« السابقةمتابعة »
under which Ptolemy includes the whole interior of Africa S. of the Equator; which he regards as belonging to Acthiopia (i. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, iv. 8, vii. 6). [P. 8.]
A'GORA ('Ayopi), a town situated about the middle of the narrow neck of the Thracian Chersonesns, and not far from Cardia, Xerxes, when invading Greece, passed through it. (Herod, vii. 58 j Scylax, p. 28; Steph. B. *. «.) [L. S.]
AGRA ('Aypa 'Apofflat, Ptol. vi. 7. § 5; Stcph. B. *. m. 'ld8punra,"Eypa), a small district of Arabia Felix, situated at the foot of Mount Hippus, on the eastern coast of the Red Sea, in lat 29 J N. (Akra). Iathrippa or Lathrippa seems to have been its principal town. [W. B. D.]
AGRAEI ('A7poIoi, Thuc. iii. 106; Strab. p. 449: 'A7po«r, Pol. xvii. 5; Stcph. Byz. *. v.), a people in the NW. of Aetolia, bounded on the W. by Acamania, from which it was separated by Mount Thyamus (Spartomnf); on the NW. by the territory of Argos Amphilochicum; and on the N. by Dolopia. Their territory was called Agrais, or Agraea QAypctts, -ISos, Thuc. iii. Ill; 'hypala, Strab. p. 338), and the river Achelous flowed through the centre of it. The Agraei were a nonHellenic people, and at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war were governed by a native king, called Salynthius, who is mentioned as an ally of the Ambraciots, when the latter were defeated by the Acarnanians and Demosthenes in B. C. 426. Two years afterwards (424) Demosthenes marched against Salynthius and the Agraei, and compelled them to join the Athenian alliance. Subsequently they became subject to the Aetolians, and are called an Aetolian people by Strabo. (Thuc. ii. 102, iii. 106, 114, iv. 77; Strab. p. 449; Pol. xvii. 5; Liv. xxxii. 34.) This people is mentioned by Cicero (m PUon. 37), under the name of Agrinae, which is perhaps a corrupt form. Strabo (p. 338) mentions a village called Ephyra in their country; and Agriinum would also appear from its name to have been one of their towns. [Er-HYKA; Aorinium.] The Aperanti were perhaps a tribe of the Agraei. [apekantia.] Tho Agraei were a different people from the Agrianes, who lived on the borders of Macedonia. [agkianes.]
AGRAEI I'Aypcuot, Ptol. v. 19. §2; Eratosth. op. Strab. p. 767), a tribe of Arabs situated near the main road which led from the head of the Red Sea to the Euphrates. They bordered on the Nabatliaean Arabs, if they were not indeed a portion of that race. According to Hieronymus (Quaest. in Gen. 25), the Agraei inhabited the district which the Hebrews designated as Midion. Pliny (v. 11. s. 12) places the Agraei much further westward in the vicinity of the Lacnitae and the eastern shore of the Red Sea. [W.B.D.]
AGRAULE or AGRYLE. [attica.]
AGRI DECUMA'TES or DECUMA'XI (from ilecuma, tithe), tithe lands, a name given by the Romans to the country E. of tho Rhine and N. of the Danube, which they took possession of on the withdrawal of the Germans to the E., and which they gave to the immigrating Gauls and subject Germans, and subsequently to their own veterans, on tho payment of a tenth of the produce. Towards the end of the first or the beginning of the second century after Christ, the country became part of the adjoining Roman province of Rhactia, and was thus incorporated with the empire. (Tacit. Germ. 29.) Its boundary
towards t he free part of Germany was protected partly by a wall (from Ratisbon to Lorch), and partly by a mound (from Lorch to tho Rhine, in the neighbourhood of Cologne) and Roman garrisons. The protection of those districts against the ever renewed attacks of the Germans required a considerable military force, and this gave rise to a number of towns and military roads, of which many traces still exi*L But still the Romans were unable to maintain themselves, and the part which was lost first seems to have been the country about the river Maine afid Mount Taunus. The southern portion was probably lost soon after the death of tho emperor Probus (a.d 283), when the Alcmanni took possession of h. The latest of the Roman inscriptions found in that country belongs to the reign of Gallienus (a. D. 260 —268). (Comp. Leichtlen, Schwaben unter dtn Romern, Freiburg, 1825, 8vo.) The towns in the Decumates Agri were Ambiatinus vicus, Ausum, Divitia, Gesonia, Victoria, Bibcraa, Aquae Mattiaeae. Munimentum Trajani, Artaunum, Triburiuni, Bragodurum or Bragodunum, Budoris, Carithni, and others. Comp. Riiaetia. [L. S.]
