« السابقةمتابعة »
will prove beyond a doubt the cer- and the same stuff; but the first to be tainty and solidity of my maxims, per- filled with a gaz or inflammable air haps even beyond my own hopes. one degree more rare than the first
A summary of two experiments re- itratum of the atmospheric air; the lating to meteorology to be made with second with a gaz twice as rare; the the aeroftatique balloons.
third with a
three times as rare, - The first is with a balloon covered &c. Each of these balloons must be with tissue, stuck full of brass wires, the painted of a different colour, and let fame as I have described above, which off at the same time, that by the inemuft be sent up into thick and dense quality of their afcenfion, we may clouds, such as generally attend a know the different degrees of velocity thunder-storm. The wires must com- which each will have; and also the municate with a cord twisted over with different directions they will take. If wire of the same metal, which must it will be poslible, by any means, to reach to the ground, in the same man- perceive at what height each balloon ner as in the experiment of the electric will take an horizontal direction, we kite. By this means we may know the may draw conclusions and establish calutility of the electric balloons, and culations not only on the different dewhether they will be preferable to the grees of density of the atmospherique kite (for without wind they may be air, but also on the progresion of the fent up into the clouds) in preventing rarefication of the atmosphere, by the effets of lightning, by drawing off observing in which proportion the gaz quietly the electric fluid, without the extends the covering of the balloon. danger of spreading elsewhere. The By these observations also, we may second experiment is with seven bal- obtain the foundation of a true theory loons of the same diameter, the covers of the air, which may be applied with of which are made of the same weight success to aerial navigation.
EXPLANATION of the PLATE.
The revolving wings.
ward, as the wings turn. E The rudder. F The log. G The small balloon, armed with small spikes of brass wire. TH The cord which the brass wire is twisted round, and which is attached to
the stick at the prow of the boat, to keep the small balloon at the height of
one hundred and forty feet above the boat or car. II Another cord of one hundred and forty feet, that is held by the navigator,
and fastened to the balloon in the same place as the former cord. K The navigator, itationed towards the poop of the boat. L The fack or bag of leather filled with water, in the middle of which swims
the piece of resin fixed to the end of the brass wire HH. MM The two pullies in which the cord runs, that is designed to raise or lower
the small balloon at pleasure, without altering the gaz.
ACCOUNT OF AN AEROSTATIC EXPERIMENT PERFORMED
AT DIJON A
time preparing by order of the only know, that its power of ascension academy of Dijon, was at length com- was estimated at 550lb. and that a great pleted, and launched on the 25th of part of the infiammable air with which April lalt, from the garden of an ab- it was filled was procured from potabey in the town of Dijon. We have toes, by distillation, which was found
to be lighter than that produced from filled with bran, bearing a little stream-
“ We observed by a itop watch the
and this was the only inconvenience danger our apparatus, and throw us
we experienced; and even for this we upon the town (the place of our alcent were amply indemnified by the sensabeing at the foot of one of its highest tions which Mr. Charles' has so well fteeples*) we thought it expedient to described. We have only one obfervadischarge all our ballast, and even a part tion to make upon his lively represenof our provisions, weighing between tation, which is, that fo far from its 75 and Solb. When we had ascended being exaggerated, it appeared to us beyond the roof of the church, and rather too faint, when we saw the were set free by those who held the clouds Boating beneath us, and seropes below, we soared with very great cluding us in a manner from the earth. rapidity, and soon saw the iteeple a We then jointly repeated the motto great way below ust.
afixed to our aerollat, surgit nunc Gal. “ Perceiving now, by the form of lus ad æthera. our balloon, that the air it contained “ The sun, after exhibiting to us a was exceedingly dilated, both by the magnificent parhelion, was now near heat of the fun, and on account of the setting; and perceiving by the flaccidiminution of dentity of the circum- dity of the lower part of our balloon, ambient medium, we opened at once that it was time for us to descend, we both our valres; but their apertures began to look out for a proper landingnot being sufficient to emit a proper place. We concluded, from the diquantity of the fluid, the balloon burit rection of the compass, that we could ai the bottom near the appendices, the not be far from the town of Auxonne; rent measuring about feven or eight and, in fact, a large mass of buildings inches in length. This accident, so which we perceived about 250 to our far from alarming us, served rather to right proved to be that place. We remove our apprehensions.
then had recourse to all our expedients, “ We now telt ourselves in a perfect in order to steer towards that point. calm, and in a manner Itationary; and Our apparatus for this purpose had yet we foon perceived that we were been greatly damaged by the blast of gotten some distance from the town. wind at our departure. The rudder
“ At sh. 5. we passcd over a village was unhinged, one of the cars had of which we had no knowledge: we snapped near its handle, and dropped there dropped a note fatened to a bag off the moment we attempted to use it
in The wind was west, and the teeple of the abbey-church was to the catward.
