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the météor of à Spark are the most Veneri, quam Marti. The firft line of showy and insignificant. But now to my conduct was formed by the life of the different orders of gentlemen which Alexander; I liked his prowess and his fill the semicircle of fashion!

love; and my character was established There is the polite gentleman, the by Voltaire's History of the Mad Swede. fine gentleman, the pretty gentleman, I combed my hair with my fingers, the good gentleman, the kind gentle- lived in my boots, despised the luxury man, the brave gentleman, the gentle- of clean linen, and defied the prodigal man who pays every body, the gentle. fon in his dirt. To fight, to rove, to man who pays nobody, the gentleman write, to love, were the passions of my who gives a guinca, and the gentleman mind, and the favourite verbs of my who gives fixpence.

grammar. I admired no man that had Now, as these motley sons of society not rhimed to the eye-brow of his hold different fituations, and are all pe- mistress, and drawn his sword in de. culiar characters, I shall, on some future fence of her charms. Such a career did occasion, perhaps, endeavour to paint I run from north to south, and put a their pictures in the strongest colours of girdle round the pregnant earth: in fuch light and shade that I am able; and I a voyage, various were my mishaps; hope so strongly, as not to confess their and on some future occasion I may give change in the life of the performer, them, as a chronicle of my amorous like those elegant compofitions which feats: at present, let it fuffice, that I few the hand of a great master, but am worn out in pursuit of beauty, (unlike other shades) glide like ghosts having been the target of Cupid, which before the animated forms they are he has filled as full of darts as the man intended to reprefent.

in the almanack. I have piles of poulett, But as it may in some respects be billet doux, and sonnets: I could barn riecessary, before I take any further myself with the verses of lovers, with liberties with other gentlemen, to say the dignity of a Grecian chief on a a few words of myself; as painters funeral pile; and perhaps from such a generally fit to the mirrour, in their pure collection of rare and various alhes, firft attempts to paint, that they may another Phænix might arise, of equal impress their visitors with an idea of magnificence, prowess, excellence, and their capability of drawing others, by love. But my funeral I mean to defer the likeness already made of them- a little, and use the remaining part of selves: in such manner I shall endea- my time in penning the characters of vour to prejudice my readers in favour those gentlemen I have made myself of my future defigns and drawings, by acquainted with. I flatter myself that the subsequent delineation of my self. such a correspondent will not be disa.

You muft know then (mol gentle greeable to any lady or gentleman, editor) that I am a poor ginileman, born particularly, Sir, to you, who promise of honest, but indigent parents, un- to be by your work, what I lincerely tutored, “ unarointed, unanealed;" have wished to find, a true, orthodox and sent forth into the world “ with man of breeding, science, and knowall my imperfections on my head." I ledge. As I have no pretensions to had ever two unfortunate prejudices in such a clufter of virtues, I fall content favour of arms and poetry: to write to myself by making this declaration, that à mistress and to fight for a mistress, love is my God, crimson is my colour, I early thought the 5:2 and greatest beauty is my passion, macaronie is my atchievements in human life: nor was diet, music my pastime, verses my de1, Sir, contented in drawing the gocfe- light, and my motto amor vincit! Thus, quill and the rapier at siche; but I, Sir, I have explained myself as much a with the exploring spirit of a banks, inclination tickles me at present to fought harams, fragtiis, and areoys of develope my renown. other Mores; by which I reduced my I am, Sir, your's, &c. purse and incicased my scars, tam




ARTICLE LXXV. FIRST Lines of the Practice of Phype. By William Cullen, M. D. A new Edi

tion. Corrected enlarged, and completed, in four Volumes. Edinburgh, 1784.

