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ascribed, but without authority, to Agrippa. The waters were not hot, like most sulphureous sources, but cold, or at least cool, their actual temperature being about 80° of Fahrenheit; but so strong is the sulphureous Tapour that exhales from their surface as to give them the appearance alluded to by Martial, of " smoking." ( Canaque sulphureit A Ibulafumat aquis, L c.) The name was doubtless derived from the whiteness of the water: the lake is now commonly known as the Solfatara. (Plin. xxxi. 2. s. 6; Strab. I. c; Paus. iv. 35. §10; Suet. Aug. 82, A'er. 31; Vitruv. i. c.) No allusion is found in ancient authors to the property possessed by these waters of incrusting all the vegetation on their banks with carbonate of lime, a process which goes on with such rapidity that great part of the lake itself is crusted over, and portions of the deposit thus formed, breaking off from time to time, give rise to little floating islands, analogous to those described by ancient writers in the Cutilian Lake. For the same reason the present channel of the stream has required to be artificially excavated, through the mass of travertine which it had itself deposited. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 4—6 j Gell, Top. of Home, pp. 40, 41.)

It has been generally supposed that the Albunea of Horace and Virgil was identical with the Albula, but there appear no sufficient grounds for this assumption: and it seems almost certain that the "domusAlbuneae resonantis " of the former(Corm. i. 7. 12) was the temple of the Sibyl at Tibur itself, in the immediate neighbourhood of the cascade [tibur], while there are strong reasons for transferring the grove and oracle of Faunus, and the fountain of Albunea connected with them (Virg. A en. vii. 82), to the neighbourhood of Ardea. [akdea.] [E. H. B.]

ALBUM PROMONTORIUM(Plin. v. 19. s. 17), was the western extremity of the mountain range Anti-Libanus, a few miles south of ancient Tyre (Palai-Tyrus). Between the Mediterranean Sea and the base of the headland Album ran a narrow road, in places not more than six feet in breadth, cut out of the solid rock, and ascribed, at least by tradition, to Alexander the Great. This was the communication between a small fort or castle called Alexandroschene (ScandaHum) and the Mediterranean. (It. Hieros. p. 584.) The Album Promontorium is the modern Cape Blanc, and was one hour's journey to the north of Ecclippa (Dthib or Zib). [W. B. D.]

ALBURNUS MONS, a mountain of Lucania, mentioned in a well-known passage of Virgil (Georg. iii. 146), from which we leam that it was in the neighbourhood of the river Silarus. The name of Monte AUmrno is said by Italian topographers to be still retained by the lofty mountain group which rises to the S. of that river, between its two tributaries, the Tanagro and Colore. It is more commonly called the Monte di Postiglione, from the small town of that name on its northern declivity, and according to Cluverius is still covered with forests of holm-oaks, and infested with gad-flies. (Cluver. Ital. p. 1254; Romanelli, vol. i p. 418; Zannoni, Carta del Regno di Napoli.)

We find mention, in a fragment of Lucilius, of a Portus Alburnus, which appears to have been situated at the mouth of the river Silarus, and probably derived its name from the mountain. (Lucil. Fr. p. 11, ed. Gerlach; Probus, ad Virg. G. Hi. 146; Vib. Soq. p. 18, with Oberbn.) [E. H. B]

ALCO'MENAE('AAicouo<al: Eth.'AA(«o/M«ilt).

1. A town of the Denriopes on the Erigon, in Paeonia in Macedonia. (Strab. p. 327.)

2. [alajjcomenae, No. 2.]

ALCYO'NIA ('AAxuovia), a lake in Argolis, near the Lcrnaean grove, through which Dionysus was said to have descended to the lower world, in order to bring back Semele from Hades. Pausanias says that its depth was unfathomable, and that Nero had let down several stadia of rope, loaded with lead, without finding a bottom. As Pausanias does not mention a lake Lerna, but only a district of this name, it is probable that the lake called Alcyonia by Pansanias is t he samo as the Lerna of other writers. (Pans. ii. 37. § 5, seq.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 473.)

ALCYO'NIUM MARE. [CoRnrrmAuus SiNus.]

