« السابقةمتابعة »
under which Ptolemy includes the whole interior of towards the free part of Germany was protected partly Africa S. of the Equator; which he regards as be- by a wall (from Ratisbon to Lorch), and partly by a longing to Aethiopia (i. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, iv. 8, vii. mound (from Lorch to the Rhine, in the neighbour5).
[P. S.] hood of Cologne) and Roman garrisons. The proAGORA ('Ayopá), a town situated about the tection of those districts against the ever renewed middle of the narrow neck of the Thracian Cherso- | attacks of the Germans required a considerable milinesus, and not far from Cardia. Xerxes, when in- tary force, and this gave rise to a number of towns vading Greece, passed through it. (Herod. vii. 58; and military roads, of which many traces still exist. Scylax, p. 28; Steph, B. 8. v.)
L. S.) But still the Romans were unable to maintain themAGRA ('Aypa 'Apallas, Ptol. vi. 7. $5; Steph. selves, and the part which was lost first seems to B. s. vv. 'IdOputina, "Eypa), a small district of Arabia have been the country about the river Maine and Felix, situated at the foot of Mount Hippus, on the Mount Taunus. The southern portion was probably eastern coast of the Red Sea, in lat. 29. N. (Akra). lost soon after the death of the emperor Probus lath rippa or Lathrippa seems to have been its prin- (A.D 283), when the Alemanni took possession of it. cipal town.
(W. B. D.] The latest of the Roman inscriptions found in that AGRAE. [Attica.]
country belongs to the reign of Gallienus (A. D. 260 AGRAEI ("Aypaiol, Thuc. ii. 106; Strab. p.–268). (Comp. Leichtlen, Schwaben unter den 449: 'Aypaeis, Pol. xvii. 5; Steph. Byz. 8. v.), a Römern, Freiburg, 1825, 8vo.) The towns in the people in the NW. of Aetolia, bounded on the W. Decumates Agri were Ambiatinus vicns, ALISUM, by Acarnania, from which it was separated by Divitia, Gesonia, Victoria, Biberna, Aquae Mattiacae, Mount Thyamus (Spartovuni); on the NW. by the Munimentum Trajani, Artaunum, Triburium, Braterritory of Argos Amphilochicum; and on the godurum or Bragodunum, Budoris, Carithni, and N. by Dolopia. Their territory was called Agrais, others. Comp. RHAETIA. or Agraea (Aypaís, -ídos, Thuc. ii. 111; 'Aypala, AGRIA'NES ('Aypiávns: Ergina), a small river Strab. p. 338), and the river Achelous flowed in Thrace, and one of the tributaries of the Hebrus. through the centre of it. The Agraei were a non- (Herod. iv. 89.) It flows from Mount Hieron in a Hellenic people, and at the commencement of the NW, direction, till it joins the Hebrus. Some lave Peloponnesian war were governed by a native king, supposed it to be the same as the Erigon, which, called Salynthius, who is mentioned as an ally of the however, is impossible, the latter being a tributary Ambraciots, when the latter were defeated by the of the Axius.
(L. S.] Acarnanians and Demosthenes in B.C. 426. Two AGRIA’NES ('Aypaves), a Paeonian people, years afterwards (424) Demosthenes marched against | dwelling near the sources of the Strymon. They Salynthius and the Agraei, and compelled them to formed excellent light-armed troops, and are frejoin the Athenian alliance, Subsequently they be- quently mentioned in the campaigns of Alexander came subject to the Aetolians, and are called an the Great. (Strab. p. 331; Herod. y. 16; Thuc. ii. Aetolian people by Strabo. (Thuc. ï. 102, iii. 106, 96; Arrian, Anab. i. 1. $ 11, i. 5. & 1, et alib.) 114, iv. 77; Strab. p. 449; Pol. xvii. 5; Liv. ' AGRIGENTUM ('Akpájas * Eth, and Adj. xxxii. 34.) This people is mentioned by Cicero l 'Axpayavtivos, Agrigentinus: Girgenti), one of (in Pison. 37), under the name of Agrinae, which the most powerful and celebrated of the Greek cities is perhaps a corrupt forin. Strabo (p. 338) mentions in Sicily, was situated on the SW, coast of the a village called Ephyra in their country; and Agri- island, about midway between Selinus and Gela. nium would also appear from its name to have been It stood on a hill between two and three miles from one of their towns. [EPHYRA; AGRINIUM.] The the sea, the foot of which was washed on the E. Aperanti were perhaps a tribe of the Agraei. / and S. by a river named the ACRAGAS, from whence SAPERANTIA.] The Agraei were a different people the city itself derived its appellation, on the W. from the Agrianes, who lived on the borders of) and SW. by another stream named the lyPSAS, Macedonia. [AGRIANES.]
