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territory of Alba, which still retained the name of "ager Albanos," was fertile and well cultivated, and celebrated in particular for the excellence of its wine, which was considered inferior only to the Falemian. (Dion. Hal. i. 66; Plin. B. N. xxiii. 1. s. 20; Hor. Carm. if. 11. 2, Sat. ii. 8. 16.) It produced also a kind of volcanic stone, now called Peperino, which greatly excelled the common tufo of Borne as a building material, and was extensively used as such under the name of " lapis Albanns." The ancient quarries may be still seen in the valley between Alba and Marino. (Vitruv. ii. 7; Plin. II. If. xxxvi. 22. s. 48; Suet. Aug. 72; Nibby, Roma Antica, vol. i. p. 240.)

Previous to the time of Sir W. Gell, the site of Alba Longa was generally supposed to be occupied by the convent of Palazzoh, a situation which does not at all correspond with the description of the site found in ancient authors, and is too confined a space to have ever afforded room for an ancient city. Niebuhr is certainly in error where he speaks of the modem village of Roccadi Papa as having been the arx of Alba Longa (vol. i. p. 200), that spot being far too distant to have ever had any immediate connection with the ancient city. [£. H. B.]

ALBA POMPEIACAASa nofim,fo, Ptol.: Albenses Pompeiani), a considerable town of the interior of Liguria, situated on the river Tanarus, near the northern foot of the Apennines, still called Alba. We have no account in any ancient writer of its foundation, or the origin of its name, but there is every-probability that it derived its distinctive appellation from Cn. Pompeius Strabo (the father of Pompey the Great) who conferred many privileges on the Cisalpine Gauls. An inscription cited by Spon (Mucell. p. 163), according to which it was a Roman colony, founded by Scipio Africanus and restored by Pompeius Magnus, is undoubtedly spurious. (See Mannert. vol. i. p. 295.) It did not possess colonial rank, but appears as a municipal town both in Pliny and on inscriptions:' though the former author reckons it among the "uobilia oppida" of Liguria. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 7; Ptol. iii. 1. § 45; Orell. Inter. 2179) It was the birth-place of the emj>cror Pertinax, whose father had a villa in the neighbourhood named the Villa Martis. (Dion Cass, lxxiii. 3; Jul. Capitol. Pert. 1, 3.) Its territory was particularly favourable to the growth of vines. (Plin. xvii. 4. s. 3.) Alba is still a considerable town with a population of 7000 souls; it is an episcopal see and the capital of a district. [E. H. B.]

ALBA'NA. [albania.]

ALBANIA (h AAsWa: Eth. and Adj. *AASayis, AACarter, Albanus, Albanius), a country of Asia, lying about the E. part of the chain of Caucasus. The first distinct information concerning it was obtained by the Romans and Greeks through Pompey's expedition into the Caucasian countries in pursuit of Mithridates (b. c. 65); and the knowledge obtained from then to the time of Augustus is embodied in Strabo's full description of the country and people (pp. 501, foil.). According to him, Albania was bounded on the E. by the Caspian, here called the Albanian Sea (Mare Albanum, Plin.); and on the N. by the Caucasus, here called Ceraunius lions, which divided it from Sarmatia Asiatica, On the W. it joined Iberia: Strabo gives no exact boundary, but he mentions as a part of Albania the district of Cambysene, that is, the valley of the Cainbyses, where he says the Armenians touch both the Iberians and the Albanians. On tho S. it was divided from the Great Armenia by the river Cyrus

