« السابقةمتابعة »
visible at Girgenti, sec Swinburne's Traveli, vol. ii. p. 280—291; Smyth's Sicilg, p. 207—212; D'Or. villc's Sicuia, p. 89—103; Siefert, Akragat, p. 24 •—38; and especially Serra di Kalco, Antichiia della Sicilia, vol. iii., who gives the results of recent labours on the spot, many of which were unknown to former writers.)
Next to tho temple of the Olympian Zeus, the public work of which Diodorus speaks with the greatest admiration (xi. 25, xiii. 72), was a piscina, or reservoir of water, constructed in the time of Theron, which was not less than seven stadia in circumference, and was plentifully stocked with fish, and frequented by numerous swans. It had fallen into decay, and become filled with mud in the time of the historian, but its site is supposed to be still indicated by a deep hollow or depression in the S. western portion of the city, between the temple of Vulcan and that of Castor and Pollux, now converted into a garden. Connected with this was an extensive system of subterranean sewers and conduits for water, constructed on a scale far superior to those of any other Greek city: these were called Fhaeaces, from the name of their architect Phacax.
It was not only in their public buildings that the Agrigentines, during the flourishing period of their city, loved to display their wealth and luxury. An ostentatious magnificence appears to have characterised their habits of life, in other respects also: and showed itself especially in their love of horses and chariots. Their territory was celebrated for the excellence of its breed of horses (Virg. Aen. iii. 704), an advantage which enabled them repeatedly to bear away the prize in the chariot-race at the Olympic games: and it is recorded that after one of these occasions the victor Exaenetus was accompanied on his triumphant entry into his native city by no less than three hundred chariots, all drawn by white horses. (Diod. xiii. 82.) Not less conspicuous and splendid were the hospitalities of the more wealthy citizens. Those of Theron are celebrated by Pindar (01. iii 70), but even these probably fell short of those of later days. Gellias, a citizen noted even at Agrigentum for his wealth and splendour of living, is said to have lodged and feasted at once five hundred knights from Gela, and Antisthenes, on occasion of his daughter's marriage, furnished a banquet to all the citizens of Agrigentum in tho several quarters they inhabited. (Diod. xiii. 83, 84.) These luxurious habits were not unaccompanied with a refined taste for the cultivation of the fine arts: their temples and public buildings were adorned with the choicest works of sculpture and painting, many of which were carried off by Himilco to Carthage, and some of them after the fall of that city restored to Agrigentum by Scipio Africanus. (Diod. xiii. 90; Cic. Verr. iv. 43; Pun. H. If. xxxv. 9. s. 36.) A like spirit of ostentation was displayed in the magnitude and splendour of their sepulchral monuments; and they are said to have even erected costly tombs to favourite horses and to pet birds. (Diod. xiii. 82; Plin. H. N. 42. 64; Solin. 45. § 11.) The plain in front of the city, occupying the space from the southern wall to the confluence of the two rivers, was full of these sepulchres and monuments, among which that of Theron was conspicuous for its magnitude (Diod. xiii. 86): the name is now commonly given to the only structure of the kind which remains, though it is of inconsiderable dimensions, and belongs, in all prooability, to the Roman period.
For this extraordinary wealth Agrigentum was indebted, in a great measure, to the fertility of its territory, which abounded not only in corn, as it continued to do in the time of Cicero, and still does at the present day, but was especially fruitful in vines and olives, with the produce of which it supplied Carthage, and the whole of the adjoining parts of Africa, where their cultivation was as yet unknown. (Diod. xi. 25, xiii. 81.) The vast multitude of slaves which fell to the lot of the Agrigentines, after the great victory of Himera, contributed greatly to their prosperity, by enabling them to bring into careful cultivation tho whole of thenextensive and fertile domain. The values on the banks of its river furnished excellent pasture for sheep (Pind. Pyth. xii. 4), and in later times, when the neighbouring country had ceased to be so richly cultivated, it was noted for the excellence of its cheeses. (Plin. H. N. xi. 42. 97.)