AT length Dr. Cullen has done reception they have met with from the what not only his pupils, but the pub- public, I am inclined to give a new lic at large, have long ardently wished edition of this work, not only, as I he has published the whole of that hope, more correct in many parts, but system of phyfic which he has taught also more complete and comprehensive for a series of years with the greatest in its general extent. reputation in an university esteemed at As he considers his system to be in present to be superior, as a fchool for many respects new, he has thought medicine, to most (if not to all) others proper to explain upon what grounds in Europe.

and from what confiderations he has The first additions which we meet made it such as it is; and is thereby with in this last edition are in the pre- led to offer some remarks upon the face, which formerly filled hardly two principal systems of medicine which pages, but which now, though printed have of late prevailed in Europe, and with a type considerably smaller than to take notice of the present state of that of the text, occupies as many as physic in so far as it is influenced by forty-eight pages.

thefe. Such remarks, he hopes, will The Doctor here states, more fully be of some use to those who attempt to than he had done before, his reasons improve their knowledge by the readfor publishing his work. He informs ing of books. his reader, that in his clinical lectures In doing this he observes, that at upon the patients under his care in the almost all times the practice has been Royal Infirmary, before he was efta. and still is, with every person, foundblished a professor of the practice of ed more or less upon certain princi. phyfic in the university of Edinburgh, ples established by reasoning: and that, he had delivered some doctrines which therefore, in attempting to offer a view were noticed as new and peculiar to of the present state of physic, he must himself, and which were accordingly give an account of those systems of severely criticised by the adherents to the principles of the science which have the Boerhaavian system. He found, prevailed, or do ftill prerail in Europe. however, that there perfons by whom The systems of Galen and Paracelsus his opinions were opposed either had are the firit which are noticed. The not been correctly informed of them, chief observation upon these is, that or did not seem fully to understand they endeavoured to explain the phethem; and, therefore, says the author, nomena of health or fickness by the as soon as I was employed to teach a supposition of an alteration in the ftate more complete system of the practice of of the fluids of the bocły. płyfic, I judged it necessary to pub- He then passes to about the middle lith a text-book, not only for the be- of the seventeenth century, when the nefit of my hearers, but that I might circulation of the blood cu

gehave an opportunity of obtaining the nerally known and admitted; and when opinion of the public more at large, this, together with the discovery of the and thereby be enabled either to vin- receptacle of the chyle, and of the dicate my doctrines, or be taught to thoracic duet, finally exploded the Gacorrect them. These were my motires lenic fyriem. 'The knowledge of the for attempting the volumes I for- circulation necessarily id, he observes, merly publised; and now, from many to the confideration, as well as to a years experience of their utility to my clearer view of the organic system in bearers, as well as from the favourable animal bodies; which again led to the


to be

application of the mechanical philofo- chiefs of bold and rash practitioners ; phy towards explaining the phenomena yet it certainly produces that caution of the animal economy. Mechanical and timidity which have ever opposed reasoning, he says, must still, in seve- the introduction of new and efficacious ral respects, continue to be applied: remedies. Hence the condemnation of but it would be easy to show, he adds, antimony by the medical faculty of that it neither could, nor ever can be, Paris; hence the reserve in Boerhaave, applied to any great extent in explain- with respect to the use of the Peruvian ing the animal economy:

bark; and hence also the sparing exAfter having observed that the state hibition of it by Van Swieten in inof the fuids, or what he terms the hu- termitting fevers. moral pathology, both as the cause of However, the vis medicatrix' nature disease, and as the foundation for ex- must unavoidably, he says, be received plaining the operation of medicines, as a fact; though he at the fame time continued to make a great part of every declares, that wherever it is admitted fyftem till the end of the last century, it throws an obfcurity upon our system; and that it has continued to have a and that it is only where the iinpogreat share in the systems down to the tence of the art is very manifest and present time; he proceeds to take congderable that it ought to be adnotice of the three new and considera- mitted of in practice. bly different systems of physic which After all, says he, I ought not to appeared about the beginning of the disiniss the consideration of the Stahpresent century, in the writings of lian fyftem, without remarking, that as Stahl, of Hotman, and of Boerhaave. the followers of it were very intent