(Kour). Later writers give the N. and W. boundaries differently. It was found that the Albanians dwelt on both sides of the Caucasus, and accordingly Pliny carries the country further N. as far as tho river Casius (vi. 13. a. 15); and he also makes the river Ala/.on (Alatari) the W. boundary towards Iberia (vi. 10. 8.11). Ptolemy (v. 12) names the river Soana (2odVo) as the N. boundary; and for the W. he assigns a line which he does not exactly describe, but which, from what follows, seems to lie either between the Alazon and the Cambyses, or even W. of the Cambyses. The Soana of Ptolemy is probably the Sulak or S. branch of the great river Terek (mth. in 43° 45' N. lat.), S. of which Ptolemy mentions the Gerrhus (Alktayf); then the Caesius, no doubt the Casius of Pliny (A'owou); S. of which again both Pliny and Ptolemy place the Albanus (prob. Samour), near the city of Albana (Derbent). To these rivers, which fall into the Caspian N. of the Caucasus, Pliny adds the Cyrus and its tributary, the Cambyses. Three other tributaries of the Cyrus, rising in the Caucasus, are named by Strabo as navigable rivers, the Sandobanes, Rhoetaces, and Canes. The country corresponds to the parts of Georgia called Schirvan or Guirvan, with the addition (in its wider extent) of Leghistan and Daghe*tan. Strabo's description of the country must, of course, be understood as applying to the part of it known in his time, namely, the plain between the Caucasus and the Cyrus. Part of it, namely, in Cambysene (on the \Y\), was mountainous; the rest was an extensive plain. The mud brought down by the Cyrus made the land along the shore of the Caspian marshy, but in general it was extremely fertile, producing corn, the vine, and vegetables of various kinds almost spontaneously; in some parts three harvests were gathered in the year from one sowing, the first of them yielding fifty-fold. The wild and domesticated animals were the finest of their kind; the dogs were able to cope with lions: but there were also scorpions and venomous spiders (the tarantula). Many of these particulars are confirmed by modern travellers.

The inhabitants were a fine race of men, tall and handsome, and more civilised than their neighbours the Iberians. They had evidently been originally a nomade people, and they aontinucd so in a great degree. Paying only slight attention to agriculture, they lived chiefly by hunting, fishing, and the produce of their flocks and herds. They were a warlike race, their force being chiefly in their cavalry, but not exclusively. When Pompey marched into their country, they met him with an army of 60,000 infantry, and 22,000 cavalry. (Plut. Pomp. 35.) They were armed with javelins and bows and arrows, and leathern helmets and shields, and many of their cavalry were clothed in completo armour. (Plut. /. c.; Strab. p. 530.) They made frequent predatory attacks on their more civilised agricultural neighbours of Armenia. Of peaceful industry they were almost ignorant; their traffic was by barter, money being scarcely known to them, nor any regular system of weights and measures. Their power of arithmetical computation is said to have only reached to the number 100. (Hustath. ad Dion. Perieg. 729.) They buried the moveable property of tho dead with them, and sons received no inheritance from their fathers; so that they never accumulated wealth. We find among them the same diversity of race and language that still exists in the regions of the Caucasus; they spoke 26 different dialects, and were divided into 12 hordes, each governed by its own chief, but all, in Strata's time, subject to one king. Among their tribes were the Legae (Airyai), whoso name is still preserved in Leghistan, and GeUe (rijAcu) in the mountains on the N. and NW. (Strab. p. 503), and the Gerrhi (Ti^jioi) on the river Gerrhus (Ptol.).

The Albanians worshipped a deity whom Strabo identifies with Zeus, and the Sun, but above all the Moon, whose temple was near the frontier of Iberia. Her priest ranked next to the king: and had under his command a rich and extensive sacred domain, and a body of temple-slaves (ItpdiovKoi), many of whom prophesied in fits of frenzy. The subject of such a paroxysm was seized as he wandered alone tlirough the forests, and kept a year in the hands of tiie priests, and then offered as a sacrifice to Selene; and auguries were drawn from the manner of his death: the rite is fully described by Strabo.