It is difficult to determine with precision the extent and boundaries of the territory of Agrigentum, which must indeed have varied greatly at different times : but it would seem to have extended as far as the river Himera on the E., and to have been bounded by the Halycus on the W.; though at one time it must have comprised a considerable extent of country beyond that river; and on the other hand Heraclea Minoa, on the eastern bank of the Halycus, was for a long time independent of Agrigentum. Towards the interior it probably extended as far as the mountain range in which those two rivers have their sources, the Nebrodes Mons, or Monte Madonia, which separated it from the territory of Himera. (Siefert, Atragai, p. 9—11.) Among the smaller towns and places subject to its dominion are mentioned Mottum and Ebbessus, in the interior of the country, Caiiicvs, the ancient fortress of Cocalus (erroneously supposed by many writers to have occupied the site of the modem town of Girgenti), Ecxomus on the borders of the territory of Gela, and subsequently Phihtias, founded by the despot of that name, on the site of the modern Alicata.
Of the two rivers which flowed beneath the walls of Agrigentum, the most considerable was the Acraqas, from whence according to the common consent of most ancient authors the city derived its name. Hence it was worshipped as one of the tutelary deities of the city, and statues erected to it by the Agrigentines, both in Sicily and at Delphi, in which it was represented under the figure of a young man, probably with horns on his forehead, as we find it on the coins of Agrigentum. (Pind. 01. ii. 16, Pyth. xii. 5, and SchoL ad locc.; Empedocles ap. Diog. LaerL vjii. 2. § 63; Steph. Byz. v. 'AKpiyas; Aelian. V. H. ii. 33; CastelL Ntmm, Sic. Vet. p. 8.) At its mouth was situated the Port or Emporium of Agrigentum, mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy; but notwithstanding the extensive commerce of which this was at one time the centre, it had little natural advantages, and must have been mainly formed by artificial constructions. Considerable remains of fheso, half buried in sand, were still visible in the time of Fazello, but have since in great measure disappeared. The modern port of Girgenti is situated above three miles further west. (Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272; PtoL iii. 4. § 6; Fazell. vi. 1. p. 246; Smyth's Sicilg, pp. 202,203.)
Among the natural productions of the neighbourhood of Agrigentum, we find no mention in ancient authors of the mines of sulphur, which are at tho present day one of the chief sources of prosperity to Girgenti; but its mines of salt (still worked at a place called Aborangi, about 8 miles north of the city), arc alluded to both by Pliny and Solinus. (Plin. B. AT. xxxi. 7. s. 41; Solin. 5. §§ 18, 19.) Several writers also notice a fountain in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, which produced Petroleum or mineral oil, considered to be of great efficacy as a medicament for cattle and sheep. The source still exists in a garden not far from Girgenti, and is frequently resorted to by the peasants for the same purpose. (Dioscorid. i. 100; Phn. H. N. xxxv. 15. s. 51 ; Solin. 5. § 22; Fazell. de Reb. Sicul. vi. p. 261; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei delta Sicilia, p. 43.) A more remarkable object is the mud volcano (now called by the Arabic name of Maccalttbbd) about 4 miles N. of Girgenti, the phenomena of which are described by Solinus, but unnoticed by any previous writer. (Solin. 5. § 24; Fazell. p. 262; Ferrara, J. c. p. 44; Smyth's Sicily, p. 213.)
Among the numerous distinguished citizens to whom Agrigentum gave birth, the most conspicuous is the philosopher Empedocles : among his contemporaries we may mention the rhetorician Polus, and the physician Acron. Of earlier date than these was the comic poet Deinolochus, the pupil, but at the same time the rival, of Epicharmus. Philinus, the historian of the First Punic War, is the latest writer of eminence, who was a native of Agrigentum.