A'LEA ('AA&i: Eth. 'AAfos, 'Aktirijt), a town of Arcadia, between Orchoraenus and Stymphalus, contained, in the time of Pausanias, temples of the Ephesian Artemis, of Athena Alea, and of Dionysus. It appears to have been situated in the territory either of Stymphalus or Orchomenus. Pausanias (viii. 27. § 3) calls Alea a town of the MacnaUans; but we ought probably to read Asea in this passage, instead of Alea. The ruins of Alea have been discovered by the French Commission in the middle of the dark valley of Skotird, about a mile to the NE. of the village of Buydti. Alea was never a town of importance; but some modern writers havet though inadvertently, placed at this town the celebrated temple of Athena Alea, which was situated at Tegea. [teoea.] (Pans. viii. 23. § 1; Steph. B. i. v.; Boohye, Recherche*, dv., p. 147; Leake, Peloponneeiaca, p. 383.)

ALEMANNI. [germama.]

ALE'RIA or ALALIA ('AAaAfcj, Herod.; 'AAAoAla, Steph. B.; 'AArpla, Ptol.: 'aaaoakuos, Steph. B.), one of the chief cities of Corsica, situated on the E. coast of the island, near the mouth of the river Rhotanus (Tavignano). It was originally a Greek colony, founded about B. c. 564, by the Phocaeans of Ionia. Twenty years later, when tho parent city was captured by Harpagus, a large portion of its inhabitants repaired to their colony of Alalia, where they dwelt for five years, but their piratical conduct involved them in hostilities with the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians; and in a great sea-fight with the combined fleets of these two nations they suffered such heavy loss, as induced them to abandon the island, and repair to the S. of Italy, where they ultimately established themselves at Velia in Lucania. (Herod, i. 165—167; Steph. B.; Diod. v. 13, where KoAapu is evidently a corrupt reading for 'AAapia.) No further mention is found of the Greek colony, but the city appears again, under the Roman form of the name, Aleria, during the first Punic war, when it was captured by the Roman fleet under L. Scipio, in n. c. 259, an event which led to the submission of the whole island, and was deemed worthy to be expressly mentioned in his epitaph. (Zonar. viii. 11; Flor. ii. 2; Orell. Inter, no. 552.) It subsequently received a Roman colony under the dictator Sulla, and appears to have retained its colonial rank, and continued to be one of the chief cities of Corsica under the Roman Empire. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7; Diod. v. 13; Seneca, Cons, ad Helv. 8; Ptol. iii. 2. § 5; Itin. Ant. p. 85.)

Its ruins are still visible near the south bank of the river Tavignano : tbey are now above half a mile from the coast, though it was in the Soman times a seaport. [E. H. B.]

ALE'SIA (Alite), a town of the Mandubii, who ■were neighbours of the Aedui. The name is sometimes written Alexia (Florus, iii. 10, note, ed. Duker, and elsewhere). Tradition made it m very old town, for the story was that it was founded by Hercules on his return from Iberia; and the Celtao were said to venerate it as the hearth (i<rria) and mother city of all Celtica (Diod. iv. 19). Strabo (p. 191) describes Alcsia as situated on a lofty hill, and surrounded by mountains and by two streams. This description may be taken from that of Caesar (B. G. viL 69), who adds that in front of the town there was a plain about three Roman miles long. The site corresponds to that of Mont Auxois, close to which is a place now called Ste Heine dAlise. The two streams are the Lozerain and the Loze, both tributaries of the Yonne. In B. C. 52 the Galli made a last effort to throw oif the Roman yoke, and after they had sustained several defeats, a large force under Vercingetorix shut themselves up in Alesia. After a vigorous resistance, the place was surrendered to Caesar, and Vercingetorix was made a prisoner (if. G. vii. 68—90). Caesar docs not speak of the destruction of the place, but Florus says that it was burnt, a circumstance which is not inconsistent with its being afterwards restored. Pliny (xxxiv. 17. s. 48) speaks of Alesia as noted for silver-plating articles of harness for horses and beasts of burden. Traces of several Roman roads tend towards this town, which appears to have been finally ruined about the ninth century of ouraera. [G. L.]

ALE'SIAE ('AA«r(oi), a village in Laconia, on the road from Therapne to Mt. Taygetus, is placed by Leake nearly in a line between the southern extremity of Sparta and the site of Bryseae. (Paus. iii. 20. § 2; Leake, Pelopormetiaca, p. 164.)