The origin of the Albanians is a much disputed point. It was by Pompey's expedition into the Caucasian regions in pursuit of Mithridates (n. c. 65) that they first became known to the Romans and Greeks, who were prepared to find in that whole region traces of the Argonautic voyage. Accordingly the people were said to have descended from Jason and his comrades (Strab. pp. 45, 503, 526; Plin. vL 13. s. 15; Solin. 15); and Tacitus relates (j4ra*.vi. 34) that the Iberi and Albani claimed descent from the Thessalians who accompanied Jason, of whom and of the oracle of Phrixus they preserved many legends, and that they abstained from offering rams in sacrifice. Another legend derived them from the companions of Hercules, who followed him out of Italy when he drove away the oxen of Gcryon; and hcucc the Albanians greeted the soldiers of Pompey as their brethren. (Justin, xlii. 3.) Several of tho Liter writers regard them as a Scythian people, akin to the Massagetae, and identical with the Alani; and it is still disputed whether they were, or not, original inhabitants of the Caucasus. [alani.]

Of the history of Albania there is almost nothing to be raid. The people nominally submitted to Pompey, but remained really independent.

Ptolemy mentions several cities of Albania, but none of any consequence except Albana (Derbend), which commanded the great pass on the shore of tho Caspian called the Albaniae or Cuspiae Pylae (Pass of Derbend). It is formed by a NE. spur of Caucasus, to which some geographers give the name of Ccraunius M., which Strabo applied to tho E. part of Caucasus itself. It is sometimes confounded with the inland pass, called Caucasiae Pylae. The Gangara or Gaetara of Ptolemy is supposed to be Bakoa, famous for its naphtha springs. Pliny mentions Cabalaca, in the interior, as the capital. Respecting the districts of Caspiene and Cambyseno, which some of the ancient geographors mention as belonging to Albania, see the separate articles. (Ukert, vol. iii. pt 2, pp. 561, &c; Georgii, vol. i. pp. 151, Sec.) [P. S.]

ALBA'NIAE POKTAE. [albania, Caspiae


ALBA'NUM ('A\eay6v), a town of Latium, situated on the western border of the Lacus Albonus, and on the Via Appia, at the distance of 14 miles from Rome. It is still called A Ibano. There is no trace of the existence of a town upon this spot in early times, but its site formed part of the territory of Alba Longa, which continued long after the fall of that city to retain the name of " Albauus

Ager." (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 25.) During the latter period of the republic, it became a favourite resort of the wealthy Roman nobles, who constructed villas here on a magnificent scale. We read of such as belonging to Pompey, to Clodins — who was killed by Milo close to his own villa—to Brutus and to Curio. (Cic. Or. in Piton. 31, pro 3fiL 10, 19, 20, Ep. ad Alt vii. 5, ix. 15, de Oral, ii 55; Plut. Pomp. 53.) Of these the villa of Pompey, called according to the Latin idiom "Albanum Pompeii," appears to have been the most conspicuous, and is repeatedly alluded to by Cicero. It fell after the death of Pompey into the hands of Dolabella (Cic. Philipp. xiii. 5), bnt appears to have ultimately passed into those of Augustas, and became a favourite place of resort both with him and his successors. (Suet A'er. 25; Dion Cass. liii. 32, lviii. 24.) It was, however, to Domitian that it owed its chief aggrandisement; that emperor made it not merely a place of retirement, but his habitual residence, where he transacted public business, exhibited gladiatorial shows, and even summoned assemblies of the senate. (Suet. Domit. 4, 19; Dion Cass. lxvi. 9, lxvii. 1; Juv. Sat. iv.; Orell. Inter. No. 3318.) Existing remains sufficiently attest the extent and magnificence of the gardens and edifices of all descriptions with which he adorned it; and it is probably from his time that we may date the permanent establishment there of a detachment of Praetorian guards, who had a regular fortified camp, as at Rome. The proximity of this camp to the city naturally gave it much importance, and we find it repeatedly mentioned by succeeding writers down to the time of Constantine. (Ael. Spart. CaracaU. 2; Jul. Capit. Afaximin. 23; Herodian. viii. 5.) It is doubtless on account of this fortified camp that we find the title of "An Albana" applied to the imperial residence of Domitian. (Toe Agric. 45; Juv. Sat. iv. 145.)