The extant architectural remains of Agrigentum have been already noticed in speaking of its ancient edifices. Besides these, numerous fragments of buildings, some of Greek and others of Roman date, are scattered over the site of the ancient city: and great numbers of sepulchres have been excavated, some in the plain below the city, others within its walls. The painted vases found in these tombs greatly exceed in number and variety those discovered in any other Sicilian city, and rival those of Campania and Apulia.
But with this exception comparatively few works of art have been discovered. A sarcophagus of marble, now preserved in the cathedral of Girgenti, on which is represented the story of Phaedra and Hippolytus, has been greatly extolled by many travellers, but its merits are certainly over-rated.
There exist under the hill occupied by the modern city extensive catacombs or excavations in the rock, which have been referred by many writers to the ancient Sicanians, or ascribed to Daedalus. It is probable that, like the very similar excavations at Syracuse, they were, in fact, constructed merely in the process of quarrying stone for building purposes.
The coins of Agrigentum, which are very numerous and of beautiful workmanship, present as their common type an eagle on the one side and a crab on the other. The one here figured, on which the c:igle is represented as tearing a hare, belongs un
doubtedly to the most flourishing period of Agrigentine history, that immediately preceding the siege and capture of the city by the Carthaginian.-;, B. c. 406. Other coins of the same period have a quadriga on the reverse, in commemoration of their victories at the Olympic games. [E. H. B.]
AGRI'NIUM ('Ayplviov), a town of Aetolia, situated towards the NE. of Aetolia, near the Achelous. Its position is quite uncertain. From its name we might conjecture that it was a town of the Agraei; but the narrative in Polybius (v. 7) would imply that it was not so far north. In B.C. 314 we find Agrinium in alliance with the Acarnanians, when Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter against the Aetolians. As soon as Cassander returned to Macedonia, Agrinium was besieged by the Aetolians,and capitulated; but the Aetolians treacherously put to death the greater part of the inhabitants. (Died. xix. 67, 68; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 156.)
AGRIO'PHAGI (Peripl. Mar. Er. p. 2), were the same people as the Creophagi or flesh-eaters of Aethiopia Troglodytica. In summer they drove their herds down to the pastures of the Astaboras; in the rainy season they returned to the Aethiopian mountains east of that river. As their name and diet imply they were hunters and herdsmen. [aeThiopia.] rv.B. r>.]
AGRIPPINENSIS COLONIA. [coloxia.]
AGY'RIUM ('Ayuptov. Eth. 'Ayvpivcuos Agrrinensis), a city of the interior of Sicily now called S. Filippo dArgirb. It was situated on the summit of a steep and lofty hill, between Enna and Centuripa, and was distant 18 Roman miles from the former, and 12 from the latter. (Tab. Peut. The Itin. Ant. p. 93, erroneously gives only 3 for the former distance.) It was regarded as one of the most ancient cities of Sicily, and according to the mythical traditions of the inhabitants was visited by Heracles on his wanderings, who was received by the inhabitants with divine honours, and instituted various sacred rites, which continued to be observed in the days of Diodorus. (Diod. iv. 24.) Historically speaking, it appears to have been a Sicelian city, and did not receive a Greek colony. It is first mentioned in B. C. 404, when it was under the government of a prince of the name of Agyris, who was on terms of friendship and alliance with Dionysius of Syracuse, and assisted hirn on various occasions. Agyris extended his dominion over many of the neighbouring towns and fortresses of the interior, so as to become the most powerful prince in Sicily after Dionysius himself, and the city of Agyrium is said to have been at this time so wealthy and populous as to contain not less than 20,000 citizens. (Diod. xiv. 9, 78, 95.) During the invasion of the Carthaginians under Majro in B. c. 392, Agyris continued steadfast to the alliance of Dionysius, and contributed essential service against the Carthaginian general. (Id. xiv. 95, 96.) From this time we hear no more of Agyris or his city during the reign of Dionysius, but in B. C, 339 we find Agyrium under the yoke of a despot named Apolloniades, who was compelled by Timoleon to abdicate his power. The inhabitants were now declared Syracusan citizens: 10,000 new colonists received allotments in its extensive and fertile territory, and the city itself was adorned with a magnificent then.t re and other public buildings. (Diod. xvi. 82, 83.)