which unites its waters with those of the Acragas AGRAEI ( Aypaios, Ptol. v. 19. § 2; Eratosth. just below the city, and about a mile from its mouthi. an. Strab. p. 767), a tribe of Arabs situated near the The former is now called the Fiume di S. Biagio, main road which led from the head of the Red Sea the latter the Drago, while their united stream is to the Euphrates. They bordered on the Naba- commonly known as the Fiume di Girgenti (Polyb. thaean Arabs, if they were not indeed a portion of ix, 27; Siefert, Akragas u. sein Gebiet, p. 20-22). that race. According to Hieronymus (Quaest. in' We learn from Thucydides that Agrigentum was Gen. 25), the Agraei inhabited the district which founded by a colony from Gela, 108 years after the the Hebrews designated as Midian. Pliny (v. 11. establishment of the parent city, or B. c. 582. The s. 12) places the Agraei much further westward in leaders of the colony were Aristonous and Pystilas, the vicinity of the Laenitae and the eastern shore of and it received the Dorian institutions of the mother the Red Sea.
[W.B.D.] country, including the sacred rites and observances AGRAULE or AGRYLE. ATTICA.]
which had been derived by Gela itself from Rhodes. AGRI DECUMANTES or DECUMANI (from On this account it is sometimes called a Rhodian decuma, tithe), tithe lands, a name given by the colony. (Thuc. vi. 4; Scymn. Ch. 292; Strab. vi. Romans to the country E. of the Rhine and N. of p. 272, where Kramer justly reads relawy for 'luvw; the Danube, which they took possession of on the Polyb. ix. 27. Concerning the date of its foundawithdrawal of the Germans to the E., and which they tion see Schol. ad Pind. Ol. ï. 66; and Clinton, F.H. gave to the immigrating Gauls and subject Germans, vol. ii. p. 265.) We have very little information and subsequently to their own veterans, on the pay- concerning its early history, but it appears to have ment of a tenth of the produce. Towards the end of very rapidly risen to great prosperity and power: the first or the beginning of the second century after Christ, the country became part of the adjoining * The form ACRAGAS or Agragas in Latin 18 Roman province of Rhaetia, and was thus incorporated | found only in the Roman poets. (Virg. Aen. Ju with the empire. (Tacit. Germ. 29.) Its boundary | 703; Sil. Ital. xiv. 210.)
though it preserved its liberty for but a very short | matcs the whole population (including probably period before it fell under the yoke of Phalaris (about slaves as well as strangers) at not less than 200,000 570 B. C.). The history of that despot is involved (Diod. xiii. 84 and 90), a statement by no means in so much uncertainty that it is difficult to know improbable, while that of Diogenes Laertius (l. c.), what part of it can be depended on as really his- who makes the population of the city alone amount torical. [Dict. of Biogr. art. PHALARIS, vol. ij.] to 800,000, is certainly a gross exaggeration. But it seems certain that he raised Agrigentum to | This period was however by no means one of unbe one of the most powerful cities in Sicily, and ex- | broken peace. Agrigentum could not avoid partitended his dominion by force of arms over a con cipating — though in a less degree than many other siderable part of the island. But the cruel and cities in the troubles consequent on the expulsion tyrannical character of his internal government at of the Gelonian dynasty from Syracuse, and the length provoked a general insurrection, in which revolutions that followed in different parts of Sicily. Phalaris himself perished, and the Agrigen:incs re- Shortly afterwards we find it engaged in hostilities covered their liberty. (Dicd. Exc. Vat. p. 25; Cic. with the Sicel chief Ducetius, and the conduct of de Off. i. 7; Heraclides, Polit. 37.) From this the Syracusans towards that chieftain led to a war period till the accession of Theron, an interval of between them and the Agrigentines, which ended in about 60 years, we have no information concerning a great defeat of the latter at the river Himera, Agrigentum, except a casual notice that it was suc- B. C. 446. (Diod. xi. 76, 91, xii. 8.) We find also cessively governed by Alcamenes and Alcandrus (but obscure notices of internal dissensions, which were whether as despots or chief magistrates does not allayed by the wisdom and moderation of Empedocles. appear), and that it rose to great wealth and pros- (Diog. Laert. viii. 2. $ 64-67.) On occasion of the perity under their rule. (Heraclid. I. c.) The great Athenian expedition to Sicily in B. C. 415, precise date when Theron attained to the sovereignty