We have no distinct evidence as to the period when the town of Albanum first arose, but there can be little doubt that it must have begun to grow up as soon as the place became an imperial residence and permanent military station. We first find it mentioned in ecclesiastical records during the reign of Constantine, and in the fifth century it became the see of a bishop, which it has continued ever since. (Nibby, vol. L p. 79.) Procopius, in the sixth century, mentions it as a city (*A\tCfm\ and one of the places occupied by Belisarius for the defence of Rome. (B. G. ii. 4.) It is now but a small town, though retaining the rank of a city, with about 5000 inhabitants, bnt is a favourite place of resort in summer with the modern Roman nobles, as it was with their predecessors, on account of the salubrity and freshness of the air, arising from its elevated situation, and tho abundance of shade furnished by the neighbouring woods.

There still remain extensive ruins of Roman times; the greater part of which unquestionably belong to the villa of Domitian, and its appurtenances, including magnificent Thermae, an Amphitheatre, and various other remains. Some fragments of reticulated masonry are supposed, by Nibby, to have belonged to the villa of Pompey, and the extensive terraces now included in the gardens of the Villa Barberini, between A Ibano and Castel GandolfOy though in their present state belonging undoubtedly to the imperial villa, may probably be based upon the " insanae substructions " of Clodius alluded to by Cicero. (Pro Mil 20.) Besides these ruins, great part of the walla and one of the gates of the Praetorian camp may be observed in the town of Albano: it was as usual of quadrilateral form, and the walls which surround it are built of massive blocks of peperino, some of them not less than 12 feet in length, and presenting much resemblance to the more ancient fortifications of numerous Italian cities, from which they differ, however, in their comparatively small thickness.

Among the most interesting remains of antiquity still risible at Albano may be noticed three remarkable sepulchral monuments. One of these, about half a mile from Albano on the road to Kome, exceeding 30 feet in elevation, is commonly, but erroneously, deemed the Bepulchro of Clodius: another, on the same road close to the gate of Albano, has a far better claim to be regarded as that of Pompey, who was really buried, as we learn from Plutarch, in the immediate neighbourhood of his Alban villa. (Plut. Pomp. 80.) The third, situated near the opposite gate of the town on the road to Aricia, and vulgarly known as the Sepulchre of the Horatii and Curiatii, has been supposed by some modem antiquarians to be the tomb of Aruns, son of Porsena, who was killed in battle near Aricia. It is, however, probable that it is of much later date, and was constructed in imitation of the Etruscan style towards the close of the Roman republic. (Nibby, /. c. p. 93; Canina in Ann. dell' Inst. Arch. vol. ix. p. 57.) For full details concerning the Roman remains at Albano, sec Xibby, Dintorni di Roma, p. 88—97; Riccy, Storia di Alba Longa, 4to. Rome, 1787; Piranesi, Antkhita di Albano, Roma, 1762. [E. H. B.]

ALBANUS. [albania.]

ALBA'NUS LACUS, now called the Logo di Albano, is a remarkable lake of Latium, situated immediately beneath the mountain of the same name (now Monte Cam), about 14 miles S. E. of Rome. It is of an oval form, about six miles m circumference, and has no natural outlet, being surrounded on all sides by steep or precipitous banks of volcanic tutu, which rise in many parts to a height of three or four hundred feet above the level of the lake. It undoubtedly formed, at a very early period, the crater of a volcano, but this must have ceased to exist long before the historical era. Though situated apparently at the foot of the Mons Albanus, it is at a considerable elevation above the plain of Latium, the level of its waters being 918 feet above the sea; their depth is said to bo very great. The most interesting circumstance connected with this lake is the construction of the celebrated emissary or tunnel to carry off its superfluous waters, the formation of which is narrated both by Livy and Dionysius, while the work itself remains at the present day, to confirm the accuracy of their accounts. According to the statement thus transmitted to us, this tunnel was a work of the Romans, undertaken in the year 397 B. c, and was occasioned by an extraordinary swelling of the lake, the waters of which rose far above their accustomed height, so as even to overflow their lofty banks. The legend, which connected this prodigy and the work itself with the siege of Veii, may bo safely dismissed as unhistorical, but there seems no reason for rejecting the date thus assigned to it. (Liv. v. 15—19; Won. Hal. xii. 11 — 16, Fr. Mai; Cic. de IHvin. i. 44.) This remarkable work, which, at the present day, after the lapse of more than 2000 years, continues to serve the purpose for which