At a later period it became subject to Phintia^, king of Agrigentum; but was one of the first cities to throw off his yoke, and a few years afterwards we find the Agyrinaeans on friendly terms with Hieron king of Syracuse, for which they were rewarded by the gift of half the territory that had belonged to Amcselura. (Diod. jarii. Exc. Hoesch. pp. 495,499.) Under the Roman government they continued to be a flourishing and wealthy community, and Cicero speaks of Agyriom as one of the most considerable cities of Sicily. Its wealth was chiefly derived from the fertility of its territory in corn: which previous to the arrival of Verres found employment for 250 farmers (aratores), a number diminished by the exactions of his praetorship to no more than 80. (Cic. Verr. iii. 18, 27—31, 51, 52.) From this period we have little further notice of it, in ancient times. It is classed by Pliny among the "populi stipendiarii" of Sicily, and the name is found both in Ptolemy and the Itineraries. In the middle ages it became celebrated for a church of St. Philip with a miraculous altar, from whence the modem name of the town is derived. It became in consequence a great resort of pilgrims from all parts of the island, and is still a considerable place, with the title of a city and above 6000 inhabitants. (Plin.iii. 8.14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 13; Fazell. de Rtb. Steal, vol. i. p. 435; Ortolani, Diz. Gcogr. della Sicilia, p. 111.)
The historian Diodorus Siculus was a native of Agyrium, and has preserved to us several particulars concerning his native town. Numerous memorials were preserved there of the pretended visit of Heracles: the impression of the feet of his oxen was still shown in the rock, and a lake or pool four stadia in circumference was behoved to have been excavated by him. A Temenos or sacred grove in the neighbourhood of the city was consecrated to Geryones, and another to Iolans, which was an object of peculiar veneration; and annual games and sacrifices were celebrated in honour both of that hero and of Heracles himself. (Diod. i. 4, iv. 24.) At a later period Timoleon was the chief benefactor of the city, where he constructed several temples, a Bouleuterion and Agora, as well as a theatre which Diodorus tells us was the finest in all Sicily, after that of Syracuse, (Id. xvi. 83.) Scarcely any remains of these buildings are now visible, the only vestiges of antiquity being a few undefined fragments of masonry. The ruined castle on the summit of the hill, attributed by some writers to the Greeks, is a work of the Saracens in the tenth century. (Amico, ad Fazell. p. 440; Lex. Topogr. Sic. vol. i. p. 22.) [E. H. B.]
range which separates Upper Egypt from the Red Sea. It was in the parallel of Thebes, and S. of the modem Koseir (Philoteras), in lat. 29 J. The district occupied by the Icthyophagi commenced a little to the north of the headland of Aias. [W. B. D.]
ALABANDA(v 'AAdAwSa, Ta'AK&gavia: Eth. 'AAaSavScus, Alabandeus, Alabandensis, Alahandenus: Adj. Alabandicus), a city of Caria, was situated 160 stadia S. of Tralles, and was separated from the plain of Mylasa by a mountain tract Strabo describes it as lying at the foot of two hills (as some read the passage), which are so close together as to present the appearance of an ass with its panniers on. The modem site is doubtful; but Arab Bittd, on a large branch of the Maeander, now called the Tthina, which joins that river on the S. bank, is supposed by Leake to represent Alabanda; and the nature of the ground corresponds well enough with Strabo's description. The Tthina may probably be the Marsyas of Herodotus (v. 118). There are the remains of a theatre and many other buildings on this site; but very few inscriptions. Alabanda was noted for the luxurious habits of the citizens. Under the Roman empire it was the seat of a Conventus Juridicus or court house, and one of the most flourishing towns of the province of Asia. A stone called " lapis Alabandicus," found in the neighbourhood, was fusible (Plin. xxxvi. 8. s. 13), and used for making glass, and for glazing vessels.