Agrigentum maintained a strict neutrality, and not of his native city, as well as the steps by which he only declined sending auxiliaries to either party but rose to power, are unknown to us: but he appears to refused to allow a passage through their territory to have become despot of Agrigentum as early as B. C. those of other cities. And even when the tide of 488. (Diod. xi. 53.) By his alliance with Gelon of fortune had turned decidedly against the Athenians, Syracuse, and still more by the expulsion of Terillus all the efforts of the Syracusan partisans within the from Himera, and the annexation of that city to his walls of Agrigentum failed in inducing their fellowdominions, Theron extended as well as confirmed citizens to declare for the victorious party. (Thuc. his power, and the great Carthaginian invasion in vii. 32, 33, 46, 50, 58.) B. c. 480, which for a time threatened destruction A more formidable danger was at hand. The to all the Greek cities in Sicily, ultimately became | Carthaginians, whose intervention was invoked by a source of increased prosperity to Agrigentum. For the Segestans, were contented in their first expedition after the great victory of Gelon and Theron at Hi-(B. C. 409) with the capture of Selinus and Himera: mera, a vast number of Carthaginian prisoners fell | but when the second was sent in B. C. 406 it was into the hands of the Agrigentines, and were em- | Agrigentum that was destined to bear the first brunt ployed by them partly in the cultivation of their of the attack. The luxurious habits of the Agriextensive and fertile territory, partly in the con- gentines had probably rendered them little fit for struction of public works in the city itself, the warfare, but they were supported by a body of mermagnificence of which was long afterwards a subject cenaries under the command of a Lacedaemonian of admiration. (Diod. xi. 25.) Nor does the go- named Dexippus, who occupied the citadel, and the vernment of Theron appear to have been oppressive, natural strength of the city in great measure defied and he continued in the undisturbed possession of the efforts of the assailants. But notwithstanding the sovereign power till his death, B. C. 472. His these advantages and the efficient aid rendered them son Thrasydaeus on the contrary quickly alienated by a Syracusan army under Daphnaeus, they were his subjects by his violent and arbitrary conduct, reduced to such distress by famine that after a siege and was expelled from Agrigentum within a year of eight months they found it impossible to hold out after his father's death. (Id. xi. 53. For further longer, and to avoid surrendering to the enemy, details concerning the history of Agrigentum during abandoned their city, and migrated to Gela. The this period, see the articles TIERON and THRASY- sick and helpless inhabitants were massacred, and DAEUs in the Dict. of Biogr. vol. iii.)
the city itself with all its wealth and magnificence The Agrigentines now established a democratic plundered by the Carthaginians, who occupied it as form of government, which they retained without their quarters during the winter, but completed its deinterruption for the space of above 60 years, until struction when they quitted it in the spring, B.c. 405. the Carthaginian invasion in B. C. 406 — a period (Diod. xiii. 80–91, 108; Xen. Hell. i. 5. $ 21.) which may be regarded as the most prosperous and Agrigentum never recovered from this fatal blow, flourishing in the history of Agrigentum, as well as though by the terms of the peace concluded with of many others of the Sicilian cities. The great Dionysius by the Carthaginians, the fugitive inhapublic, works which were commenced or completed bitants were permitted to return, and to occupy the during this interval were the wonder of succeeding ruined city, subject however to the Carthaginian ages; the city itself was adorned with buildings rule, and on condition of not restoring the fortificaboth public and private, inferior to none in Greece, tions, a permission of which many appear to have and the wealth and magnificence of its inhabitants availed themselves. (Diod. xii. 114.) A few years became almost proverbial. Their own citizen Em- later they were even able to shake off the yoke of pedocles is said to have remarked that they built Carthage and attach themselves to the cause of their houses as if they were to live for ever, but gave Dionysius, and the peace of B. C. 383, which fixed themselves up to luxury as if they were to die on the river Halycus as the boundary of the Carthathe morrow. (Diog. Laert, viii. 2. § 63.)