it was originally designed, is carried under the ridge that forms the western boundary of the lake near CasUl Gandolfo, and which rises in this part to a height of 430 feet above the level of the water; its actual length is about 6000 feet; it is 4 feet 6 inches wide, and ti} feet high at its entrance, but the height rapidly diminishes so as in some places not to exceed 2 feet, and it is, in consequence, impossible to penetrate further than about 130 yards from the opening. The entrance from the lake is through a flat archway, constructed of large blocks of peperino, with a kind of court or quadrilateral space enclosed by massive masonry, and a second archway over tho actual opening of the tunnel. But, notwithstanding the simple and solid style of their construction, it may be doubted whether these works are coeval with the emissary itself. The opposite extremity of it is at a spot called le Mole, near Cartel SaceM, about a mile from Albano, where the waters that issue from it form a considerable Btream,now known as the RivoAlbtmo, which, after a course of about 15 miles, joins the Tiber near a spot called La Valca. Numerous openings or shafts from above (" spiramina ") were necessarily sunk during the process of construction, some of which remain open to this day. The whole work is cut with the chisel, and is computed to have required a period of not less than ten years for its completion: it is not however, as asserted by Niebuhr, cut through "lava hard as iron," but through the soft volcanic tufo of which all these hills are composed. (Gell, Topoor. of Rome, p. 22 —29; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 98— 105; Westphal, RSmitcheKampaone, p.25;Abeken, Mittel-Italien, p. 178; Niebuhr, voL ii. pp. 475, 507.) Cicero justly remarks {de Divin. ii. 32) that such a work must have been intended not only to carry off the superfluous waters of the lake, but to irrigate the subjacent plain: a purpose which is still iu great measure served by the Kir., Albano. The banks of the lake seem to have been in ancient times, as they are now, in great part covered with wood, whence it is called by Livy (v. 15) " lacus in nemore Albano." At a later period, when its western bank became covered with the villas of wealthy Romans, numerous edifices were erected on its immediate shores, among which the remains of two grottoes or "Nymphaea" are conspicuous. One of these, immediately adjoining the entrance of the emissary, was probubly connected with the villa of Domitian. Other vestiges of ancient buildings are visiblo below the surface of the water, and this circumstance has probably given rise to the tradition common both in ancient and modern times of the submersion of a previously existing city. (Dion. Hal. i. 71; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 200, with note by the translators.) [E. H. B.J

ALBA'NUS MONS (to 'Akgayby 6pos, Strab.; Monte Cavo) was- the name given to the highest and central summit of a remarkable group of mountains in Latium, which forms one of the most important physical features of that conntry. The name of Alban Hills, or Monti Albani, is commonly applied in modem usage to the whole of this group, which rises from the surrounding plain in an isolated mass, nearly 40 miles in circumference, and is wholly detached from the mountains that rise above Praeneste on the east, as well as from the Volscian mountains or Monti Lepini on the south. But this more extended use of the name appears to havo been unknown to the ancients, who speak only of the Mods Albanus in the singular, as designating the highest peak. The whole mass is clearly of volcanic origin, and may be conceived as having once formed a vast crater, of which the lofty ridge now called Monte Ariano constituted the southern side, while the heights of Mt Algidus, and those occupied by Jtocca Priore and Tusculum continued the circle on the E. and NE. Towards the sea the original mountain wall of this crater has given way, and has been replaced by the lakes of AJha.no and Nemi, themselves probably at one time separate vents of volcanic eruption. Within this outer circle rises an inner height, of a somewhat conical form, the proper Mons Albanus, which presents a repetition of the same formation, having its own smaller crater surrounded on three sides by steep mountain ridges, while the fourth (that turned towards Borne) has no such barrier, and presents to view a green mountain plain, commonly known as the Campo di Annibale, from the belief—wholly unsupported by any ancient authority—that it was at one time occupied by the Carthaginian general. The highest of the surrounding summits, which rises to more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, is the culminating point of the whole group, and was occupied in ancient times by the temple of Jupiter Latiaris. (Cic. pro Mil. 31; Lucan. i. 198.) It is from hence that Virgil represents Juno as contemplating the contest between the Trojans and Latins (Aen. xii. 134), and the magnificent prospect which it commands over the whole of the surrounding country renders it peculiarly fit for snch a station, as well as the natural site for the central sanctuary of the Latin nation. For the same reason we find it occupied as a military post on the alarm of the sudden advance of Hannibal upon Rome. (Liv. xxvi. 9.)