Stephanus mentions two cities of the name of Alabanda in Caria, but it does not appear that any other writer mentions two. Herodotus, however (vii. 195), speaks of Alabanda in Caria (ran iv Tt) haply"), which is the Alabanda of Strabo. The words of description added by Herodotus seem to imply that there was another city of the name; and in fact he speaks, in another passage (viii. 136), of Alabanda, a large city of Phrygia. This Alabanda of Phrygia cannot be the town on the Tthina, for Phrygia never extended so far as there. [G. L.]
ALABASTRA or ALABASTRON ('AXoSaffTpc;, 'AXi€aurTpav woAis, Ptol. iv. 5. § 59; Plin. v. 9. s. 11, xxxvii. 8. s. 32), a city of Egypt, whose site is differently stated by Pliny and Ptolemy. Pliny places it in Upper Egypt; Ptolemy in the Heptanomis. It would accordingly be either south or north of the Mons Alabastrites. It was doubtless connected with the alabaster quarries of that mountain. If Alabastra stood in the Heptanomis, it was an inland town, connected with the Nfle by one of the many roads which pervade the region between that river and the Arabian hills. [W. B. D]
ALABASTRITES MONS ^fiKagcurTpivov ipos, Ptol. iv. 5. § 27), formed a portion of the limestone rocks which run westward from the Arabian hills into Upper and Middle Egypt. This upland ridge or spur was to the east of the city of Hermopolis Magna, in lat. 27J, and gave its name to the town of Alabastra. It contained large quarries of the beautifully veined and white alabaster which the Egyptians so largely employed for their sarcophagi and other works of art.' The grottoes in this ridge are by some writers supposed to occupy the site of the city Alabastra (see preceding article), but this was probably further from the mountain. They were first visited by Sir Gardner Wilkinson in 1824. The grottoes of Koum-eUAhmar are believed to be tho same with the ancient excavations. They contain the names of some of the earliest Egyptian kings, but are inferior in size and splendour to the similar
grottoes at Beniluuian. The sculptures in these catacombs are chiefly devoted to military subjects — processions, in which the king, mounted on a chariot, is followed by his soldiers on foot, or in war-chariots, with distinctive weapons and standards. The monarch is also represented as borne in a kind of open litter or shrine, and advancing with his offerings to the temple of Phtah. His attendants seem, from their dress, to belong to the military caste alone. (Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes, p. 386.; Mod. Egypt, vol. ii. p. 43.) [W. B. D.]
ALABIS, ALABUS or ALABON ('AAosW, Steph. Byz., Died.; 'AAaSot, Ptol.; Alabis, Sil. Ital. xiv. 227), a small river on the E. coast of Sicily, flowing into the Sinus Megarensis. Diodorus describes it as a considerable stream issuing from a large basin, of artificial construction, which was regarded as the work of Daedalus, and emptying itself after a short course into the sea. (Diod. iv. 78; Vib. Sequcst. p. 4.) This description exactly accords with that given by Clnverius of a stream called Lo Cantaro, which issues from a very copiouB source only half a mile from the coast, and flows into the sea just opposite the modem city of Augusta. Some traces of buildings were in his time still visible around the basin of its source. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 133; Fazell. vol. i. p. 158.) It is probable that the Abolus ('asoaoj) of Plutarch, on the banks of which Timoleon defeated Mamcrcus, the tyrant of Catana, in a pitched battle, is no other than the Alabus. (Plut. Timol. 34.) A town of the same name with the river is mentioned by Stephanns of Byzantium (v. 'A\aS<iy~), but is not noticed by any other writer. [E. H. B.]