ginian dominions, must have left them in the enjoy. The number of citizens of Agrigentum at this ment of their liberty; but though we find them re. time is stated by Diodorus at 20,000: but he esti- | peatedly mentioned during the wars of Dionysius
and his successors, it is evident that the city was | as that by the Carthaginians in B. C. 406, and the far from having recovered its previous importance, Romans suffered severely from disease and want of and continued to play but a subordinate part. (Diod. provisions, but the privations of the besieged were xiv. 46, 88, xv. 17, xvi. 9 ; Plut. Dion, 25, 26, 49.) still greater, and the Carthaginian general Hanno, In the general settlement of the affairs of Sicily by who had advanced with a large army to relieve the Timoleon, after his great victory over the Cartha- city, having been totally defeated by the Ronan ginians on the Crimissus, B. C. 340, he found consuls, Hannibal who commanded the army within Agrigentum in a state of such depression that he the walls found it impossible to hold out any longer, resolved to recolonise it with citizens from Velia in and made his escape in the night with the CarthaItaly (Plut. Timol. 35.): a measure which, combined ginian and mercenary troops, leaving the city to its with other benefits, proved of such advantage to the fate. It was immediately occupied by the Romans city, that Timoleon was looked upon as their second who carried off 25,000 of the inhabitants into slafounder: and during the interval of peace which fola very. The siege had lasted above seven months, lowed, Agrigentum again attained to such great and is said to have cost the victorious army more prosperity as to become once more the rival of than 30,000 men. (Diod. xxii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 501 Syracuse.
--503; Polyb. i. 17--19; Zonar. viii. 10.) At a Shortly after the accession of Agathocles, the later period of the war (B. C. 255) successive losses Agrigentines, becoming apprehensive that he was at sea having greatly weakened the Roman power in aspiring to the dominion of the whole island, entered Sicily, the Carthaginian general Carthalo recovered into a league with the Geloans and Messenians to possession of Agrigentumn with comparatively little oppose his power, and obtained from Sparta the difficulty, when he once more laid the city in ashes assistance of Acrotatus the son of Cleomenes as their and razed its walls, the surviving inhabitants having general: but the character of that prince frustrated taken refuge in the temple of the Olympian Zeus. all their plans, and after his expulsion they were (Diod. l. c. p. 505.) compelled to purchase peace from Syracuse by the From this time we hear no more of Agrigentum acknowledgement of the Hegemony or supremacy of till the end of the First Punic War, when it passed that city, B.C. 314. (Diod. xix. 70,71.) Some years under the dominion of Rome: but it must have in afterwards, in B. C. 309, the absence of Agathocles in some degree recovered from its late calamities, as it Africa, and the reverses sustained by his partisans plays no unimportant part when the contest between in Sicily, appeared again to offer a favourable opening Rome and Carthage was renewed in the Second to the ambition of the Agrigentines, who chose Punic War. On this occasion it continued steadfast Xenodocus for their general, and openly aspired to in its adherence to the Romans, but was surprised the Hegemony of Sicily, proclaiming at the same and taken by Himilco, before Marcellus could arrive time the independence of the several cities. They to its support (Liv. xxiv. 35.): and from benceforth were at first very successful: the powerful cities of became the chief stronghold of the Carthaginians in Gela and Enna joined their cause, Herbessus and Sicily, and held out against the Roman consul Echetla were taken by force; but when Xenodocus Laevinus long after the other cities in the island had ventured on a pitched battle with Leptines and De submitted. At length the Namidian Mutines, to mophilus, the generals of Agathocles, he sustained wliose courage and skill the Carthaginians owed their a severe defeat, and was compelled to shut himself protracted defence, having been offended by their up within the walls of Agrigentum. Agathocles general Hanno, betrayed the city into the hands of limself shortly afterwards returned from Africa, and Laevinus, B. c. 210. The leading citizens were put quickly recovered almost all that he had lost: his to death, and the rest sold as slaves. (Liv. xxv, 40, general Leptines invaded the territory of Agrigentum, 41, xxvi. 40.) totally defeated Xenodocus, and compelled the Agri- | Agrigentum now became, in common with the gentines once more to sue for peace. (Diod. xx. 31, rest of the Sicilian cities, permanently subject to 32, 56, 62.)