There can be no doubt that the temple of Jupiter Latiaris* had become the religious centre and place of meeting of the Latins long before the dominion of Rome: and its connection with Alba renders it almost certain that it owed its selection for this purpose to the predominance of that city. Tarquinius Superbus, who is represented by the Roman annalists as first instituting this observance (Dion. Hal. iv. 49), probably did no more than assert for Rome that presiding authority which had previously been enjoyed by Alba. The annual sacrifices on the Alban Mount at the Fcriae Latinae continued to be celebrated long after the dissolution of the Latin league, and the cessation of their national assemblies: even in the days of Cicero and Augustus the decayed Municipia of Latium still sent deputies to receive their share of the victim immolated on their common behalf, and presented with primitive simplicity their offerings of lambs, milk, and cheese. (Liv. v. 17, Mi. 63, xxxii. 1; Cic. pro Plane. 9, de Divin. i. 11; Dion. Hal iv. 49; Suet. Claud. 4.)

Another custom which was doubtless derived from a more ancient period, but retained by the Romans, was that of celebrating triumphs on the Alban Mount, a practice which was, however, resorted to by Roman generals only when they failed in obtaining the honours of a regular triumph at Rome. The first person who introduced this mode of evading the authority of the senate, was C. Papi

* Concerning the forms, Latiaris and Latialis, see Orcll. OnomatU vol. ii. p. 336; Ernest, ad Suet. Calig. 22.

rius Maso, who was consul in B. c. 231: a more illustrious example was that of Marcellus, after the capture of Syracuse, B. C. 211. Only five instances in all are recorded of triumphs thus celebrated. (Val. Max. iii. 6. § 5; Liv. xxvi. 21, xxxiii. 23, xlii. 21; Fast. Capit.)

The remains of the temple on the summit of the mountain were still extant till near the close of the last century, but were destroyed in 1783, when the church and convent which now occupy the site were rebuilt. Some of the massive blocks of peperino which formed the substruction may be still seen (though removed from their original site) in the walls of the convent and buildings annexed to it. The magnificence of the marbles and other architectural decorations noticed by earlier antiquarians, as discovered here, show that the temple must have been rebuilt or restored at a comparatively late period. (Piranesi, Antichila di Albano; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 112, 113.) Bui though the temple itself has disappeared, the Roman road which led up to it is still preserved, and, from the absence of all traffic, remains in » state of singular perfection. The polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, of which the pavement is composed, are fitted together with the nicest accuracy, while the "crepidines" or curb-stones are still preserved on each side, and altogether it presents by far the most perfect specimen of an ancient Roman road in its original state. It is only 8 feet in breadth, and is carried with much skill up the steep acclivity of the mountain. This road may be traced down to the chesnut woods below Rocca di Papa: it appears to have passed by Palazzolu, where we find a remarkable monument cut in the face of the rock, which has been conjectured to be that of Cn. Cornelius Scipio, who died in B. c. 176. (Nibby, I c. pp. 75, 114, 115; Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 32.)

Numerous prodigies arc recorded by Roman writers as occurring on the Alban Mount: anion* these the falling of showers of stones is frequently mentioned, a circumstance which has been supposed by some writers to indicate that the volcanic energy of these mountains continued in historical times; but this suggestion is sufficiently disproved by historical, as well as geological, considerations. (Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 169, seq. [E. H. B.]