ALAESA or HALE'SA ('AAoiira, Diod.; Strab.; Ptol.; Halesa, Sil. Ital. xiv. 218; Halesini, Cic. Plin.), a city of Sicily, situated near the north coast of the island, between Cephaloedium and Calacta. It was of Siculian origin, and its foundation is related by Diodorus, who informs us that in B. c. 403 the inhabitants of Uerbita (a Siculian city), having concluded peace with Dionysius of Syracuse, their ruler or chief magistrate Archonidcs determined to quit the city and found a new colony, which he settled partly with citizens of Herbita, and partly with mercenaries and other strangers who collected around him through enmity towards Dionysius. He gave to this new colony the name of Alaesa, to which the epithet Archonidea was frequently added for the purpose of distinction. Others attributed the foundation of the city, bnt erroneously, to the Carthaginians. (Diod. xiv. 16.) It quickly rose to prosperity by maritime commerce: and at the commencement of the First Punic War was one of the first of the Sicilian cities to make its submission to the Romans, to whose alliance it continned steadily faithful. It was doubtless to its conduct in this respect, and to the services that it was able to render to the Romans during their wars in Sicily, that it was indebted for the peculiar privilege of retaining its own laws and independence, exempt from all taxation: — an advantage enjoyed by only five cities of Sicily. (Diod. xiv. 16, xxiii. Exc. H. p. 501; Cic. Verr. ii. 49, 69, iii. 6.) In consequence of this advantageous position it rose rapidly in wealth and prosperity, and became one of the most flourishing cities of Sicily. On one occasion its citizens, having been involved in disputes among themselves concerning the choice of the senate, C. Claudius Pulcher was sent, at their own request in B. c. 95, to regulate the matter by a law, which ho did to
the satisfaction of all parties. But their privileges did not protect them from the exactions of Verres, who imposed on them an enormous contribution both in corn and money. (Id. ib. 73—75; Ep. ad Fam. xiii. 32.) The city appears to have subsequently declined, and had sunk in the time of Augustus to the condition of an ordinary municipal town (Castell. Inter, p. 27): but was still one of the few places on the north coast of Sicily which Strabo deemed worthy of mention. (Strab. vi. p. 272.) Pliny also enumerates it among the 11 stipendiariae civitates " of Sicily. (H. iV. iii. 8.)
Great difference of opinion has existed with regard to the site of Alaesa, arising principally from the discrepancy in the distances assigned by Strabo, the Itinerary, and the Tabula. Some of these are undoubtedly corrupt or erroneous, but on the whule there can be no doubt that its situation is correctly fixed by Cluverius and Torrerauzza at the spot marked by an old church called Sta. Maria le Palate, near the modern town of 7'usa. and above the river Pettineo. This site coincides perfecfly with the expression of Diodorus (xiv. 16), that tho town was built "on a hill about 8 stadia from the sea:" as well as with the distance of eighteen M. P. from Cephaloedium assigned by the Tabula. (The Itinerary gives 28 by an easy error.) The ruins described by Fazello as visible there in his time were such as to indicate the site of a large city, and several inscriptions have been found on the spot, some of them referring distinctly to Alaesa. One of these, which is of considerable length and importance, gives numerous local details concerning the divisions of land, &c, and mentions repeatedly a river Alaesds, evidently the same with the HaLesus of Columella (x. 268), and which is probably the modem Pettineo; as well as a fountain named Ipyrbha. This is perhaps the same spoken of by Solinus (5. § 20) and Priscian (Perieges. 500), but without mentioning its name, as existing in the territory of Halesa, the waters of which were swoln and agitated by the sound of music Fazello describes the ruins as extending from the sea-shore, on which were the remains of a large building (probably baths), for the space of more than a mile to tho summit of a hill, on which were the remains of the citadel. About 3 miles farther inland was a large fountain (probably the Ipyrrha of the inscription), with extensive remains of the aqueduct that conveyed its waters to the city. All trace of these ruins has now disappeared, except some portions of the aqueduct: but fragments of statues, as well .-is coins and inscriptions, have been frequently discovered on the spot. (Fazell. dt Reb. Sic. ix. 4; Cluver. Sicil. pp. 288—290; Boeckh, C. I. torn. iii. pp. 612—621; Castelli, Hut. Alaetae, Panorm. 1753; LI. Inter. .Sic. p. 109; Biscari. Viaggio in Sicilia, p. 243.) [E. H. B.]