AGRIA'NES ('Aypidvyjs: Ergina), a small river in Thrace, and one of the tributaries of the Hebrus. (Herod, iv. 89.) It flows from Mount Hieron in a NW. direction, till it joins the Hebrus. Some have supposed it to be the same as the Erigon, which, however, is impossible, the latter being a tributary of the Axius. [L. S.]
AGRIA'NES ('A7pioi'es), a Paeonian people, dwelling near the sources of the Strymon. They formed excellent light-armed troops, and are frequently mentioned in the campaigns of Alexander the Great. (Strab. p. 331; Herod, v. 16; Thuc. ii. 96; Arrian, Anab. i. 1. § 11, i. 5. § 1, et alib.)
AGRIGENTUM (AitodTaj*: Eth. and Adj. 'AKpayayrwos, Agrigcntinus: Girgenti), one of the most powerful and celebrated of the Greek cities in Sicily, was situated on the SW. coast of the island, about midway between Selinus and Gela. It stood on a hill between two and three miles from the sea, tho foot of which was washed on the E. and S. by a river named the Achagas, from whence the city itself derived its appellation, on the W. and SW. by another stream named the Iivpsas, which unites its waters with those of the Acragas just below the city, and about a mile from its mouth. The former is now called the Fiume di S. Biagio, the latter the Drago, while their united stream is commonly known as tho Fiume di Girgenti (Polyb. ix. 27; Siefcrt, Akragat u. sei'n Gebiet, p. 20—22).
We learn from Thucydidcs that Agrigcntum was founded by a colony from Gela, 108 years after the establishment of the parent city, or B. c. 582. Tho leaders of tho colony were Aristonous and Pystilus, and it received the Dorian institutions of the mother country, including the sacred rites and observances which had been derived by Gela itself from Rhodes. On this account it is sometimes called a Rhodian colony. (Thuc. vL 4; Scymn. Ch. 292; Strab. vi. p. 272,where Kramer justlyrcads rt\tiav for 'liirter; Polyb. ix. 27. Concerning the date of its foundation see Scbol. ad Pind. 01. ii. 66; and Clinton, F. JI. vol. ii. p. 265.) We have very little information concerning its early history, but it appears to have very rapidly risen to great prosperity and power:
* The form Acraoas or Agbaoas in Latin is found only in tho Roman poets. (Virg. Aen. iii 703; Sil. Ital. xiv. 210.)
though it preserved its liberty for but a very short ]«riod before it fell under the yoke of Pbalaris (about 570 B. a). The history of that despot is involved in so much uncertainty that it is difficult to know what part of it can be depended on as really historical. [Diet, of Biogr. art Phaiaris, vol. hi.] But it seems certain that he raised Agrigentum to be one of the most powerful cities in Sicily, and extended his dominion by force of arms over a considerable part of the island. But the cruel and tyrannical character of his internal government at length provoked a general insurrection, in which Phaiaris himself perished, and the Agrigentines recovered their liberty. (Died. 7:arc. Vat. p. 25; Cic. de Of. ii. 7; Heraclides, Polit. 37.) From this period till the accession of Theron, an interval of about 60 y« ars, we have no information concerning Agrigentum, except a casual notice that it was successively governed by Alcamenes and Alcandrus (but whether as despots or chief magistrates does not appear), and that it rose to great wealth and prosperity under their rule. (Heraclid. I c.) The precise date when Theron attained to the sovereignty of Ins native city, as well as the steps by which he rose to power, are unknown to us: but he appears to have become despot of Agrigentum as early as B. C. 488. (l)iod. xi. 53.) By his alliance with Gelon of .Syracuse, and still more by the expulsion of Terillus from Himera, and the annexation of that city to his dominions, Theron extended as well as confirmed liis power, and tho great Carthaginian invasion in B. c. 480, which for a time threatened destruction to all the Greek cities in Sicily, ultimately became a source of increased prosperity to Agrigentum. For after the great victory of Gelon and Theron at Himera, a vast number of Carthaginian prisoners fell into the hands of the Agrigentines, and were employed by them partly in the cultivation of their extensive and fertile territory, partly in the construction of public works in the city itself, the magnificence of which was long afterwards a subject of admiration. (Diod. xi. 25.) Nor does the government of Theron appear to have been oppressive, and he continued in the undisturbed possession of the sovereign power till his death, B. C. 472. His son Thrasydaeus on the contrary quickly alienated his subjects by his violent and arbitrary conduct, and was expelled from Agrigentum within a year after his father's death. (Id. xi. 53. For further details concerning the history of Agrigentum during this period, see the articles Tiikuon and ThrasyDaeus in the Diet, of Biogr. vol. iii.)
