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dicial inquiry of the bishop be fully are allowed to be inserted among the proved before them, with all the forma- authentie writings of the process. Now, lities prescribed to be observed by him who does not fee in all this procedure in making it. Now, these formalities the utmost care and diligence used to are ten in number, and are as follow: prevent all impoition, and come to a 1. To avoid all precipitation (as I ob- distinct and certain knowledge of the ferved above) the public renown of the truth? fanctity and miracles of the deceased The particular examination of each inust have existed for fome confiderable witnefs feparately, the ignorance each time, before the bishop be allowed to one is in of the questions put to the begin his proceedings of inquiring about others; the folemn oath all are obliged them. 2. The bishop himself must to take never to discover the subject preside, if possible, at all the steps of of the queitions put, or the answers the process; and if, through neceility, given; the not being content with the he be obliged to subititute any of his witnesses presented by the folicitors of inferior clergy in his place, this judge the cause, but the procuring as many must have a doctor in divinity, and a others as can be got; the care to prelicenciate in canon law, for his aílift- serve the papers from all improper in

3. He who takes the deposi- fpection; what are all thefe but the tions of the witnesses must counter- inoit efficacious fieps to prevent collusign every article along with the wit- fion, either among the present witnerAnesses themselves who subscribe them. ses, or in those who may be after4. Each deponent must be asked a cir- wards exarnined, and to procure from cumstantial relation of the facts he at- each the most exact information of tests. It is not allowed to read over what he knows, according as it really 'to the other witnefits what was de- exists in his mind? One would be apt poned by the first, and cause it to be to think, that a miracle proved by this confirmed by their confent: but cach judgement alone might justly be deemme must be examined apart by him- ed fufficient to gain all belief and crefelf, and their anfirers extended ac full dir from any reasonable unprejudiced length to each interrogatory. Nay, person; and yet all this is but as it 5. The nutary, and the promoter of were the prelude to what follows after. the cause, as well as the witnefles them- When the diocefan bishop has done selves, muft all be put under oath to his part, and from the evidence le fias observe the most profound silence with got in the above trial, has pared his regard to the queitions put, or the an- fentenee as to the miracles examined Twers given. 6. Information must be by him, an authentic copy of the whole fent to the Pope of the whole proce- . process, well fealed, is tent to the condure, and of the judgement of the bi- gregation of rites at Roine, and there Thop paled thereupon. 7. A clean it muut lie deposited with the notary copy of all the papers must be made of that congregation for ten years beout in proper forn, and these, authen- fore the seals can be opened,

or any ticated and well scaled, must be sent further step be taken in the cause, to the congregation of rites at Rome. During this period, however, several 8. All the originals are preserved in things are watchfully observed: it. If the archives of the cathedral church of the public renown concerning the virthe diocese, in a profer cheit, well tues and miracles of the faint continues fealed, and under different keys, which in vigour and increases, or if it decays are deposited with different persons 'of and tails. 2dly. If any serious accutank and character. 9. Besides the fations appear against him, an: trong witnelles presented to the bithop by fufpicions, any weighty doubts of his those who follicit the cause, he must conduct. 3dlv. If he had composed also examine as many others as he can any writings during his life-time, these get account of, who are capable of are inoit minutely fcrutinized and ex?pirming any proper information.

mined, to fee if any error, either with No extra-judicial acts or attestations regard to faith or morais, appears in them, and if any of those things turn three two make a quoruin. Then the out against him, the cause is dropped sollicitors for the cause draw up in wrientirely, and buried in eternal obli- ting the articles to be examined by the vion. But if all these particulars are commissioners, and class. under differfavourable, at the expiration of the ent titles the several facts and miracles ten years the cause is taken up again to be proved, which they judge the in the congregation of rites in this beit founded, and the most proper for manner: The follicitors for the cause evidencing the sanctity of the deceased, demand of this court that the proceed- and his glory in heaven. ings of the diocesan bishop may be All these preparatory writings are opened and examined. This is done given in to de revised by the promoter with all formality; and if, upon exa- of the faith, who from them draws up mining these proceedings, it be found, indtructions for his substitute with the that every thing was performed accordo commiflioners, who is called the viceing to rule, then the Pope is applied promoter, and these contain all the to for a commission to authorize this objections and dificulties he can invent congregation to proceed in the caufe, againt the facts and miracles propofed which is granted accordingly, and by by the other party to be examined by which the cause is taken entirely out the judges. All these papers, togeof the hands of the diocesan, and everyther vith the commision to the judges, step that follows is done by authority and the form of the oath to be taken of the sovereign pontiff.