thcro-Laeones, containing temples of Dionysus and Artemis. This town was distant 30 stadia from Gerenia, bat its site is unknown. (Paus. iii. 21. § 7, iii. 26. § 11.)
ALALCO'MENAE. 1. ('AAoMto^wrf, Strab., Pans.; 'AkaKKOtibiov, Steph. B.; Eth. 'A\a\Kofttviffa, *A\a\KOfievouos, 'Aka^KOfieviof: Sulindri), an ancient town in Boeotia, situated at the foot of Mt. Tilphossium, a little to the E. of Coroneia, and near the lake Copais. It was celebrated for the worship of Athena, who was said to have been born there, and who is hence called Alaleomene'is ('AAoAKo/ieyjiU) in Homer. The temple of the goddess stood, at a little distance from the town, on the Triton, a small stream flowing into the lake Copais. Beyond the modern village of Sulindri, the site of Alalcomenae, are some polygonal foundations, apparently those of a single building, which are probably remains of the peribolus of the temple. Both the town and the temple were plundered by Sulla, who carried off the statue of the goddess. (Horn. II. iv. 8; Paus. ix. 3. § 4, ix. 33. § 5, seq.; Strab. pp. 410, 411, 413; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Grace, vol. ii. p. 135; Forchhatnraer, Hellenica, p. 185.)
2. Or Alcomenae ('AAKOjurval), said to bo a town in Ithaca (Phrt. Q*aest. Grace. 43; Steph. B. ». v.), or in the small island Asteris in the neighbourhood of Ithaca, (Strab. p. 456.)
ALANDER, a river of Phrygia (Liv. xxxviii. 15,18), which is twice mentioned by Livy, in his account of the march of Cn. Manlius. It was probably a branch of the Sangarius, as Hamilton (Researches in Asia Minor, vol. i. pp. 458, 467) conjectures, and the stream which flows in the valley of Beiad; but he gives no modem name to it. [G.L.]
ALA'NI ('AAwof, AAaCeoi), a people, found both in Asia and in Europe, whose precise geographical positions and ethnographical relations are difficult to determine. They probably became first known to the Romans through the Mithridatic war, and the expedition of Pompey into the countries about the Caucasus; when they were found in the K. part of Caucasus, in the region which was called Albania by the Romans, but Alania by Greek writers, and where Alani are found down to a late period of the Greek empire. (Joseph. Ant. Jud. xviii. 4. s. 6; Lucan, x. 454; Procop. Pert. ii. 29, Goth. iv. 4; Const. Porph. de Adm. Imp. 42.) Valerius Flaccus (Arg. vi. 42) mentions them among the people of the Caucasus, near the Heniochi. Ammianns Marcellinus, who tells us more about the Alani than any other ancient writer, makes Julian encourage his soldiers by the example of Pompey, "who, breaking his way through the Albani and the Massagetae, whom we now call Alani, saw the waters of the Caspian" (xxiii. 5). In the latter half of the first century we hear of the Alani in two very remote positions. On the one hand, Josephus, who describes them as Scythians dwelling about the river TanaTs (Don) and the Lake Maeotis (Sea of Azov), relates how, in the time of Vespasian, being permitted by the king of Hyrcania to traverse "the pais which Alexander had closed with iron gates," they ravaged Media and Armenia, and returned home again. On the other hand, they are mentioned by Seneca (Thgest. 629) as dwelling on the Ister (Danube); and Martial (Epiffr. vii. 30) expressly calls them Sarmatians; and Pliny (iv. 12. 6. 25) mentions Alani and Roxalani (i. c. Sutt