ALESIAEUM ('AAwiaToy), called ALEI'SIUM ('AAff<rioi>) by Homer, a town of Pisatis, situated upon the road leading across the mountains from Elis to Olympia. Its site is uncertain. (Strab. p. 341; Horn. //. ii. 617; Stcph. B. ».«. 'AA^ow.)

ALESIUS MONS, [manteieia.]

ALE'TIUM ('AA^i-iot- Ptol. iii. 1. § 76; Eth, Aletinus, Plin. iii. 11. s. 16), a town of Calabria, mentioned, both by Pliny and Ptolemy, among the inland cities which they assign to the Salentini. Its site (erroneously placed by Cluver at Lecce") is clearly marked by the ancient church of Sta Maria delta Lizza (formerly an episcopal see) near the village of Fuciotti, about 5 miles from Gallipoli, on ,he road to Otranto. Here many ancient remains have been discovered, among which are numerous tombs, with inscriptions in the Messapian dialect. (D'Anville, Anal. Geogr. de tltalie, p. 233; Momm»en, Unter-Itat Dialekte, p. 57.) The name is corruptly written Baletium in the Tab. Peut., which however correctly places it between Neretum (Arardu) and Uxentum (Ugento), though the distances {riven are inaccurate. In Strabo, also, it is probable that we should read with Kramer 'aatjtio for 2oArjTn'a. which he describes as a town in the interior of Calabria, a short distance from the sea. (Strab. p. 282; and Kramer, ad he.) [E. II. B.]

ALEXANDREIA, -IA or -EA (* 'AAe{t(»J>e««: Eth. 'AAffoyopevy, more rarely 'AAcfwoplTij*, 'AAffavopiwnjj, 'AXttavSpiapSs, 'A\t£avtpivos, 'AAifwopfnir, Alexandrinus; Jem. 'AAfZcw&pif: the modem ELSlcanderitK), the Hellenic capital of Egypt, was founded by Alexander the.Great in B. c.

332. It stood in lat 31° N.; long. 47° E. (Aran, iii. 1, p. 156; Q. Curt. iv. 8. § 2.) On his voyage from Memphis to Canobus he was struck by the natural advantages of the little town of Rhacotis, on the north-eastern angle of the Lake Mareotis. The harbour of Rhacotis, with the adjacent island of Pharos, had been from very remote ages (Horn. Od. iv. 355) the resort of Greek and Phoenician sea-rovers, and in the former place the Pharaohs kept a permanent garrison, to prevent foreigners entering their dominions by any other approach than the city of Naucratis and the Canobic branch of the Nile. At Rhacotis Alexander determined to construct the future capital of his western conquests. His architect Deinocrates was instructed to survey the harbour, and to draw out a plan of a military and commercial metropolis of the first rank. (Vitruv. ii. prooem.; Solin. c 32; Amm. Marc. xxii. 40; Val. Max. i. 4. § 1.) The ground-plan was traced by Alexander himself; the building was commenced immediately, but the city was not completed until the reign of the second monarch of the Lagid line, Ptolemy Philadelphus. It continued to receive embellishment and extension from nearly every monarch of that dynasty. The plan of Deinocrates was carried out by another architect, named Cleomenes, of Naucratis. (Justin, xiii.4. § 1.) Ancient writers (Strab. p. 791, seq.; Pint. Alex. 26; Plin. v. 10. s. 11) compare the general form of Alexandreia to the cloak (chlamys) worn by the Macedonian cavalry. It was of an oblong figure, rounded at the SE. and SW. extremities. Its length from E. to W. was nearly 4 miles; its breadth from S. to N. nearly a mile, and its circumference, according to Pliny (/. e.) was about 15 miles. The interior was laid out in parallelograms: the streets crossed one another at right angles, and were all wide enough to admit of both wheel carriages and foot-passengers. Two grand thoroughfares nearly bisected the city. They ran in straight lines to its four principal gates, and each was a plethrum, or about 200 feet wide. The longest, 40 stadia in length, ran from the Canobic gate to that of the Necropolis (E.—W.): the shorter, 7—8 stadia in length, extended from the Gate of the Sun to the Gate of the Moon (S.—N.). On its northern side Alexandreia was bounded by the sea, sometimes denominated the Egyptian Sea: on the south by the Lake of Marea or Mareotis; to the west were the Necropolis and its numerous gardens; to the east the Eleusinian road and the Great Hippodrome. The tongue of land upon which Alexandreia stood was singularly adapted to a commercial city. The island of Pharos broke the forco of the north wind, and of the occasional high floods of the Mediterranean. The headland of Lochias sheltered its harbours to the east; the Lake Mareotis was both a wet-dock and the general haven of the inland navigation of the Nile-valley, whether direct from Syene, or by the royal canal from Arsinoe on the Red Sea, while various other canals connected the lake with the Deltaic branches of the river. The springs of Rhacotis were few and brackish; but an aqueduct conveyed the Nile water into the southern section of the city, and tanks, many of which are still in use, distributed fresh water to both public and private edifices. (Hirtius, B. Alex. c. 5.) The soil, partly sandy and partly calcareous, rendered drainage nearly superfluous. The fogs which periodically linger on the shores of Cyrene and Egypt were dispersed by the north winds which, in the summer season, ventilate the Delta; while the salubrious