them;

10.

This con- by the court and witnesses, are caregregation of rites is a tribunal at Rome, fully fealed up in one packet

, and sent composed of a number of cardinals, to the ordinary of the piace, who havwho are the chief judges, and of judges ing convened all the others concerned, of the second order, who are called the commillion is opened and read, the consultors. The officers of this court oaths are taken, and the proper

officers are, 1. The promoter of the faith, or of the court appointed and fworn. A follicitor-general, who represents the day is then fixed upon, and the witpublic, and proposes every difficulty he nesses called, and their depofitions taken can invent against the persons whose in the church, or some chapel or holy causes are tried in this court. 2. The place, in order to inspire them with secretary of the congregation. And, the greater respect, and the greater 3. The apoftolic prothonotary, with horror of perjury. "The oath they take feveral inferior officers, advocates, no- upon the holy gospels contains two taries, and the like; all which take a parts; 1. That they will declare the folemn oath of secrefy with regard to whole truth they know, without conthe matters treated before them in the cealing or disguising any part of it. cause of canonizations, while in de- . And, 2. That they will not commupendance, that by this means nothing nicate to any one either the questions may transpire which could give the put to them, or the answers they give, finallest occasion to thofe who folliçit After taking this oath, they are exa. for the cause to take any undue mea- mined as to their quality, age, faith, fures for promoting it.

learning, and then as to the several When, therefore, the caufe is taken articles proposed by the sollicitor of entirely into the hands of this court, the cause, and on any other fubject the first step after this is to name three which the judges think proper, commissioners, authorized by the Pope, At the end of every feilion the pato take proper informations upon

the pors are all fealed and locked spot, that is in the place itself where the next meeting and when the whole the miracles were portained, and wliere information is taken, all the papers the faint's body is interred; there are are authenticated by the names and generally tbree of the neighbouring bi- seals of the judge; and principal offihops, of whom the ordinary of the cers of the court: the originals diepgdiocese where the faine's body is, for fited in the archives of the diocese; the moit part, makes one, and of these and clean copies of the whole, collected

up.

till

in presence of the judges themselves, urged by the vice-promoter of the and authenticated by all their feals and faith; a full hearing to them is given subscriptions, are fent to Rome by a by the court, and they must be all courier express, who is also sworn to folved by the other party to the fatisexecute his commission with all fidelity. faction of the judges.

Such is the procedure of this court When the acts and proceedings of in general; we fall now see more in the commissioners are sent to Rome, detail the nature of the proof required they are strictly examined by the conby it in order to ascertain the facts .gregation of rites, both as to their auexamined. The general principle of thenticity and validity, that is, if the congregation of rites is, to treat every form prescribed by law has been these causes with the self-fame vigour duly observed, and every prudent prewith which criminal causes are tried caution taken to come at the truth; in civil courts, and that the facts be and if the congregation is satisfied as proved with the same exactness, and to this head, it proceeds to re-examine all proceedings carried on with the the whole cause; but fifty years must {ame severity as if done for the punish- be elapsed from the death of the faint ment of crimes. Suspected or incon- before these steps can be taken. This clusive testimonies, such as would not delay is ordered for the same reasons be allowed as a ground for condemn- with those mentioned before, that noing a criminal, are for the same rea- thing be done with precipitation, and fons, in this court, incapable of prove to see if any new light may appear in ing a miracle.