The chief and leading principle of upon observing the method of nature, Stahl's fyftem is, that the rational foul so they were very attentive in observing of man governs the whole economy of the phenomena of diseases, and have his body. Many of my readers, Tays given in their writings many facts not the Doctor, may think it was hardly to be found elsewhere. necessary for me to take notice of a Hoffman's system is next confidered. fyftem founded upon so fanciful an hy. For his doctrine a foundation had been pothesis; as many eminent persons, laid, he says, by Willis, in his Patbohowever, such as Perrault in France, lgia Cerebri et Nervorum, and Baglivi Nichols and Mead in England. Pot- had proposed a system of the fame terfield and Simson in Scotland, and kind in his Specimen de fibra motrici & Gaubius in Holland, have very much morbojä. The system of Hoffman, atcountenanced the same opinion, he tempts to explain the phenomena of the thinks it is certainly entitled to some animal economy in health and disease, regard. He does not, however, enter by considering the state and affections into a full refutation of it, that having of the primary moving powers in that been done by Hoffman before. economy. Hoffman's

system, however, The Stahlians, says the author, truft- it is observed, was imperfect and ining much to the constant attention and correct; and hence has had less inwisdom of nature, have proposed the fuence on the writings and practice of Art of curing by expectation; they have, phyficians than might have been extherefore, for the most part, proposed pected. only very inert and frivolous remedies; Leaving Hoffman, he takes notice, they have zealously opposed the use in the next place, of the system of the of some of the most efficacious, such celebrated Boerhaave; of whose fyftem as opium and the Peruvian bark; and he says, that whoever will compare it are extremely reserved in the use of with that of any former writer, must general remedies, such as bleeding, vo- acknowledge that he was very justly miting, &c.

esteemed, and that he gave a system Although, observes the Doctor, the which was at that time deservedly vageneral doctrine of Nature curing dif- lued. cafes may sometimes avoid the mil- When I first applied myself, says Di,


new one.


Cullen, to the study of physic, I learned have chosen it as the example of a only the system of Boerhaave; and even work upon the plan of giving facts when I came to take a professor's chair only, and of avoiding the study or even in this university (of Edinburgh) I found the notice of the proximate causes of that system here in its entire and full diseases; and with what advantage such force; and as I believe it ftill fubfifts a plan is pursued, I shall leave my in credit elsewhere, and that no other readers to consider. system of reputation has been yet offered In the following treatise I have to the world, I think it necessary for followed (says the author) a different me to point out particularly the imper- course. I have endeavoured to collect fections and deficiencies of the Boer- facts relative to the diseases of the haavian system, in order to show the human body, as fully as the nature of propriety and necessity of attempting a the work, and the bounds necessarily

prescribed to it would admit: but I He shows that Boerhaave's doctrine of have not been fatisfied with giving the the diseases of the fimple solid and of facts, without endeavouring to apply the fluids is, in many respects, very er- them to the investigation of proximate roneous and without foundation in causes, and upon these to establish a fact. The reasonings concerning the more fcientific and decided method of ftate and various condition of the animal fluids have in this, says the author, “Upon this general plan he has enbeen particularly hurtful, that they have deavoured, he says, to form a system of withdrawn our attention from, and physic that should comprehend the prevented our study of the motions of whole of the facts relating to the science, the animal fyftem, upon the state of and that will, he hopes, collect and which the phenomena of diseases do arrange them in better order than has more certainly and generally depend. been done before, as well as point out Whoever then, he continues, shall con- in particular those which are itill wantsider the almost total neglect of the ing to establish general principles. I ftate of the moving powers, of the have assumed, he adds, the general prinanimal body, and the prevalence of an ciples of Hoffinan, and if I have ren. hypothetical humoral pathology, so dered them, says he, more correct and conspicuous in every part of the Boer- more extensive in their application ; haavian system, must be convinced of its and more particularly, if I have avoided very great defects, and perceive the ne- introducing the many hypothetical doccefsity of attempting one more correct. trines of the humoral pathology, which He adds, that Boerhaave's system com- disfigured both his (Hoffman's) and all prehends, indeed, a number of facts, the other fyftems which have hitherto and that it must, therefore, be valuable prevailed: I hope I shall be excused for on that, if on no other account. attempting a system which, upon the