Rome: but it was treated with much favour and After the death of Agathocles, Agrigentum fell enjoyed many privileges. Three years after its under the yoke of Phintias, who became despot of capture a number of new citizens from other parts of the city, and assumed the title of king. We have Sicily were established there by the praetor Mamilius, very little information concerning the period of his and two years after this the municipal rights and rule, but he appears to have attained to great power, privileges of the citizens were deterinined by Scipio as we find Agyrium and other cities of the interior | Africanus in a manner so satisfactory that they consubject to his dominion, as well as Gela, which he tinued unaltered till the time of Verres. Cicero destroyed, in order to found a new city named after repeatedly mentions Agrigentum as one of the most himself. [GELA.] The period of his expulsion is wealthy and populous cities of Sicily, the fertility of unknown, but at the time when Pyrrhus landed in its territory and the convenience of its port rendering Sicily we find Agrigentum occupied by Sosistratus it one of the chief emporiums for the tmde in corn. with a strong force of mercenary troops, who bow. (Cic. Verr. č. 50, 62, iii, 43, iv. 33, 43.) It is ever hastened to make his submission to the king of certain, however, that it did not in his day rank as Epeirus. (Diod. xxii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 495—497.) a Roman colony, and it is very doubtful whether it
On the commencement of the First Punic War, ever attained this distinction, though we find that it Agrigentum espoused the cause of the Carthaginians, was allowed to strike coins, with the Latin inscripand even permitted their general Hannibal to fortify tion AGRIGENTUM, as late as the time of Augustus, their citadel, and occupy the city with a Cartha- | (Eckhel, D. N. vol. i. p. 193.)* If it really obtained ginian garrison. Hence after the Romans had the title and privileges of a colony under that emsecured the alliance of Hieron of Syracuse, their peror, it must have soon lost them, as neither Pliny principal efforts were directed to the reduction of Agrigentum, and in B. C. 262 the two consuls L.! * Mommsen (Das Römische Münz- Wesen, p. Postunius and Q. Mamilius laid siege to it with 237) considers Agrigentum to have been on the their whole force. The siege lasted nearly as long footing of a Colonia Latina, like Nemausus in Gaul.
nor Ptolemy reckon it among the Roman colonies in summit of the Athenaean hill above the city. Sicily. From the time of Augustus we find no his- | (Polyb. I. c.) The teinple of Zeus Polieus, the torical mention of it under the Roman empire, but construction of which is ascribed to Phalaris (Poits continued existence is attested by the geographers lynen. v. 1. $ 1), is supposed to have stood on the and Itineraries, and as long as Sicily rerrained hill occupied by the modern city of Girgenti, which subject to the Greek empire, Agrigentum is still appears to have formed a second citadel or acropolis, mentioned as one of its most considerable cities. in some measure detached from the more lofty (Strab. vi. p. 272; Plin. H. N. ii. 8. & 14; Ptol. iii. summit to the east of it. Some fragments of 4. $ 14; Itin. Ant. p. 88; Tab. Peut.; Const. Porph. ancient walls, still existing in those of the church de Prov. i. 10.) It was one of the first places that of Sta Maria de' Greci, are considered to have fell into the hands of the Saracens on their invasion belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated of Sicily in 827, and was wrested from them by the than these was the great temple of the Olympian Normans under Roger Guiscard in 1086. The Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines modern city of Girgenti still contains about 13,000 at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, inhabitants, and is the see of a bishop, and capital but was not quite finished at the time of the Carof one of the seven districts or Intendenze into which thaginian invasion in B. C. 406, and in consequence Sicily is now divided.
