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The present work completes the Series of Classical Dictionaries, and forms, with the Dictionaries of "Greek and Roman Antiquities" and "Greek and Roman Biography" already published, an Encyclopaedia of Classical Antiquity. The Dictionary of Geography, like the other two works, is designed mainly to illustrate the Greek and Roman writers, and to enable a diligent student to read them in the most profitable manner; but it has been thought advisable to include the geographical names which occur in the Sacred Scriptures, and thus to make the work a Dictionary of Ancient Geography in the widest acceptation of the term. The name "Greek and Roman" has however been retained, partly for the sake of uniformity, but chiefly to indicate the principal object of the work.

Our knowledge of ancient Geography has been much enlarged within the last few years by the researches of modern travellers, many of whom have united an accurate knowledge of the ancient writers with great powers of observation and accuracy of description. There are few countries of the ancient world which have not been explored and described by our own countrymen; but a knowledge of the results thus obtained is confined to a few, and has not yet been made available for the purposes of instruction. Hitherto there has not existed, either in the English or in the German language, any work sufliciently comprehensive and accurate to satisfy the demands of modern scholarship. The German works upon this subject are unusually scanty. In English, the only systematic works worthy of mention are the well-known treatises of Cramer upon Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, which however have now become obsolete. Since the publication of his " Greece," for instance, we have had the incomparable travels of Colonel Leake, the results of the discoveries of the French Commission in the Peloponnesus, and the works of Ross, Ulrichs, Curtius, and other learned German travellers. No apology is therefore necessary for the publication of a new work upon Ancient Geography, which is in many respects more needed by the student than the two former Dictionaries.

This work is an historical as well as a geographical one. An account is given of the political history both of countries and cities under their respective names; and an attempt is made to trace, as far as possible, the history of the more important buildings of the cities, and to give an account of their present condition, wherever they still exist. The history is, for the most part, brought down to the fall of the Western Empire in the year 476 of our era: but it was impossible to observe any general rule upon this point; and it has sometimes been necessary to trace the history of a town through the middle ages, in order to explain the existing remains of antiquity.

Separate articles are given to the geographical names which occur in the chief classical authors, as well as to those which are found in the Geographers and Itineraries, wherever the latter are of importance in consequence of their connection with more celebrated names, or of their representing modern towns, or from other causes. But it has been considered worse than useless to load the work with a barren list of names, many of them corrupt, and of which absolutely nothing is known. The reader, however, is not to conclude that a name is altogether omitted till he has consulted the Index; since in some cases an account is given, under other articles, of names which did not deserve a separate notice.

The Illustrations consist of plans of cities, districts, and battles, representations of public buildings and other ancient works, and coins of the more important places. The second volume of the work will be followed by an Atlas of Ancient Geography, which will be on a sufficiently large scale to be of service to the more advanced student

WILLIAM SMITH.

London, December, 1853.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME.

Page

Coin of Abacaenum ... 1
Coin of Abdcra .... 2
Coin of Abydus 7
Coin of Acanthus ... 9
Coin of Acamania - - 10
Coin of Achaia - - - 17
Coin of Acinipo - - - 20
Coin of Acmonia - - 21
Plan of Actium ... - 23
Coin of Adranum - - 25
Coin of Adria - - - - 27
Ruins of the temple of Aegina - 34
Front elevation of the temple of Aegina re-
stored - . - 34
Coins of Aegina - - - 35
Coin of Aegium - - - 35
Coin of Aegoapotami - - .36
Coin of Aeneia - - - 50
Coin of Aenus - - - 50
Coin of Aesemia - - - 55
Coin of Aetna - - - 61
Coin of Aetolia - - - 67
Plan of Agrigentnm - - - 78
Coin of Agrigentum - - 80
Coin of Agyrium - - - 81
Coin of Alaesa - - - .82
Plan of Alba Fucensis - - 87
Plan of Alexandria - - 96
Coin of Allaria - - - - 104
Coin of Aluntium - - 113
Coin of Alyzia - - - - 113
Map of the gulf of Issue, and of the sur-
rounding country - - - 115
Coin of Amastris - - - 118
Plan of Ambracia - - - 120
Coin of Ambracia - - - 121
Coin of Ati] is us - - - - 123
Plan of the neighbourhood of Amphipolis - 126
Coin of Amphipolis - - 127
Coin of Anactorium - - - 129
Coin of Ancona - - - - 133
Coin of Ancyra - - - - 134
Coin of Andros ... - 136
Plan of Antioch - - - - 144
Genius of Antioch - - 146
Coin of Antioch .... 146
Coin of Apameia in Phrygia - - 153

Coin of Aphrodisias in Caria - • 157
Coin of Apollonia in Illyria - - 160
CoinofAptera ... - 163
Coin of Aquinum ... 172
Coin of Aradus ... - 186
Coins of Arcadia - - - 193
Ruins of a Pyramid in the Argeia - - 202
PlanofArgos - - - - 205
Site of the Heraeum ... 206
Coin of Argos - - - - 207
Map of the coast of Amphilochia - - 208
Coin of Argos Amphilochicnm - - 208
Coin of Arpi • - - - 221
Gate of Arpinum ... 222
Coin of Aspendus ... 242
Coin of Assorus .... 243
Coin of Assus .... 244
Environs of Athens ... 256
The Acropolis restored ... 265
Ground plan of the Acropolis and the imme-
diate neighbourhood - - - 267
Ground plan of the Propylaea - - 268
The Propylaea restored - 269
Temple of Nike Apteros ... 270
The Parthenon restored - - - 271
Ground plan of the Parthenon - - 273
The Erechtheium restored, viewed from the

NW. angle - - - - 277
Ground plan of the Erechtheium - - 278
The salt well of the Erechtheium - - 280
Plan of the Pnyx - - - 282
The Bema of the Pnyx - . - 283
Monument of Philopappus - - 284
Monument of Thrasyllus ... 285
Theatre of Dionysus, from coin - - 285
Theatre of Dionysus, from a vase - - 285
Coin showing the Cave of Pan, the Parthe-
non, and Athena Promachus - - 286
Ground plan of the Theseium - • - 288
The Theseium - - . 289
Ruins of the Olympieinm - - 290
The Horologium of Andronicus Cyrrhestes - 291
Choragic monument of Lysicrates - 291
Street of the Tripods, from a bas-relief - 292
Arch of Hadrian - - - 293
Portico of Athena Archegetis - - 295
Ionic temple of the Ilissus - - 298

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