A'LBICI, a barbaric people, as Caesar calls thorn (B. C. i. 34), who inhabited the mountains above Massilia (Marseille). They were employed on board their vessels by the Massilicnses to oppose Caesar's fleet, which was under the command of D. Brutus, and they fonglit bravely in the sea-fijrhL off Massilia, B. c. 49 (Caes. B. C. i. 57). The name of this people in Strabo is 'AAGmr and 'AASloiKot (p. 203); for it docs not seem probable that he means two peoples, and if he does mean two tribes, they are both mountain tribes, and in the same mountain tract. D'Anville infers that a place called Albiotc, which is about two leagues from Riez, in the department of Basses Alpcs, retains the traces of the name of this people. [G. L.]

AL'BII, ALBA'NI MONTES (ri 'AKSta ipv, Strab. viL p. 314; To 'AKfaybv tpos, Ptol. ii. 14.§ 1), was an eastern spur of Mount Carvancas, and the termination of the Carnic or Julian Alps on the confines of lllyricum. The Albii Montes dip down to the banks of the Saave, and connect Mount Carvancas with Mount Cetius, inclosing Aemona, and forming I the southern boundary of Pannonia. [W. B. D.I

ALBINGAUNXIM. [albium Isoaukum.]

ALBI'NIA, a considerable river of Etruria, still called the Albegna, rising in the mountains at the back of Satumia, and flowing into the sea between the Portus Telatnonis and the remarkable promontory called Mons Argentarios. The name is found only in the Tabula; but the Alminia or Almina of the Maritime Itinerary (p. 500) is evidently the same river.' [E. H. B.]

ALBINTEMELIUM. [albium Lntemelium.]

A'LBION. [britannia.]

ALBIS ("AAftj or'AA&oi: die Elbe), one of the great rivers of Germany. It flows from SE. to NVV., and empties itself in the Northern or German Ocean, having its sources near the Schneekoppe on the Bohemian side of the Bietengebirye. Tacitus (Germ. 41) places its sources in the country of the Hermunduri, which is too far east, perhaps because he confounded the Elbe with the Eger; Ptolemy (ii. U) puts them too far from the Asciburgian mountains. Dion Cassius (lv. 1) more correctly represents it as rising in the Vandal mountains. Strabo (p.290) describes its course as parallel,and as of equal length with that of the Rhine, both of which notions are erroneous. The Albis was the most easterly and northerly river reached by the Romans in Germany. They first reached its banks in B. c.9, under Claudius Drusus, but did not cross it. (Liv. Epit. 140; Dion Cass. I c.) Domitius Ahenobarbns, B. c. 3, was the fir.st who crossed the river (Tacit. Ann. iv. 44), and two years later he came to the banks of the lower Albis, meeting the fleet which had sailed up the river from the sea. (Tacit. I c.; Veil. Pat. ii. 106; Dion Cass. lv. 28.) After thattime the Romans,notthinking it safe to keep their legions at so great a distance, and amid such warlike nations, never again proceeded as far as the Albis, so that Tacitus, in speaking of it, says: Jlumen inclutum et notum olim; nunc tantum auditor. [L. S.]

A'LBIUM INGAUNUM or ALBINGAUNUM ('AASiyyowoi', Strab., Ptol.: Albenga), a city on the coast of Liguria, about 50 miles SW. of Genua, and the capital of the tribe of the Inganni. There can be no doubt that the full form of the name, Albium Ingaunum (given by Pliny, iii. 5. s. 7, and Varro, de It. K. iii. 9. § 17), is the correct, or at least the original one: but it seems to have been early abbreviated into Albingaunum, which is found in Strabo, Ptolemy, and the Itineraries, and is retained, with little alteration, in the modem name of Albenga. Strabo places it at 370 stadia from Vada Sabbata (Vado), which is much beyond the truth: the I tin. Ant. gives the same distance at 20 M. P., which is rather less than the real amount (Strab. p. 202; PtoL iii. 1. § 3; Itin. Ant p. 295; Itin. Marit p. 502; Tab. Pent) It appears to have been a municipal town of some importance under the Roman empire, and was occupied by the troops of Otho during the civil war between them and the Vitellians. (Tac. But. ii. 15.) At a later period it is mentioned as the birthplace of the emperor Proculus. (Vopisc. Procul. 12.) The modem city of Albenga contains only about 4000 inhabitants, but is an episcopal see, and the capital of a district. Some inscriptions and other Roman remains have been found here: and a bridge, called the Ponte Lungo, is considered to be of Roman construction. The city is situated at the month of the river Ceuta. which has been erroneously supposed to be the Merula of Pliny: that river, which still retains its ancient name, flows into the sea at An