The Agrigentines now established a democratic form of government, which they retained without interruption for the space of above 60 years, until the Carthaginian invasion in B.C. 406 — a period which may be regarded as the most prosperous and nourishing in the history of Agrigentum, as well as cf many others of the Sicilian cities. The great public.works which were commenced or completed during this interval were the wonder of succeeding ages; the city itself was adorned with buildings both public and private, inferior to none in Greece, and the wealth and magnificence of its inhabitants became almost proverbial. Their own citizen Empedocles is said to have remarked that they built their houses as if they were to live for ever, but gave themselves up to luxury as if they were to die on the morrow. (Diog. Laert. viii. 2. § 63.)
The number of citizens of Agrigentum at this time is stated by Diodorus at 20,000: but he csti
mates the whole population (including probably slaves as well as strangers) at not less than 200,000 (Diod. xiii. 84 and 90), a statement by no means improbable, while that of Diogenes Laertius (/. c.)( who makes the population of the city alone amount to 800,000, is certainly a gross exaggeration.
This period was however by no means one of unbroken peace. Agrigentum could not avoid participating—though in a less degree than many other cities—in the troubles consequent on the expulsion . of the Gelonian dynasty from Syracuse, and the revolutions that followed in different parts of Sicily. Shortly afterwards we find it engaged in hostilities with the Siccl chief Ducetius, and the conduct of the Syracusans towards that chieftain led to a war between them and the Agrigentines, which ended in a great defeat of the latter at the river Himera, B. c. 446. (Diod. xi. 76, 91,xii.8.) We find also obscure notices of internal dissensions, which were allayed by the wisdom and moderation of Empedoclcs. (Diog. Laert. viii. 2. § 64—67.) On occasion of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily in B. c. 415, Agrigentum maintained a strict neutrality, and not only declined sending auxiliaries to either party but refused to allow a passage through their territory to those of other cities. And even when the tide of fortune had turned decidedly against the Athenians, all the efforts of the Syracusan partisans within the walls of Agrigentum failed in inducing their fellowcitizens to declare for the victorious party. (Time, vii. 32, 33, 46, 50, 58.)
A more formidable danger was at hand. Tho Carthaginians, whose intervention was invoked by the Segestans, were contented intheirfirst expedition (b. C. 409) with the capture of Selinus and Himera: but when the second was sent in B. C. 406 it was Agrigentum that was destined to bear tho first brunt of the attack. The luxurious habits of the Agrigentines had probably rendered them little fit for warfare, but they were supported by a body of mercenaries under the command of a Lacedaemonian named Dexippus, who occupied the citadel, and the natural strength of the city in great measure defied the efforts of the assailants. But notwithstanding these advantages and the efficient aid rendered them by a Syracusan army under Daphnaeus, they were reduced to such distress by famine that after a siege of eight months they found it impossible to hold out longer, and to avoid surrendering to the enemy, abandoned their city, and migrated to Gela. The sick and helpless inhabitants were massacred, and the city itself with all its wealth and magnificence plundered by the Carthaginians, who occupied it as their quarters during the winter, but completed its destruction when they quitted it in the spring, B.C.405. (Diod. xiii. 80—91, 108; Xcn. Hell. i. 5. § 21.)