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1. Acrolochias.

2. Lochias.

3. Closed or Royal Tort.

4. Antirhodos.

5. Royal Dockyards.

6. Poseideion.

7. City Dockyards and Quays.

8. Gate of the Moon.

9. Kibotus, Basin of Eunostus.

10. Great Mole (Heptastadium).

11. Eunostus, Haven of Happy Return.

12. The Island Pharos.

13. The Tower Pharos (Diamond-Rock).

14. The Pirates' Bay.

15. Regio Judaeorum.

16. Theatre of the Museum.

We shall first describe the harbour-line, and next the interior of the city.

The harbour-line commenced from the east with the peninsular strip Lochias, which terminated seaward in a fort called Aero-Lochias, the modern PkarHlon, The ruins of a pier on the eastern side of it mark an ancient landing-place, probably belonging to the Palace which, with its groves and gardens, occupied this Peninsula. Like all the principal buildings of Alcsandreia, it commanded a view of the bay and the Pharos. The Lochias formed, with the islet of Antirhodus, the Closed or Royal Port, which was kept exclusively for the king's gallies, and around the head of which were the Royal Dockyards. West of the Closed Port was the Poseideion or Temple of Neptune, where embarking and returning mariners registered their vows. The northern point of this temple was called the Timonium, whither the defeated triumvir M. Antonius retired after his flight from Actium in v.. v. 31. (Plut.

17. Stadium.

18. Library and Museum.

19. Soma.

20. Dicasterium.

21. Panium.

22. Serapeion.

23. Rhacotis.

24. Lake Mareotis.

25. Canal to Lake Mareotis.

26. Aqueduct from the Nile.

27. Necropolis.

28. Hippodrome.

29. Gate of the Sun.

30. Amphitheatre.

31. Emporium or Royal Exchange.

32. Arsinoeum.

Anion. 69.) Between Lochias and the Great MoJe (Heptastadium) was the Greater Harbour, and on the western side of the Mole was the Haven of Happy Return (ffffooros), connected by the basin (*riSotros, chest) with the canal that led, by one arm, to the Lake Mareotis, and by the other to the Canobic arm of the Nile. The haven of " Happy Return n fronted the quarter of the city called Rhacotis. It was less difficult of access than the Greater Harbour, as the reefe and shoals lie principally NE. of the Pharos. Its modern name is the Old Port. From the Poseideion to the Mole the shore was lined with dockyards and warehouses, upon whose broad granite quays ships discharged their lading without the intervention of boats. On the western horn of the Eunostus were public granaries.

Fronting the city, and sheltering both its harbours, lay the long narrow island of Pharos. It wns a dazzling white calcareous rock, about a mile from Alezandreia, and, according to Strabo, 150 stadia from the Canobic month of the Nile. At its eastern point stood the far-famed lighthouse, the work of Sostrates of Cnidus, and, nearer the Heptastadium, was a temple of Phtah or Hephaestus. The Pharos was begun by Ptolemy Soter, but completed by his successor, and dedicated by him to "the gods Soteres," or Soter and Berenice, his parents. (Strab. p. 792.) It consisted of several stories, and is said to have been four hundred feet in height. The old light-house of Alexandreia still occupies the site of its ancient predecessor. A deep bay on the northern side of the island was called the " Pirates' Haven," from its having been an early place of refuge for Carian and Samian mariners. The islets which stud the northern coast of Pharos became, in the 4th and Sth centuries A. D., the resort of Christian anchorites. The island is said by Strabo to have been nearly desolated by Julius Caesar when he was besieged by the Alexandrians in B. c. 46. (Hirt. B. Alex. 17.)