dora, about 10 m. further S. Nearly opposite to Albenga is a little island, called Galltsabia InSula, from its abounding in fowls in a half-wild state: it still retains the name of GaUinara. (Van-. I c; Columell. viii. 2. § 2.) [E. H. B.]

A'LBIUM INTEME'LIUM or ALBINTEME'LIUM ('AA«wi> 'lmiii\ior, Strab.; 'AA6i»TtM<Aiok, Ptol.: Vintimiglia), a city on the coast of Liguria, situated at the foot of the Maritime Alps, at the mouth of the river Rutuba. It was the capital of the tribe of the Intemelii, and was distant 16 Roman miles from the Portus Monoeci (Monaco, Itin. Marit. p. 502). Strabo mentions it as a city of considerable size (p. 202), and we learn from Tacitus that it was of municipal rank. It was plundered by the troops of the emperor Otho, while resisting those of Vitellius, on which occasion the mother of Agricola lost her life. (Tac. Ilitt. ii. 13, Agr. 7.) According to Strabo (I c), the name of Albium applied to this city, as well as the capital of the Ingauni, was derived from their Alpine situation, and is connected with the Celtic word Alb or Alp. There is no doubt that in this case also the full form is the older, but the contracted name Albintcmelium is already found in Tacitus, as well as in the Itineraries; in one of which, however, it is corrupted into Vmtimih'nm, from whence comes the modem name of Vintimiglia. It is still a considerable town, with about 5000 inhabitants, and an episcopal see: but contains no antiquities, except a few Roman inscriptions.

It is situated at the month of the river Roja, the Rutuba of Pliny and Lucan, a torrent of a formidable character, appropriately termed by the latter author "cavus," from the deep bed between precipitous banks which it has hollowed out for itself near its mouth. (Plin./.c; Lucan. ii. 422.) [E.H.B.]

ALBUCELLA (AAftfiMAa: ViTla Fasila), a city of the Vaccaei in Hispania Tarraconensis (Itin. Ant.; Ptol.), probably the Arbocala (Ap6WaA7)) which is mentioned by Polybius (iii. 14), Livy (xxi. 5), and Stephanus Byzantinns (<. v.), as the chief city of the Vaccaei, the taking of which, after an obstinate resistance, was one of Hannibal's first exploits in Spain, B. C. 218. [P. S.]

A'LBULA. 1. The ancient name of the Tiber. [tiberis.]

2. A small river of Picenum, mentioned only by Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who appears to place it N. of the Trnentus, but there is great difficulty in assigning its position with any certainty, and the text of Pliny is very corrupt: the old editions give AlBulates for the name of the river. [picenum.]

3. A small river or stream of sulphureous water near Tibur, flowing into the Anio. It rises in a pool or small lake about a mile on the left of the modem road from Rome to Tivoli, but which was situated on the actual line of the ancient Via Tiburtina, at a distance of 16 M. P. from Rome. (Tab. Peut; Vitrav. viii. 3. §2.) The name of Albnla is applied to this stream by Vitruvius, Martial (i. 13. 2), and Statins (Silv. i. 3.75), but more commonly we find the source itself designated by the name of Albulae Aquae (to "aasouao SSara, Strab. p. 208). The waters both of the lake and stream are strongly impregnated with sulphur, and were in great request among the Romans for their medicinal properties, so that they were frequently carried to Rome for the use of baths: while extensive Thermae wero erected near the lake itself, the ruins of which are still visible. Their construction is commonly

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