the mean time, either for or against Hence the following conditions are the cause; and when, after this period, absolutely required in the witnesses: the cause is resumed, and all the judi1. There must be at least two or three cial acts and proceedings of the comwho speak unanimoully upon the same misioners verified and approved, then fact and its circumstances. A solitary some of the principal articles of that teítimony proves nothing. Contra- process are selected to be tried and exadictory testimonies annul and destroy mined with the utmoft rigour by this one another; and such as only differ congregation itself, in three extraorfrom one another but about essential dinary assemblies, which are held at articles render one another mutually proper intervals for that purpose; and suspected. Those which re-unite in with regard to miracles, the question the same point may serve as a support proposed to be discussed concerning or corroboration, but give no certain them is, Whether or not a competent proof. This is only allowed when the number of true miracles has been suffame facts and circumstances are uni- ficiently proved in the process made by formly attested by at least two or three the commissioners? And notwithstandwitnesses. 2. The witnesses must de- ing all the precautions that have been clare what they themselves faw with used before, one may say with truth, their own eyes, or heard with their that it is only now in discussing this own ears. Hearsay declarations, and question that the trial of the reality of testimonies at second hand, are never the miracles is made. To proceed with admitted in the proof of miracles. 3. greater distinction, the question proThe witnesses must be of a sufficient posed is divided into two, each of age, and have proper knowledge and which is examined separately. The difcernment to distinguish the nature firft is, whether the actual existence of of the things they relate: they must the miraculous facts produced in the be catholics of known probity, and process have been thoroughly proved give an account of their very motives before the commisioners. Secondly, for the testimony they give. 4. All Whether those facts be really superthe objections to their testimony which natural and true miraeles, the work of reason and the circumitances can fur- God and of good ange!s? nih, either from their perfons, qua- 'I he discution of the first of these lities, or depofitions, are proposed and brings on a review of the whole proLond. MAG. Aug. 1784.

T

cefs,

cess, wherein the proceedings of the raculous; and these are of the third orcommissioners, the witnesses, their qua. der. Now, when any miracle of tfie lifications, their depositions, and all first order is produced, and the fact the circumstances are canvassed; the undoubtedly proved, there needs no promoter of the faith himself pleads further discussion; it carries in its boevery difficulty he can imagine against fom the proofs of its divinity, and them; all which must be thoroughly shows itself at first fight to be the imsolved by the follicitors for the cause; mediate work of God; and in this and if they fail in this, to the convic- view the raising a dead person to life tion of the judges, the miracle is re- is always considered. jected as not proved. If the existence

Such (says Bishop Hay) is the of the facts be indubitable, then the proceedure of the court of Rome in court proceeds to examine the other ascertaining the existence and continuquestion, Whether these facts, fo proved, ation of miracles in these later ages; are supernatural and true miracles? and by this rigorous process have been

In examining this point, different tried, approved, and published to the clafles of miracles are diftinguished: world valt numbers of glorious mira. fome are of fuch a ftupendous nature cles performed by Almighty God at as evidently to surpass all created power, the interpofition of his faints, down to and show themselves at once to be the these present days in which we live. work of the Creator, and these are of As a matter of historical speculation, the first order. Others less astonishing or as a point of custom, which it is may, for aught we know, be within curious enough to examine into (for the power and abilities of those created what enquirer would be ignorant of intellectual beings whose knowledge any thing?) the publication of this paand power far exceed our's; and these per may be acceptable to our readers. are of the second order. Others again As to the relt-and particularly the are in substance natural events, which concluding inference, most readers of may be produced by the aflirtance of fense and understanding will be ready art; but from the concurrence of cir- to exclaim -cumstances, and the manner in which Credat Judæus Apella : Non Eco. they are performed, become truely mi

R. S.

FOR THE LONDON MAGAZIN E.