in order to accelerate our course. Ano- landed at 6 h. 25'.-Among the numther oar had been entangled in one of ber of inhabitants who were assembled, the ropes by which we were at first two men and three women were seen to held to the ground, and we could never kneel to the balloon. recover it. We had, therefore, only “ We had just moored our apparatus, two oars left, which being both on the placed somebody to guard it, and dir. fame side, were perfectly useless during patched a messenger to Dijon, when the greatest part of our navigation in we saw a number of people approaching the calm, and even after we felt our- on the road of Magny, who having felves advancing, although without any perceived us at Auxonne were coming perceptible current. But having now to meet us. As many as had room entered a stream which carried us to- were pleased to sign the present affiwards the east, we worked our oars davit, which we drew up immediately with great facility for about eight or at the parsonage of Atée, the 25th of nine minutes: this
, made us verge fo April, 1784." Signed by De More much to the south-east, the point of veau and BERTRAND, commissaries; our destination, that we found it ne- Bidel, priest of Atée; Buvée, a princessary to suspend our work, left we cipal magistrate in the jurisdiction of should exceed our mark, having no Auxonne, and 14 more. means to make us revert to the eastward. To this account, which is all that
“ We were in hopes of landing near is hitherto published, we have it in the clufer of buildings which we had our power to add some further authentaken for Auxonne, but our globe loft tic information. The height to which so much of its gaz through the rent, this balloon ascended is computed to that we saw little prospect of reaching have been about 2000 French toises that distance. We were now over a (above 21 English miles.) The dilarge tract covered with wood, and stance it went in a strait line was about feli ourselves descending. We had fix leagues; the time it remained in kept what ballast we had left, which the air ih. 27'. It seems, that the consisted of little else than our loosc persons who held the ropes were exbenches, we might have the means ceedingly alarmed at the violence of the of retarding the fall in case we hould wind, and refused to let go, till in a find it necessary, We threw out one manner compelled to it, by a gentleof these benches, and then descended man appointed to repeat the signals of very gently upon a copre, the name of the navigators, who, by discharging all which we have since learned is Chaignet, their ballast, and by every other means belonging to the Countess de Brun. in their power, exprefled their eagerOur gondola had scarce touched the ness to be set at liberty. tops of the boughs, when it reascended One of those who held the
ropes with some force. We laid hold of the was raised above three feet from the boughs in order to come to an anchor, ground before he quitted his hold, and and to avoid or being thrown againit in the fall he hurt his shoulder. He some tall trees that rose here and there has since acknowledged that his intenabove the reft of the wood. We tried tion was to tie the rope to his writt, to descend by hauling those boughs, in and to follow the balloon: had he the fame manner as thips are moved by succeeded, his rashness would inevitably towing, but our efforts were ineffectual
. have proved his own destruction, with We heard human voices, and we called that of the navigators, and of many of for their aid to ground us. The peo- those who were standing immediately ple we heard were inhabitants of Mag- under them; fince his weight muit 7 yles- tuxonne : one of them answered, have drawn the equatorial circle out of that he would gladly aflift us, if we its horizontal position, which would would promise to do him no harm; we dif- have made some of the ropes, to which pelled his fears, and his example, as the gondola was suspended, press fo well as our repeated desire, induced at hard against the balloon as infallibly to kength his companions to assist us. We burit it.
3 M 2
At Moncucco, near Milan, on the the performance of an aerostatic expethirteenth of March, a fire-balloon, riment at Moscow, but nothing certain seventy-two feet high, and fifty-fix has transpired. feet in diameter, was launched with These are the two first encroachments the makers, Messrs. Gherli, and Count of foreigners on the French privilege of Andreani, at whose fole expence the aerial navigation. It is said, that the experiment was undertaken. They King of Prussia has prohibited these were in the air twenty-five minutes, experiments in his dominions, in and mounted above four thousand feet order that the merit of improvements from the earth, and the aerial tra- may
be left to the inventors. “ Fire! vellers landed in safety, about three (exclaimed the veteran warrior) must be miles from the spot whence they iny element, for Russia and Austria aim afcended.
at universal fway on land; England at There is likewise a vague report of sea; and France in the air."
Α Ν Α Τ Ο Μ Υ. D R. HUNTER's Lectures were so well known, fo generally attended, and
fo juftly admired, that we think our readers cannot but be pleased with the following extract from the second of the two introductory Lectures, which have been published since the death of their author.
They have been printed from a copy, which the Doctor himself corrected for the press, and as they were delivered at his last course of Anatomical Lectures, in Windinill-ftreet.
After having considered the rise and progress of Anatomy, its followers; and their various discoveries, he thus teaches his pupil what are the requisites neceilary for making a man.
ON THE REQUISITES NECESSARY FOR MAKING A MAN. FROM DR. HUNTER'S SECOND INTRODUCTORY LECTURE. FOR FOR what purpose is there such a human wit and invention would be
variety of parts in the human bo- very insufhcient, we need not be furdy? Why such a complication of nice priled, if we meet with some parts of and tender machinery? Why was there ihe body, whose use we cannot yet not rather a more simple, less delicate, make out, and with some operations and lefs expensive frame?
or functions which we cannot explain, That beginners in the ftudy of Ana- We can see, and comprehend, that the tomy may acquire a fatisfactory ge- whole bears the strongest characters of neral idea of their subject, we shall excelling wisdom and ingenuity: but furnish them with clear answers to all the imperfe&t senses and capacity of such questions. Let us then, in our mon cannot pretend to reach every imagination, make a man: in other part of a machine, which nothing less words, let us suppose that the mind, than the intelligence and power of the or immaterial part, is to be placed in Supreme Ecing could contrive and exea corporeal fabric, to hold a correrpondence with other material beings To proceed then: in the first place, by the intervention of the body; and the mind, the thinking, immaterial then consider, a priori, what will be agent, must be provided with a place wanted for her accommodation. In of immediate refidence; which shall this enquiry, we shall plainly see the have all the requisites for the union of necelïty or advantage, and, therefore, spirit and body; accordingly, she is the final cause of most of the parts provided with the brain, where the which we actually find in the huinan dwells as governor and superintendant body. And if we confider that, in of the whole fabric. order to answer fome of the requilites, In the second place, as she is to