly states that men surname of Acacesius. Upon the hill there was a of distinction among the Egyptians frequently se- statue in stone, in the time of Pausanias, of Hermes lected Abydus as their place of sepulture, in order Acacesius; and four stadia from the town was a that their remains might repose near those of Osiris. celebrated temple of Despoena. This temple proThe two great edifices, of which remains still bably stood on the hill, on which are now the reexist, are: -1. An extensive pile, called the Palace mains of the church of St. Elias. (Paus. viï. 3. of Memnon (Meuvóviov Bao la clov, Memnonis regia) $ 2, viii. 27. $ 4, viii. 36. § 10; Steph. Byz. 8.0.; by Strabo and Pliny; and described by the former Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 87.) as resembling the Labyrinth in general plan, although ACADEMI'A. (ATHENAE.) neither so extensive nor so complicated. It has ACADE'RA or ACADIRA, a region in the NW been proved by recent investigations that this build of India, traversed by Alexander. (Curt. viii. 10. ing was the work of a king belonging to the 18th $ 19.)

[P.S.] dynasty, Ramses II., father of Ramses the Great. AĆALANDRUS ('Akáday pos), a river of Lu. 2. A temple of Osiris, built, or at least completed cania, flowing into the gulf of Tarentum. It is menby Ramses the Great himself. In one of the lateral tioned both by Pliny and Strabo, the former of awhom apartments, Mr. Bankes discovered in 1818 the appears to place it to the north of Heraclea: but his famous list of Egyptian kings, now in the British authority is not very distinct, and Strabo, on the conMuseum, known as the Tablet of Abydos, which is trary, clearly states that it was in the territory of one of the most precious of all the Egyptian monu Thurii, on which account Alexander of Epirus sought ments hitherto brought to light. It contains a to transfer to its banks the general assembly of the double series of 26 shields of the predecessors of Italian Greeks that had been previously held at HeRamses the Great.

maclea. (HERACLEA.] Cluverius and other topoIt must be observed that the identity of Abydus graphers, following the authority of Pliny, have idenwith This cannot be demonstrated. We find fre- tified it with the Salandrella, a small river between the quent mention of the Thinite Nome, and of Abydus Basiento and Agri ; but there can be little doubt that as its chief town, but no ancient geographer names Barrio and Romanelli are correct in supposing it to This except Stephanus Byzantinus, who tells us that be a small stream, still called the Calandro, flowing it was a town of Egypt in the vicinity of Abydus. into the sea a little N. of Roseto, and about 10 miles It is perfectly clear, however, that if they were S. of the mouth of the Siris or Sinno. It was prodistinct they must have been intimately connected, bably the boundary between the territories of Heraand that Abydus must have obscured and eventually clea and Thuri. (Plin. ii. 11. $ 15; Strab. p. taken the place of This. (Strab. p. 813, seq.; Plut. 280; Cluver. Ital. p. 1277; Barrius de Ant. Calabr. Is. et 08. 18: Plin. v. 9; Ptol. iv. 5; Antonin. Itiner. / v. 20; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 244.) TE. H'B.) p. 158, ed. Wessel.; Steph. B. 3. v. Ols; Amm. ACAMAS, ACAMANTIS. [CYPRUS.] Marc. xix. 12. $ 3; Wilkinson, Topography of ACANTHUS ("Akavbos : Eth. 'Akávolos: Thebes, p. 397; Kenrick, Ancient Egypt, vol. i Erisso), a town on the E. side of the isthmus,

TW.R.) which connects the peninsula of Acte with ChalciA'BYLA, or A'BILA MONS or COLUMNA dice, and about 1. mile above the canal of Xerxes. ('Abúan or 'Agian othan, 'ASULUE, Eratosth.: [Athos.] It was founded by a colony from AnXimiera, Jebel-el-Mina, or Monte del Hacho), a dros, and became a place of considerable importance. high precipitous rock, forming the E. extremity of Xerxes stopped here on his march into Greece (B.C. the S., or African, coast of the narrow entrance from 480) and praised the inhabitants for the zeal which the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (Fretum Gadi- | they displayed in his service. Acanthus surrendered tanum or Herculeum, Straits of Gibraltar). It to Brasidas B C.424, and its independence was shortly forms an outlying spur of the range of mountains afterwards guaranteed in the treaty of peace made which runs parallel to the coast under the name of between Athens and Sparta. The Acanthians main Septem Fratres (Jebel Zatout, i. e. Ape's Hill), tained their independence against the Olynthians, and which appear to have been originally included but eventually became subject to the kings of Maceunder the name of Abyla. They may be regarded | donia. In the war between the Romans and Philip

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