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GRADATIONS

IN

READING AND SPELLING,

UPON

AN ENTIRELY NEW AND ORIGINAL PLAN,

BY WHICH

DISSYLLABLES ARE RENDERED AS EASY AS MONOSYLLABLES:

TO WHICH ARE NOW ADDED

NUMEROUS ENTERTAINING AND INSTRUCTIVE

READING LESSONS IN PROSE AND VERSE,

AND

SPELLING TABLES OF THREE AND FOUR SYLLABLES:

WITH OTHERS, LEADING TO A KNOWLEDGE OF

GRAMMAR AND DERIVATION.

BY HENRY BUTTER,
Author of The Etymological Spelling Book and Expositor,"

The Gradual Primer," &c.

TWENTY-SECOND EDITION.

LONDON:
WHITTAKER AND CO., SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO., LONGMAN, ORME,
AND CO.; BANCKS AND CO., MANCHESTER ; OLIVER AND BOYD,
EDINBURGH; W. CURRY, JUN. AND CO., DUBLIN ;

AND ALL OTHER BOOKSELLERS.

1839.

230.

3987

Entered at Stationers' Hall.

London: Printed by J. S. Hodson, 15, Cross-street, Hatton-garden.

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Most persons, whether parents or teachers, upon whom has devolved the important duty of communicating the elements of language to young children, must often have felt the want of a book in which both the ideas and the words are adapted to the opening capacities of their pupils.

To supply this desideratum is the object of the present little work; in which the greatest pains have been taken to keep the subjects within the apprehensions of children, and, at the same time, to please and instruct them.

But its peculiar feature, and that upon which its claim for public approbation and adoption chiefly rests, consists in its minute division and classification of Dissyllables; so that young pupils are enabled to advance, by the most gradual and easy steps, from the alphabet to the longest words of two syllables.

A common method is, either to take all the Monosyllables in one alphabetical table, or to separate them into those of 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. letters each; and to finish the learning of them before commencing Dissyllables; so that straight, through, wrought, flounce, &c. are to be learned before la-dy, up-on, li-on, ox-en, &c. Dissyllables, also, are usually divided only into those accented on the first, and those on the second syllable, and the alphabetical arrangement adhered to; so that in them we meet with ab-stract before ba-by, cham-paign before di-et, in-stinct before in-to, lan-guage before li-on, trans-gress before un-do, &c.

Instead of such a defective arrangement, I have, with considerable labor, digested the Dissyllables into upwards of twenty distinct classes. This has enabled me to blend them with the Monosyllables; by which means they mutually assist each other in an eminent degree.

Convinced that they cannot be rendered too easy, I have bestowed peculiar care on the tables of Monosyllables ; classifying them ac. cording to their sounds, and not introducing the long ones till the pupil has become familiar with easy Dissyllables. This simple contrivance surmounts, and almost annihilates, what has often been felt as a monstrous difficulty:

My aim in this work has been—not to teach young children the

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derivation and composition of words, which are above their capacity, but—to smooth the path to reading, by facilitating the acquirement of a true pronunciation. With this view, I have disregarded the etymological division of the words, and have adhered to the rule, “to take as many letters for a syllable as shall give that syllable the nearest possible sound to its true sound, when pronounced together with the other syllables of the word to which it belongs.”

To the whole of the Spelling I have adapted a large collection of original Reading Lessons, similarly and equally progressive and easy. They are of necessity original; because, even if I had been so disposed, I could not have copied them: for, although Monosyllables are notoriously difficult, and books have been composed almost exclusively of them, I believe I have the good fortune to be the first to introduce

young children early to Dissyllables. In what I have done, I have endeavored to serve the rising generation at their entrance upon the vast field of literature and science. How far I have accomplished my object, must be left to the decision of parents and teachers; to whom, with respectful confidence, I submit the result of my labors.

H. BUTTER. 1828.

Feb. 27,

PREFACE TO THE TWENTY-FIRST EDITION.

The former editions of this work consisted of three Parts, confined almost exclusively to words of one and two syllables. As the first three Parts of the present edition are very similar to those in the previous ones, the original Preface is retained, nearly verbatim : but many difficult words have been excluded from the Spelling, and the Reading has been simplified and extended.

In both the Reading and the Spelling the fourth and fifth Parts are entirely new.

The fourth Part of the Reading is chiefly original, and contains matter that it is important all children should be familiar with. Many Teachers will doubtless avail themselves of the lessons on the “ Irregular Verbs,” and on “Aspiration," as Dictation exercises; for which they are peculiarly appropriate. Other portions of the Reading, and the latter part of the Spelling, may also be advantageously employed for the same purpose.

A Selection of interesting pieces in Prose and Verse forms the fifth Part.

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In the Spelling department the additions are considerable; and it is hoped they will be found more attractive and useful than what are commonly given. The fourth Part contains copious tables of easy words of three and four syllables, very carefully arranged, according to their terminations. The fifth Part is intended to give correct ideas respecting Genders and Numbers, and to show how Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs are mutually derived from each other; thus imperceptibly, yet effectually, laying a solid foundation for a knowledge of Gram. mar and Derivation: while the Opposites, Correlatives, Trines and Quaternions will serve to induce a habit of thinking, which the judi. cious Teacher will not fail to turn to good account. It is expected that these novelties will give general satisfaction.

The Author feels confident that Parents and Teachers will give him credit for having exerted himself to promote the good of those who may learn from his book; and he trusts that it does not contain an objectionable sentiment or expression. It will, he presumes, be evident that he has sedulously endeavored to avoid error: yet, as he has ventured considerably out of the beaten track, he is aware that he may nevertheless have inadvertently fallen into it; in which case, he will feel obliged to any one who will have the kindness to point it out, in order that it may be corrected.

After pupils have thoroughly used the GRADATIONS, they will be qualified to commence the Author's ETYMOLOGICAL SPELLING BOOK AND EXPOSITOR. To this he is anxious to call the attention of those who are not yet acquainted with its peculiar features, which have been highly appreciated by numerous Teachers, both in this country and in the United States; as is most unequivocally evinced by a large and increasing annual sale, as well as by many flattering reviews and recommendations.

The GRADUAL PRIMER, which now consists of the first and second Parts of the original GRADATIONS, with improvements, will be found well calculated to be the very first book that is put into a child's hands.

The Author cannot omit the present opportunity of expressing his grateful sense of the very favorable reception his books have experienced. It will stimulate him to continue to devote his talents in that humble, yet honorable direction where they appear to him to be most useful. 34, St. John Street Road, London,

April 1, 1839. Mr. Butter gives Private Lessons in Grammar and Composition, the Classics, Geography and the Use of the Globes, Writing, Arithmetic, &c.

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