The l'haroo was connected with the mainland by an artificial mound or causeway, called, from its length (7 stadia, 4270 English feet, or | of a mile), the Heptastadium. There were two breaks in the Mole to let the water flow through, and prevent the accumulation of silth; over these passages bridges were laid, which could be raised up at need. The temple of Hephaestus on Pharos stood at one extremity of the Mole, and the Gate of the Moon on the mainland at the other. The form of the Heptastadium can no longer be distinguished, since modern Alexandreia is principally erected upon it, and upon t he earth which has accumulated about its piers. It probably lay in a direct line between fort CaffarelU and the island.

Interior of the City. Alexandreia was divided into three regions. (1) The Kegio Judaeorum. (2) The Iirucheium or Pyrucheium, the Eoyal or Greek Quarter. (3) The Rhacotis or Egyptian Quarter. This division corresponded to the three original constituents of the Alexandrian population (jpia yivn, Polyb. xxxiv. 14; Strab. p. 797, seq.) After B. c. 31 the Romans added a fourth element, but this was principally military and financial (the garrison, the government, and its official staff, and the ncgotiatores), and confined to the Region Brucheium.

1. Regio Judaeorum, or Jews' Quarter, occupied the NE. angle of the city, and was encompassed by the sea, the city walls, and the Brucheium. Like the Jewry of modem European cities, it had walls and gates of its own, which were at times highly necessary for its security, since between the Alexandrian Greeks and Jews frequent hostilities raged, inflamed both by political jealousy and religious hatred. The Jews were governed by their own Ethnarch, or Arabarches (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 7. § 2, 10. § 1, xviii. 6. § 3, xix. 5. § 2, B. J. ii. 18. § 7), by a sanhedrim or senate, and their own national laws. Augustus Caesar, in B. c. 31, granted to the Alexandrian Jews equal privileges with their Greek fellow citizens, and recorded his grant by a public inscription. (Id. Antiq. xii. 3, c.Apion. 2.) Philo Judaeus (Legal, in Caium) gives a full account of the immunities of the Regio Judaeorum. They were frequently confirmed or annulled by successive Roman emperors. (Sharpe, But of Egypt, p. 347, seq. 2nd edit.)

2. Brucheium, or Pyrucheium (Bpuxeiov, HvpoX*><>v, Salmasius, ad Spartian. Hadrian, c. 20), the Koyal or Greek Quarter, was bounded to the S. and E. by the city walls, N. by the Greater Harbour,

and W. by the region Rhacotis and the main street which connected the Gate of the Sun with that of the Moon and the Heptastadium. It was also surrounded by its own walls, and was the quarter in which Caesar defended himself against the Alexandrians. (Hirtius, B. Alex. 1.) The Brucheium was bisected by the High Street, which ran from the Canobic Gate to the Necropolis, and was supplied with water from the Nile by a tunnel or aqueduct, which entered the city on the south, and passed a little to the west of the Gymnasium. This was the quarter of the Alexandrians proper, or Hellenic citizens, the Royal Residence, and the district in which were contained the most conspicuous of the public buildings. It was so much adorned and extended by the later Ptolemies that it eventually occupied one-fifth of the entire city. (Plin. v. 10. s. 11.) It contained the following remarkable edifices: On the Lochias, the Palace of the Ptolemies, with the smaller palaces appropriated to their children and the adjacent gardens and groves. The far-famed Library and Museum, with its Theatre for lectures and public assemblies, connected with one another and with the palaces by long colonnades of the most costly marble from the Egyptian quarries, and adorued with obelisks and sphinxes taken from tho Pharaonic cities. The Library contained, according to one account, 700,000 volumes, according to another 400,000 (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2; Athen. i. p. 3); part, however, of this unrivalled collection w as lodged in the temple of Serapis, in the quarter Rhacotis. Here were deposited the 200,000 volun.ei collected by the kings of Pergamus, and presented by M. Antonius to Cleopatra. The library of the Museum was destroyed during the blockade of Julius Caesar in the Brucheium; that of the Seraj>eion was frequently injured by the civil broils of Alcxandreia, and especially when that temple was destroyed by the Christian fanatics in the 4th century A. D. It was finally destroyed by the orders of the khalif Omar, A. D. 640. The collection was begun by Ptolemy Soter, augmented by his successors, — for the worst of the Lagidae were patrons of literature, — and respected, if not increased, by the Caesars, who, like their predecessors, appointed and salaried the librarians and the professors of the Museum. The Macedonian kings replenished the shelves of the Library zealously but unscrupulously, since they laid an embargo on all books, whether public or private property, which were brought to Alexandreia, retained the originals, and gave copies of them to their proper owners. In this way Ptolemy Euergetes (b. C. 246 —221) is said to have got possession of authentic copies of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and to have returned transcripts of them to the Athenians, with an accompanying compensation of fifteen talents. The Museum succeeded the onco renowned college of Heliopolis as the University of Egypt. It contained a great hall or banqueting room (oikoj fityas'), where the professors dined in common; an exterior peristyle, or corridor (vtpiiraToi), for exercise and ambulatory lectures; a theatre where public disputations and scholastic festivals were held; chambers for the different professors; and possessed a botanical garden which Ptolemy Philadelphus enriched with tropical flora (Philostrat. Vit. Apollon. vi. 24), and a menagerie (Athen. xiv. p. 654). It was divided into four prineipn] sections,— poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine,—and enrolled among its professors or pupils the illustrious names' of Euclid, Ctcsibins, Calliuiachus, Aratus,