of that calamity was never completed. It is deThe situation of Agrigentum is well described by scribed in considerable detail by Diodorus, who tells Polybius (ix. 27). It occupied a hill of considerable us that it was 340 feet long, 160 broad, and 120 extent, rising between two small rivers, the Acragas in height, without reckoning the basement. The and Hypsas, of which the southern front, though of columns were not detached, but engaged in the small elevation, presented a steep escarpment, run- wall, from which only half of their circumference ning nearly in a straight line from E, to W. From projected : so gigantic were their dimensions, that hence the ground sloped gradually upwards, though each of the flutings would admit a man's body, traversed by a cross valley or depression, towards a (Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) of this vast much more elevated ridge which formed the northern edifice nothing remains but the basement, and a portion of the city, and was divided into two sum- few fragments of the columns and entablature, but mits, the north-western, on which stands the modern even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the city of Girgenti, and the north-eastern, which de- statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the rived from a temple of Athena, that crowned its temple must not only have greatly exceeded all height, the name of the Athenaean hill (d 'Aonvaios others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in nópos, Diod. xii, 85). This summit, which at- magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, tains to the height of 1200 feet above the sea, and except that of Diana at Ephesus. A considerable is the most elevated of the whole city, is completely portion of it (including several columns, and three precipitous and inaccessible towards the N. and E., gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to sufand could be approached only by one steep and port an entablature), appears to have remained standnarrow path from the city itself. Hence, it formed ing till the year 1401, when it fell downand the the natural citadel or acropolis of Agrigentum, while vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently the gentle slopes and broad valley which separate it employed in the construction of the mole, which from the southern ridge, - now covered with gardens protects the present port of Girgenti. (Fazell. vol. i. and fruit-trees, -afforded ample space for the ex- | p. 248 ; Smyth's Sicily, p. 203.) tension and development of the city itself. Great Besides these, we find mention in ancient writers as was the natural strength of its position, the whole of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing city was surrounded with walls, of which consider- a statue of that deity of singular beauty and excelable portions still remain, especially along the southern lence (Cic. Verr. iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius front: their whole circuit was about 6 miles. The without the walls, on the south side of the city peculiarities of its situation sufficiently explain the (Cic. l. c.; Polyb. i. 18), the remains of which aro circumstances of the two great sieges of Agrigentum, still visible, not far from the bank of the river in both of which it will be observed that the as- | Acragas. It contained a celebrated statue of Apollo, sailants confined all their attacks to the southern in bronze, the work of Myron, which Verres in vain and south-western parts of the city, wholly neglect- endeavoured to carry off. Of the other temples, the ing the north and east. Diodorus, indeed, expressly ruins of which are extant on the site of Agrigentum, tells us that there was only one quarter (that ad- and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the joining the river Hypsas) where the walls could be ancient appellations cannot be determined with any approached by military engines, and assaulted with certainty. The most conspicuous are two which any prospect of success. (Diod. xiii. 85.)
stand on the southern ridge facing the sea : one of Agrigentum was not less celebrated in ancient these at the S. E. angle of the city, is commonly times for the beauty of its architecture, and the known as the temple of Juno Lacinia, a name which splendour and variety of its buildings, both public rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny and private, than for its strength as a fortress. (H. N. xxxv. 9. § 36): it is in a half ruined state, Pindar calls it “the fairest of mortal cities” (kal- | but its basement is complete, and many of its columns diota Bpotelly Toléwv, Pyth. xii. 2), though many still standing. Its position on the projecting angle of its most striking ornaments were probably not of the ridge, with a precipitous bank below it on erected till after his time. The magnificence of the two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and private dwellings of the Agrigentines is sufficiently striking character. A few hundred paces to the attested by the saying of Empedocles already cited : W. of this stands another temple, in far better pretheir public edifices are the theme of admiration servation, being indeed the most perfect which with many ancient writers. Of its temples, pro- remains in Sicily; it is commonly called the temple bably the most ancient were that of Zens Ātabyrios, of Concord, from an inscription said to have been whose worship they derived from Rhodes, and that discovered there, but which (if authentic) is of of Athena, both of which stood on the highest Roman date, while both this temple and that just described must certainly be referred to the most of which considerable portions have been preseived, flourishing period of Agrigentine history, or the fifth and brought to light by excavation on the spot, century B. C. They are both of the Doric order, bears the name, though certainly without authority, and of much the same dimensions : both are peri- of Castor and Pollux : while another, on the oppteral, or surrounded with a portico, consisting of 6 posite side of a deep hollow or ravine, of which two columns in front, and 13 on each side. The existing columns remain, is styled that of Vulcan. A small vestiges of other temples are much less considerable: temple or aedicula, near the convent of S. Nicolo, is one to the W. of that of Concord, of which only one commonly known by the designation of the Oratory column is standing, is commonly regarded as that of of Phalaris: it is of insignificant size, and certainly Hercules, mentioned by Cicero. Its plan and design of Roman date. The church of St. Blasi, or S. Biagio, have been completely ascertained by recent exca- near the eastern extremity of the Athenaean hill, is vations, which have proved that it was much the formed out of the cella of an ancient temple, which largest of those remaining at Agrigentum, after that is supposed, but without any authority, to have beea of the Olympian Zeus : it had 15 columns in the side dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For full details and 6 in front. Another, a little to the north of it, concerning these temples, and the other ruins still