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In Archaic Art.
VI. Third variant phase. A similar personage between two androkephalik, winged, rampant animals. To the right the Moon-god in his crescent boat above the Sacred Tree. The helmet of the creature next the Moon-god is horned.
In this representation I think we have the Demiurge Bel, whose eldest son in the formal Pantheon is Sin, the Moon-god, making a covenant between the Sun and Moon for the preservation of kosmic order. The second creature in No. VI. is a'l reduplication of the Moon-god, whose introduction in his crescent 4 gives the key to the symbolism, whilst preserving the secret of it. The Moon-god, as ‘Lord of growth,'5 is stationed immediately over the Tree of Life. Both Sun and Moon are sea divinities as in No. V.6 If this interpretation be correct we have the lunar Unicorn (No. V.) as the equivalent of the lunar fish and the lunar androkephalik animal.
í A cylinder (ap. King, A. G. R. vol. ii. pl. ii. fig. 6). 2 Vide sec. XII. subsec. 3. .
s Vide No. III. 4 Vide a similar figure in Prof. Rawlinson's A.M. ii. 16.
5 The Akkadian Enzuna, the waxing-moon. Cf. Deut. xxxiii. 14: The precious things put forth by the moon.'
6 Of. the solar voyager Kibirra-Izdubar, the golden Phoenician Chrysór, who was the first man who fared in ships ;' Melqarth, the solar Tyrian hero, who sails to the farthest regions of the West (vide G. D. M. cap. XI. sec. i.); the Aryan Fish-sun (Apollón Delphinios), Frog-sun, etc. So when the sun had set Oannês used to retire again into the sea, and pass the night in the deep' (Alexander Polybistor, ap. Cary, Ancient Fragments, 56). The Zodiacal Capricorn, which appears portrayed much as at present on a uranographic Babylonian stone of the twelfth century B.C. now in the British Museum (vide Professor Rawlinson, A. M. ii. 574), originally represented the Fish-sun clin bivg goat-like up the eastern steep.
VII. On a Phoenician gem found at Cnidos 1 is represented the sun radiate, a large crescent moon, and between the two a small circle-perhaps the planet Venus, whilst below are two rude heads of a unicorn bull and cow.?
VIII. A Unicorn-bull stands near the Sacred Tree, on the other side of which is a priest with a knife.3
IX. The well-known bas-relief at Persepolis called • Lion devouring a Bull,' is in reality · Lion attacking a Unicorn.' The latter animal, semi-rampant and regardant, and with only one large horn, is seized behind by the lion. On this group Professor Rawlinson remarks ;
This is a representation of a lion seizing and devouring a bull; the latter animal is evidently powerless to offer any resistance to the fierce beast which has sprung upon him from behind. In his agony the bull rears up his fore-parts, and turns his head feebly towards his assailant. .... This favourite group, which the Persian sculptors repeated without the slightest change from generation to generation.'5 The design was favourite because highly archaic and symbolical. No man has ever seen a lion attack a unicorn, but the contest between sun and moon, between day and night, was watched from the first with the closest interest. Sun and moon may equally combine
1 Lajard, Culte de Vénus, pl. iii. fig. 8. ? Vide No. XXII. 2. · Layard, ap. Inman, Ancient Faiths, vol. i. fig. 66. . Vide sec. XII. subsec. 2.
5 A. M. iii, 339-40.
In Archaic Art.
21 against darkness and chaos, or contend against each other.'1
X. A Persian Cylinder? shows the Unicorn-goat held in the arms of a divinity ; 8 opposite is the sun radiate.
XI. Another Assyrian scene from Layard 4 shows a man adoring a winged Unicorn-bull, above which appear the sun radiate, the crescent moon, and also the seven planets. It will be remembered that the Unicorn-stag is the creature which I regard as especially lunar; the representation shows how familiar is the idea of a Unicorn. · XII. Tree of Life, between two Gryphons.' 5 This cylinder-scene represents the Sacred Tree 6 between two winged Unicorns (not Gryphons) rampant, each turned towards it. The Tree įs of the archaic palm-type. With this may be compared the two Unicorns and the Palm in No. III.