DIALOGUE OF THE DEAD. QUEIN ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND, AND THE DUKE D'ALENSON. Duke. BUT why did you, amufe but no comparison can be drawn that

me so long with hopes of will hold good in all points. marrying you, when you had pre- QUEEN. If you did not remain as determined to come to no conclu- stupid as you always were, and could but fion.

consider what you are talking about QUEEN. I deceived several others in DUKE. That is really excellent. the same manner. I was the Penelope of Now, pray, do assume a few serious airs the age; you yourself, the Duke of on this occasion. Just thus did you Anjou your brother, the Archduke, and always swagger about your modeity, the King of Sweden, were all my suitors, Witness that large tract of ground on in hopes of gaining a much more con. the American continent, to which you fiderable inland than that of Ithaca: I gave the name of Virginia. But this gave you all a handsome breathing for is nothing to our present parpose, let a long series of years, and at last made me a little into the motives for the a joke of you all.

mysterious conduct which you observed, Duke. Here are some shades in and for all those matrimonial projects these regions who will not allow that which ended in nothing; was it your you was a perfect copy of Penelope ; father Henry the Eighth marrying fix

times which taognt you not to marry were insensible to the greatest pleasure. at all, as the repeated inroads of Charles of your life, but you were really very the Fifth taught Philip the Second unfortunate that they were thrown away never to ftir out of Madrid ?

upon you. QUEEN. I might, indeed, confine Duke. What! - what pleasures had myself to the reason with which you I in my life? I never succeeded in any have furnished me. In fact, my father thing. I expected four different times spent his whole life in marrying and to be a King. First of Poland, then unmarrying himself; in divorcing some of England, next of the Low Coun-, of his wives, and in beheading others. tries; and laft of all, France apparently But the real motive of my conduct was, ought to have been mine, and at closing that I found nothing was more agree- the account I was King of -No-Land. able than forming designs, making QUEEN. And there was the happreparations, and executing-nothing pinefs which you never discovered; a at all. A thing obtained always finks continued series of hopes and imaginain value. The hopes of a war in ima- tions and no reality: you spent the gination are never realised without con- whole of your life in preparing yourliderable loss. For instance, you came self for a crown, and I in making over into England to marry me. There preparations for my nuptials. was nothing but balls, entertainments, Duke. But as I am of opinion a real and rejoicings ; I even went so great a marriage would have been no injury to length as to make you a prefent of a you, I acknowledge that a real kingring. Thus far things had the most dom would have been very much to smiling appearance in the world; the my taste. beauty of every thing consists in pre- QUEEN. Pleasure is not folid parations and ideas : all that is agree- enough in itself to bear fathoming. able in marriage was exhausted. There We must not attempt to reach its I stopped, and dismissed you.

bottom: we must only skim the fur. DUKE. In plain terms, then, your face, these marihy quagmires over which : maxims were not suitable to my way of we are obliged to run lightly, without

thinking. I wanted something more suffering one's foot to reft on them, than chimeras.

convey the truest idea of pleasure. QUEEN. Aias, if you strip men of But, adieu, I see some strangers ad. their chimeras, what pleasure would vancing.

F. K. they have left; I see plainly that you Dublin, Jan. 19;h, 1784.

TO THE EDITOR OF THE LONDON MAGAZINE. ON THE CHARACTER OF A GENTLEM A N.

I frecly told you all the worth I had

Ran in my veins--I am a GENTLEMAN. SIR THE THERE is no character in life so nature has breathed the ethereal essence

much misunderstood as that of a into the mind when the form was cait gentleman; which very often quits the in the genial ductile mould of nature. breast of a monarch, and warms the It would be dificult to enumerate bofom of a peasant: it is one of those the various characters of gentlemen in peculiar excellencies which nature be- this island; they are as variegated as tows at our formation, and, like the the rainbow, as gaudy, and as watery; cæleftial gift of genius, is alone in the merely tawdry, iliplop mixtures, withpower of the Deity to give. Educa- out forewarning us, like that diverse tion and example may greatly improve coloured meteor, that no evil is inthe exterior carriage and manners of tended from them: for nature, through men; but all the masters, and all the all her creation, gives us various mebooks cannot make a gentleman, unless teors; but the meteor of the Iris, and

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