Alcoa) among the generic names applied at different times to the inhabitants of the European Scythia or Sarmatia. Thus there were Alani both in Asia, in the Caucasus, and in Europe, on the Maeotis and the Euxine; and also, according to Josephns, between these two positions, in the great plains N. of the Caucasus; so that they seem to have been spread over all the S. part of Russia in Europe. Under Hadrian and the Antonines we find the European Alani constantly troubling the frontier of the Danube (Ael. Spart. Had. 4. s. 6; Jul. Capit. Ant. Pi. 6. s. 8, Marc. 22, where they are mentioned with the Roxalani, Bastamae, and Peucini); while the Alani of the E. again overran Media and Armenia, and threatened Cappadocia. (Dion Cass. bcix. 15.) On this occasion the historian Arrian, who was governor of Cappadocia under Hadrian, composed a work on the Tactics to be observed against the Alani (ficrafit nar' 'rWav&v), which is mentioned by Photius (Cod. Iviii. p. 15, a., Bckker), and of which a considerable fragment is preserved (Arrian. ed. Diibner, in Didot's Script. Graec. Bibl. pp. 250 —253). Their force consisted in cavalry, like that of the European Alani (the TroKvimrwr <pv\ov 'AAwdr of Dionysius Periegetes, v. 308); and they fought without armour for themselves or their horses. As another mark of resemblance, though Arrian speaks of them as Scythians, a name which was vaguely used in his time for all the barbarians of NW. Asia (am/. Alanos, 30), he speaks of them elsewhere (Tact. 4) in close connection with the Sauromatae (Sarmatians), as practising the same mode of fighting for which the Polish lancers, descendants of the Sarmatians, have been renowned. Ptolemy, who wrote under the Antonines, mentions the European Alani, by the name of 'AAawoi 2kvBat, ad one of the seven chief peoples of Sarmatia Europaea, namely, the Venedae, Peucini, Bastarnae. Iazyges, Roxolani, Hamaxobii, and Alauni Scythac; of whom he places the Iazyges and Roxolani along the whole shore of the Maeotis, and then the last two further inland (hi. 5. § 19). He also mentions (ii. 14. § 2) Alauni in the W. of Pannonia, no doubt a body who, in course of invasion, had established themselves on the Roman side of the Danube. Ptolemy speaks of a Mt. Alaunus (to 'akuuvov fipoj) in Sarmatia, and Eustathius (ad Dion. Perieg. 305) says that the Alani probably derived their name from the Alanus, a mountain of Sarmatia. It is hard to find any range of mountains answering to Ptolemy's M. Alaunus near the position he assigns to the Alauni: some geographers suppose the term to describe no mountains, properly so called, but the elevated tract of land which forms the watershed between the Dniester and the Dnieper. The European Alani are found in the geographers who followed Ptolemy. Dionysius Periegetes (v. 305) mentions them, first vaguely, among the peoples N. of the Palus Maeotis, with the Germans, Sarmatians, Gctae, Bastarnae, and Dscians; and then, more specifically, he says (308) that their land extends N. of the Tauri, " where are the Melauchlaeni, and Geloni, and Hippemolgi, and Neuri, and Agathyrsi, where the Borysthenes mingles with the Euxine." Some suppose the two passages to refer to different bodies of the Alani. (Bernhardy, ad loc.) They are likewise called Sarmatians by Marcian of Heraclcia (twv 'AXavav Zapfui-Tvv (Oyos: Peripl. p. 100, cd. Miller; Hudson, Geog. Min. vol. i. p. 56). The Asiatic Alani ('AKavot 2kv0<u) are placed by Ptolemy (vi. 14. § 9) in the extreme N. of Scythia