XIII. Cow ? and calf before a tree; over them the Sun and Planets. The representation of the animal presents a striking analogy to that of the bull
1 This contest between Day and Night, is shown farther west on coins of Akanthos, where the lion-sun seizes the bull of night which is apparently unicornic. In later idea the design embraces the contest between the principles of destruction and renewal (vide G. D. M. i. 387). A. M. 354.
3 Vide No. XIX. 4. 4 Ap. King, A. G. R. vol. ii. pl. i. fig. 1. 5 Ibid. fig. 7.
6 Perhaps this tree may, as Mr. King suggests, have been also originally connected with the cult of the Vedic Soma, the Iranian Haoma, the Omomi of Plutarch, and the Hom of Anquetil du Perron (vide R. B. Jr., G. D. M. cap. IX. sec. ii. Theoinos).
? On the question whether a cow or a bull is represented, and wby, vide No. XXIX.
regardant on the coins of Sybaris. Conical seal.' 1 The seal in question shows the Unicorn-cow (or bull) with the usual prominent (lunar) eye, before the tree; land, as frequently, regardant. The horned moon it will of course be remembered, is frequently connected with the bull or cow, indeed more frequently than with the Unicorn; and the Bull and Cow, emblems of increase, are also connected with Night as a period of growth. The nocturnal Sun, too, is at times bovine ; in contradistinction to the diurnal and leonine Sun. We must expect to find frequently a mixture of ideas in a symbolical representation. | This Unicorn-cow (if a cow it be) seems, as shown by
the calf, to be kosmogonic as well as lunar; but the old attitude of the head, the prominent eye, the single horn and the tree are still preserved. The
maiden unicorn' can have no calf; but the Old Moon is at times seen in the Young Moon's arms, 4 i.e., when in addition to the sun-lit portion of the moon, the obscure portion is faintly visible on account of the reflection of the earth-shine;' called lumen incinerosum, a Cinderella-moon.
XIV. It is convenient to notice next the archaic coinage of Sybaris referred to by Mr. King. Sybaris was colonised from Achaia, B.c. 721, and the coins in question may be placed prior to B.C. 600. Leake
1 King, A. G. R. vol. ii. pl. ij. fig. 4. ? Vide Nos. II. III. IX. 3 Vide G. D. M. cap. IX. sec. iii. Taurokerūs.
. 4 'Late late yestreen I saw the new moone . Wi' the auld moone in hir arme.'
(Ballad of Sir Patrick Spens, 7.)
In Archaic Art.
describes the type as Bull standing to left, with head reverted ;' and remarks, “This type is probably symbolical of the river Crathis.'1 As in previous instances no attention is paid to the circumstance that the animal, whatever else it may be, is a unicorn, in this case a unicorn-bull. I do not absolutely assert that it is a lunar emblem ; but it is certainly a link in the chain of unicornic representations, and has faithfully preserved the regardant attitude. As one of a series it is quite unconnected with the river Crathis, a circumstance also shown by the fact that this class of symbolical river-representations were not unicornic but purely bovine with respect to the head, such as that of the Acheloos, one of whose horns was broken off in his contest with Heraklês.?
XV. The demi-Unicorn-bull alone, and also the heads of the Lion and Unicorn-bull fronting each other, as if combatant, appear on coins of Kypros. Archaic coins of Sardis also show the Demi-lion and Demi-bull (not Unicorn-bull), the same type, combatant. On another coin of Sardis the demi-Unicorn-bull appears alone.
XVI. Another Sardian coin shows the heads of the Lion and Unicorn-bull addorsed and joined at the neck, a fore foot of each being added. This type is almost certainly borrowed from Persia ; at Persepolis the double Unicorn-bull-capital appears, the bodies of the : 1 Numismata Hellenica, ii. 144. ? Vide G. D. M. i. 388.
3 Vide Humphrey, Coin Collectors' Manual, pl. i. figs. 2, 4, 5. He well observes,' the type of the bull and lion would appear to have been derived from Persia or Assyria' (vol. i. 13).