The remainder of the preface consists, whole, may appear quite new." for the most part, in a very severe ex- Besides the enlargement of the preamination of the writings of the French face, the other additions to the first physician Lieutaud. The want of me- volume are a fuller account of the thód observable throughout the whole operation of cold upon the human body, of this author's works, and the insuf- and a treatise on the peripneumonia ficiency of his prescriptions, are ex- notha, a disease of which he had not posed in the most rigorous manner; taken notice in any former edition. In and the strongest censures are passed the second volume the tooth-ach orodonupon the whole of his writings. “I talgia, of which a particular account Thall only fay further (are the words of had not beeen given before, is treated Dr. Cullen) that such as I have repre. of. The doctor considers the tooth-ach sented it is this work (Lieutaud's Sy- as an affliction of a rheumatic kind. nopsis Universe Medicina) executed by He prescribes a method of cure fo little a man of the first rank in the profei- different from that laid down in other fion. It is indeed for that reason I practical writers, that we presume it



would be unnecessary to offer our readers I did not mention the use of cold any extract from it here.

bathing; because, though I had heard of When he comes to treat of the di- this, I was not informed of such frequent seases of the order exanthemata, in this employment of it as might confirm my fecond volume, he makes use of an opinion of its general effiacy; nor was arrangement different from that which I suthciently informed of the ordinary he has followed in all the preceding and proper administration of it. But editions. For this alteration in the now, from the information of many order of treatment no reasons are given judicious practitioners, who have freby the author. Thus, in the former quently employed it, I can say, that it editions the exanthemata, or eruptive is a remedy which in numerous trials fevers, were treated of in the following has been found to be of great

service order: ift erysipelas, 2 the plague, š in this disease; and that, while the use the small-pox, 4 the chicken-pox, ś of the ambiguous remedy of warm bath. the measles, 6 the scarlet fever, 7 the ing is entirely laid atide, the use of miliary fever, 8 the remaining ex- cold bathing is orer the whole of the anthemata. In this last edition, how. Welt-Indies commonly employed. ever, they are successively considered in The administration of it is sometimes this order: ift the small-pox, 2 the by bathing the person in the fea, or chicken-pox, 3 the measles, 4 the more frequently by throwing cold scarlet fever, 5 the plague, 6 erysipelas, water from a bason or bucket upon the 7 the miliary fever, 8 the remaining patient's body, and over the whole of exanthemata.

it: when this is done, the body is careThe new diseases in the third volume fully wiped dry, wrapped in blankcis

, are, hematemesis, a vomiting of blood, and laid in bed, and at the same time a and hematuria, or the voiding blood large dose of an opiate is giren. By from the urinary passage. Hitherto these means, a contiderable remision of the doctor thought it improper to treat the symptoms is obtained, but this of these separately, considering them remission, at first, does not commaily only as symptomatic affections; now, remain long, but returning again in a however, he has changed his opinion, few hours, the repetition boih of the and has appropriated a place to them in bathing and the opiate becomes nethis new edition," because, though cessary. By these repetitions, however, they are generally fymptomatic, it is longer intervals of case are obtained,

Ditle they may be sometimes primary and at length the disease is entirely and idispathic affections; and because cured; and this even happens sometimes they have been treated of as primary very quickly.” diseases, in almost every system of the The new diseases contained in die practice of physic.” Such a circum- fourth, last, and additional volome are, Lance as that lait mentioned would not, the diseases of the norological order, we Mould have thought, have had any vesaniæ, and ditcases of the class caweight with Dr. Cullen, who, in ge- chexiæ. Under the order velania, neral, is (as, indeed, in all cases a man mania, or maciness and melancholy, and of his abilities ought to be) guided by other forms of insanity, are treaied of. his own judgement, and not by that of Delirium or madness is detined by others.

Dr. Cullen to be--in a person awake, The observations upon these two di- a false judgement arising from percep. seases are not very many; nor do the tions of inagination, or from faire curative directions which are laid down recollection, and commonly producing differ considerably from those which are disproportionate emotions. to be found in other authors.

In enquiring into the nature and When he comes to speak of tetanus, cause of madness, the doctor delivers it he takes notice of a remedy of which as his opinion, that the date of the he had not spoken before. “ In the intellectual functions at all times de Burner edition of this work (fays the pends upon the fate and condition of auctor) among the remcdics of tetanus a subtile very moveable Huid, included


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