Agrigentum never recovered from this fatal blow, though by the terms of the peace concluded with Dionysius by the Carthaginians, the fugitive inhabitants were permitted to return, and to occupy the ruined city, subject however to the Carthaginian rule, and on condition of not restoring the fortifications, a permission of which many appear to have availed themselves. (Diod. xiii. 114.) A few years later they were even able to shake off the yoke of Carthage and attach themselves to the cause of Dionysius, and the peace of B. C. 383, which fixed the river Halycus as the boundary of the Carthaginian dominions, must have left them in the enjoyment of their liberty; but though we find them re pcatcdly mentioned during the wars of Dionyaus and his successors, it is evident that Uic city was far from having recovered its previous importance, and continued to play but a subordinate part. (Diod. xiv. 46,88, xv. 17, xvi. 9 ; Plut. Dion, 25, 26, 49.) In the general settlement of the affairs of Sicily by Timoleon, after his great victory over the Carthaginians on the Crimissus, B. C. 340, he found Agrigentum in a state of such depression that he resolved to rccolonise it with citizens from Velia in Italy (Plut. Timol. 35.): a measure which, combined with other benefits, proved of such advantage to the city, that Timoleon was looked upon as their second founder: and during the interval of peace which followed, Agrigentum again attained to such great prosperity as to become once more the rival of Syracuse.
Shortly after the accession of Agathocles, the Agrigentines, becoming apprehensive that he was aspiring to the dominion of the whole island, entered into a league with the Geloans and Messenians to oppose his power, and obtained from Sparta the assistance of Acrotatus the son of Cleomcnes as their general: but the character of that prince frustrated all their plans, and after his expulsion tbey were compelled to purchase peace from Syracuse by the acknowledgement of the Hegemony or supremacy of that city, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 70,71.) Some years afterwards, in B. c. 309, the absence of Agathocles in Africa, and the reverses sustained by his partisans in Sicily, appeared again to offer a favourable opening to the ambition of the Agrigentines, who chose Xenodocus for their general, and openly aspired to the Hegemony of Sicily, proclaiming at the same lime the independence of the several cities. They were at first very successful: the powerful cities of Gela and Enna joined their cause, Herbessus and Echetla were taken by force; but when Xenodocus ventured on a pitched battle with Leptincs and Demophilus, the generals of Agathocles, he sustained a severe defeat, and was compelled to shut himself up within the walls of Agrigentum. Agathocles himself shortly afterwards returned from Africa, and quickly recovered almost all that ho had lost: his general Leptincs invaded the territory of Agrigentum, totally defeated Xenodocus, and compelled the Agrigentines once more to sue for peace. (Diod. xx. 31, 32, 56, 62.)
After the death of Agathocles, Agrigentum fell under the yoke of Phintias, who became despot of the city, and assumed the title of king. We have very little information concerning the period of his rule, but he appears to have attained to great power, as we find Agyrium and other cities of the interior subject to his dominion, as well as Gela, which he destroyed, in order to found a new city named after himself. [gela. J The period of his expulsion is unknown, but at the time when Pyrrhus landed in Sicily we find Agrigentum occupied by Sosistratus with a strong force of mercenary troops, who however hastened to make his submission to the king of Epeirus. (Diod. xxii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 495—497.)
On the commencement of the First Punic War, Agrigentum espoused the cause of the Carthaginians, and even permitted their general Hannibal to fortify their citadel, and occupy the city with a Carthaginian garrison. Henco after the Romans had secured the alliance of Hicron of Syracuse, their princijial efforts were directed to the reduction of Agrigentum, and in B. c. 262 the two consuls L. Postumius and Q. Mamilius laid siege to it with their whole force. The siege lasted nearly as long
as that by the Carthaginians in B. c. 406, and the Romans suffered severely from disease and want d provisions, but the privations of the besieged were still greater, and the Carthaginian general Han no, who had advanced with a large army to relieve the city, having been totally defeated by the Roman consuls, Hannibal who commanded the army within the walls found it impossible to hold out any longer, and made his escape in the night with the Carthaginian and mercenary troops, leaving the city to its fate. It was immediately occupied by the Romans who carried off 25,000 of the inhabitants into slavery. The siege had lasted above seven months, and is said to have cost the victorious army more than 30,000 men. (Diod. xxiii. Exc. Hoesck. p. 501 —503; Polyb. i. 17—19; Zonar. viii. 10.) At a later period of the war (b. C. 255) successive losses at sea having greatly weakened the Roman power in Sicily, the Carthaginian general Carthalo recovered possession of Agrigentum with comparatively htile difficulty, when he once more laid the city in ashes and razed its walls, the surviving inhabitants having taken refuge in the temple of the Olympian Zeus. (Diod. /. c. p. 505.)