Aristophanes and Aristarchus, the critics and grammarians, the two Hcros, Ammonius Saccas, Polcmo, Clemens, Origen, Athauasius, Theon and his celebrated daughter Hypatia, with many others. Amid the turbulent factions and frequent, calamities of Alexandreia, the Museum maintained its reputation, until the Saracen invasion in A. D. 640. The emperors, like their predecessors the Ptolemies, kept in their own hands the nomination of the President of the Museum, who was considered one of the four chief magistrates of the city. For tho Alexandrian Library and Museum the following works may be consulted : — Strab. pp. C09, 791, seq.; Vitruv. vii. pvooem.; Joseph. Antiq. xii. 2, c. Apion. ii. 7; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 22; Cyrill. Hicros. Catechet. iv. 34; Epiphan. Mens, et Pond. c. 9; Augustin. Civ. D. xviii. 42; Lipsius, de Biblioth. § ii.; Bellamy, Mem. de I Acad, des Inscr. ix. 10; Matter, TEcole d'Alexandrie, vol. i. p. 47; Fabric. Bibl. Grace, vol. iii. p. 500.

In the Brnchcium also stood the Caesarium, or Temple of the Caesars, where divine honours were paid to the emperors, deceased or living. Its site is still marked by the two granite obelisks called " Cleopatra's Needles," near which is a tower perhaps not inappropriately named the "Tower of the Romans." 'Proceeding westward, we come to the public granaries (Caesar, B. Civ. iii. 112) and the Mausoleum of the Ptolemies, which, from its containing the body of Alexander the Great, was denominated Soma (Zu/ia, or 2rjMi, Strab. p. 794). The remains of the Macedonian hero were originally inclosed in a coffin of gold, which, about B. c. 118, was stolen by Ptolemy Soter II., and replaced by one of glass, in which the corpse was viewed by Augustus in B. c. 30. (Sucton. Octav. 18.) A building to which tradition assigns the name of the M Tomb of Alexander " is found among the ruins of the old city, but its site does not correspond with that of the Soma. It is much reverenced by the Moslems. In form it resembles an ordinary sheikh's tomb, and it stands to the west of the road leading from tho Frank Quarter to the Pompey's-Pillar Gate. In the Soma were also deposited the remains of M. Antonius, the only alieu admitted into the Mausoleum (Plut. Ant. 82). In this quarter also were the High Court of Justice (Dicasterium), in which, under the Ptolemies, the senate assembled and discharged such magisterial duties as a nearly despotic government allowed to them, and where afterwards the Roman Juridicus held his court. A stadium, a gymnasium, a palaestra, and an amphitheatre, provided exercise and amusement for the spectacle-loving Alexandrians. The Arsinoeum, on the western side of the Brucheium, was a monument raised by Ptolemy Philadelphus to the memory of his favourite sister Arsinoe; and tho Panium was a stono mound, or cone, with a spiral ascent on the outside, from whose summit was visible every quarter of the city. The purposo of this structure is, however, not ascertained. The edifices of the Brucheium had been so arranged by Deinocratcs as to command a prospect of the Great Harbour and tho Pharos. In its centre was a spacious square, surrounded by cloisters and flanked to the north by the quays — the Emporium, or Alexandrian Exchange. Hither, for nearly eight centuries, every nation of the civilized world sent its representatives. Alexandreia had inherited the commerce of both Tyre and Carthage, and collected in this area the traffic and speculation of three continents. The Romans admitted Alexandreia to be the second city of the world; but the