From this time we hear no more of Agrigentum till the end of the First Punic War, when it passed under the dominion of Rome: but it must have in some degree recovered from its late calamities, as it plays no unimportant part when the contest between Rome and Carthage was renewed in the Second Punic War. On tins occasion it continued steadfast in its adherence to the Romans, but was surprised and taken by Himilco, before Marcellus could arrive to its support (Liv. xxiv. 35.): and from henceforth became the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in Sicily, and held out against tile Roman consul Laevinus long after the other cities in the island had submitted. At length the Numidian Murines, to whose courage and skill the Carthaginians owed their protracted defence, having been offended by their general Hanno, betrayed tho city into the hands of Laevinus, B. c. 210. The leading citizens were put to death, and the rest sold as slaves. (Liv. xxv. 40, 41, xxvi. 40.)
Agrigentum now became, in common with the rest of the Sicilian cities, permanently subject to Rome: but it was treated with much favour and enjoyed many privileges. Three years after its capt ure a number of new citizens from other parts of Sicily were established there by the praetor Mamilius, and two years after this the municipal rights and privileges of tho citizens were determined by Scipio Africanus in a manner so satisfactory that they continued unaltered till the time of Verres. Cicero repeatedly mentions Agrigentum as one of the most wealthy and populous cities of Sicily, tho fertility of its territory and the convenience of its port rendering it one of the chief emporiums for the trade in corn. (Cic. Verr. U. 50, 62, iii. 43, iv. 33, 43.) It is certain, however, that it did not in his day rank as a Roman colony, and it is very doubtful whether it ever attained this distinction, though we find that it was allowed to strike coins, with the Latin inscription Agkigentum, as late as tho time of Augustus. (Eckhel, D. N. vol. i. p. 193.)* If it really obtained the title and privileges of a colony under that emperor, it must have soon lost them, as neither Pliny
* Mommsen (Das Romuche Mum- Wesen, p. 237) considers Agrigentum to have been on the footing of a Colonia Latina, like Ncmausus in Gaul.
nor Ptolemy reckon it among the Roman colonies in Sicily. From the time of Augustus we find no historical mention of it under the Roman empire, but its continued existence is attested by the geographers and Itineraries, and as long as Sicily remained subject to the Greek empire, Agrigentum is still mentioned as one of its most considerable cities, (Strab. vi. p. 272; Plin. H. N. hi. 8. § 14; Ptol. hi. 4. § 14; Itin. Ant p. 88; Tab. Pent.; Const. Porph. de Prov. ii. 10.) It was one of the first places that fell into the hands of the Saracens on their invasion of Sicily in 827, and was wrested from them by the Normans under Roger Guiscard in 1086. The modern city of Girgenti still contains about 13,000 inhabitants, and is the see of a bishop, and capital of one of the seven districts or Intendenze into which Sicily is now divided.
The situation of Agrigentum is well described by Polybius (ix. 27). It occupied a hill of considerable extent, rising between two small rivers, the Acragas and Hypsas, of which the southern front, though of small elevation, presented a steep escarpment, running nearly in a straight line from E. to W. From hence the ground sloped gradually upwards, though traversed by a cross valley or depression, towards a much more elevated ridge which formed the northern portion of the city, and was divided into two summits, the north-western, on which stands the modern city of Girgenti, and the north-eastern, which derived from a temple of Athena, that crowned its height, the name of the Athenacan hill (A 'A&nvdio! \64p01, Diod. xiii, 85). This summit, which attains to tho height of 1200 feet above the sea, and is the most elevated of the whole city, is completely precipitous and inaccessible towards the N. and E., and could be approached only by one steep and narrow path from the city itself. Hence, it formed the natural citadel or acropolis of Agrigentum, while the gentle slopes and broad valley which separate it from the southern ridge,—now covered with gardens and fruit-trees,—afforded ample space for the extension and development of the city itself. Great as was the natural strength of its position, the whole city was surrounded with walls, of which considerable portions still remain, especially along the southern front: their whole circuit was about 6 miles. The peculiarities of its situation sufficiently explain the circumstances of the two great sieges of Agrigentum, in both of which it will be observed that the assailants confined all their attacks to the southern and south-western parts of the city, wholly neglecting the north and east. Diodorus, indeed, expressly tells us that there was only one quarter (that adjoining the river Hypsas) where the walls could be approached by military engines, and assaulted with any prospect of success. (Died. xiii. 85.)
Agrigentum was not less celebrated in ancient times for the beauty of its architecture, and the splendour and variety of its buildings, both public and private, than for its strength as a fortress. Pindar calls it11 the fairest of mortal cities" (koxXi'oro (SpoTiuv *o\iav, Pyth. xii. 2), though many of its most striking ornaments were probably not erected till after his time. The magnificence of the private dwellings of the Agrigentines is sufficiently attested by the saying of Empedocles already cited: their public edifices are the theme of admiration with many ancient writers. Of its temples, probably the most ancient were that of Zeus Atabyrios, whose worship they derived from Rhodes, and that of Athena, both of which stood on the highest
summit of the Athenaean hill above the city. (Polyb. /. c.) The temple of Zeus Polieus, the construction of which is ascribed to Phalaris (Polyaen. y. 1. § 1), is supposed to have stood on the hill occupied by the modem city of Girgenti, which appears to have formed a second citadel or acropolis, in some measure detached from the more lofty summit to the east of it. Some fragments of ancient walls, still existing in those of the chnrch of Sta Maria de' Grtci, are considered to have belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated than these was the great temple of the Olympian Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, but was not quite finished at the time of the Carthaginian invasion in B. C. 406, and in consequence of that calamity was never completed. It is described in considerable detail by Diodorus, who tells us that it was 340 feet long, 160 broad, and 120 in height, without reckoning the basement. Tile columns were not detached, but engaged in the wall, from which only half of their dreumference projected: so gigantic were their dimensions, that each of the flutings would admit a man's bodv. (Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) Of this vast edifice nothing remains hut the basement, and a few fragments of the columns and entablature, but even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the temple must not only have greatly exceeded all others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, except that of Diana at Ephesus. A considerable portion of it (including several columns, and three gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to support an entablature), appears to have remained standing till the year 1401, when it fell down: and the vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently employed in the construction of the mole, which protects the present port of Girgenti. (Fazell. vol. i. p. 248; Smyth's Sicily, p. 203.)
Besides these, we find mention in ancient writers of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing a statue of that deity of singular beauty and excellence (Cic. Verr. iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius without the walls, on the south side of the city (Cic. L c.; Polyb. i. 1,8), the remains of which aro still visible, not far from the bank of the river Acragas. It contained a celebrated statue of Apollo, in bronze, the work of Myron, which Verres in vain endeavoured to carry off. Of the other temples, the ruins of which are extant on the site of Agrigentum, and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the ancient appellations cannot be determined with any certainty. The most conspicuous arc two which stand on the southern ridge facing the sea: one of these at the S. E. angle of the city, is commonly known as the temple of Juno Lacinia, a name which rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny (if7. A', xxxv. 9. § 36): it is in a half ruined state, but its basement is complete, and many of its columns still standing. Its position on the projecting angle of the ridge, with a precipitous bank below it on two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and striking character. A few hundred paCes to the W. of this stands another temple, in far better preservation, being indeed the most perfect which remains in Sicily; it is commonly called the temple of Concord, from an inscription said to have been discovered there, but which (if authentic) is of Roman date, while both this temple and that just described must certainly be referred to the most flourishing period of Agrigentinc history, or the fifth century B. C. Thoy are both of the Doric order, and of much the same dimensions: both are peripteral, or surrounded with a portico, consisting of 6 columns in front, and 13 on each side. The existing vestiges of other temples are mucl. less considerable: one to the W. of that of Concord, of which only one column is standing, is commonly regarded as that of Hercules, mentioned by Cicero. Its plan and design have been completely ascertained by recent excavations, which have proved that it was much the largest of those remaining at Agrigentum, after that of the Olympian Zeus: it had 15 columns in the side and 6 in front. Another, a little to the north of it,
of which considerable portions have been preserved, and brought to light by excavation on the spat, bears the name, though certainly without authority, of Castor and Pollux: while another, on the opposite side of a deep hollow or ravine, of which two columns remain, is styled that of Vulcan. A small temple or aedictda, near the convent of S. Nicolo, is commonly known by the designation of the Oratory of Phalaris: it is of insignificant size, and certainly of Roman date. The church of St Mast, or S. Biagio, near the eastern extremity of the Athenaeau hill, is formed out of the cella of an ancient temple, which is supposed, but without any authority, to have beea dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For full details concerning these temples, and the other ruins still