quays of the Tiber presented no such spectacle as the Emporium. In the seventh century, when the Arabs entered Alexandreia, the Brucheium was in ruins and almost deserted.

3. Tlie Rhacotis, or Egyptian Quarter, occupied the sito of the ancient Rhacotis. Its principal buildings were granaries along the western arm of the cibotus or basin, a stadium, and the Temple of Serapis. The Serapeion was erected by the first or second of the Ptolemies. The image of the god, which was of wood, was according to Clemens (Clemens Alex. Protrept. c. 4. § 48), inclosed or pUted over with layers of every kind of metal and precious stones : it seems also, cither from the smoke of incense or from varnish, to have been of a black colour. Its origin and import are doubtful. Sera pis is sometimes defined to be Osiri-Apis; and sometimes the Sinopite Zeus, which may imply cither that he was brought from the hill Sinopeion near Memphis, or from Sinope in Pontus, whence Ptolemy Soter or Philadelphus is said to have imported it to adorn his new capital. That the idol was a pantheistic emblem may be inferred, both from the materials of which it was composed, and from its being adopted by a dynasty of sovereigns who sought to blend in one mass tho creeds of Hellas and Egypt. The Serapeion was destroyed in A. D. 390 by Theopbilus, patriarch of Alexandreia, in obedience to the rescript of the emperor Theodosius, which abolished paganism {Codex Theodos. xvi. 1, 2).* Tho Coptic population of this quarter were not properly Alexandrian citizens, but enjoyed a franchise inferior to that of tho Greeks. (Pun. Epist. x. 5. 22, 23; Joseph, c. Apion. c. 2. § 6.) The Alexandreia which tho Arabs besieged was nearly identical with the Rhacotis. It had suffered many calamities both from civil feud and from foreign war. Its Serapeion was twice consumed by fire, once in the reign of Marcus Anrclius, and again in that of Commodns. But this district survived both the Regio Judaevrum and the Brucheium.

Of the remarkable beauty of Alexandreia (>) Kox}) 'AAefdVdpeia, Athen. i. p. 3), we have the testimony of numerous writers who saw it in its prime. Ammianns (xxii. 16) calls it " vertex omnium eivitatum;" Strabo (xvii. p. 832) describes it as /i4yiarov iurooiiov Tjjj oucov/iiyris; Theocritus (IdglL xvii.), Philo (ad Place, ii. p. 541), Eustathius (/i B.), Gregory of Nyssa ( Vit. Gregor. Thaumaturg.), and many others, write in the same strain. (Comp, Diodor. xvii. 52; Pausan. viii. 33.) Perhaps, however, one of the most striking descriptions of its effect upon a stranger is that of Achilles Tatius in his romance of Cleitophon and Leucippe (v. 1). Its dilapidation was not the effect of time, but of the hand of man. Its dry atmosphere preserved, for centuries after their erection, the sharp outline and gay colours of its buildings; and when in A. D. 120 the emperor Hadrian surveyed Alexandreia, he beheld almost the virgin city of the Ptolemies. (Spartian.

* The following references will aid tho reader in forming his own opinion respecting the much controverted question of the origin and meaning of Serapis:—Tac Hist. iv. 84; Macrob. Sat. i. 29; Vopiscus, Saturnin. 8; Amm. Marc. xx. 16; Plut. Is. et Osir. cc. 27, 28; Lactant. Inst. i. 21; Clem. Alex. Cohort, ad Gent. 4. § 31, Strom.i. 1; August, Civ. D. xviii. 5; Mem. de I Acad, des Inscr. voL I. p. 500; Gibbon, D. and F. xxviii. p. 113.

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