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now in the vestry of York Minster. 'An inscription in Latin upon the horn states that Ulphus, prince of the Western parts of Deira, originally gave it to the church of St. Peter, together with all his lands and revenues. Camden, in his Britannia, mentions this horn, and quotes an ancient authority for an account of the donation of which it served as a token. The church holds by this horn several estates of great value, not far eastward from the city of York, and which are still called Terrae Ulphi.'1 And now upon this famous Horn we find both Hekate Triformis and the Unicorn; the Horned-horse is palpably the Crescent-moon; the Snake or Serpent is the emblem of the rays of light from the Full-moon, the Gorg6 Medousa;2 and the Dog, whose head and neck only appear, represents the Half-moon. The Dog may be also connected with the New or Invisible-moon. Pausanias says that 'the Kolophonians sacrifice a black whelp to Enodios,' 3 i.e., Hekate, as goddess of cross-roads. The Unicorn of Ulf has the prominent eye before noticed in unicornic representations,4 and which refers to the increasing moon soon to be full. The horn, it will be observed, is fast in the Sacred Tree,5 and this feature of the myth I shall have occasion subsequently ° to notice particularly. Suffice it Hckati. 45
1 Winkle, Cathedral Churches, i. 62. 3 Sec. VII.
3 Paus. III. xiv. 9. It is to be noticed that he uses a masculine form of the name of the goddess. Euripides calls her Enodia.
4 Sec. III. Nos. V. XIII. XXX.
5 Cf. the instances of Unicorn and Tree, sec. III. (.■'.. ■ * Sec. XII. subsec. 3.
to remind the reader here that dark groves were sometimes sacred to HekatS, as e.g., near Lake Avernus in Lower Italy.1 Black female lambs were also offered to the goddess.2
It is evident that this triple-moon-phase, Unicornhorse, Serpent and Dog, familiar alike to the artist of the Horn and to the writer of the Argonautika (not to mention others), is of a high antiquity. Hekate has a triple power in ' Hesiod,' the Euphratean Moon-god is equally connected with triplicity;8 but the chief point in the present investigation is that the Unicorn, whom we have seen in Babylonian art in the closest connexion with the lunar power, is shown by this venerable Horn to be beyond all contradiction the undoubted emblem of the crescent-moon.
Elsewhere I have observed, 'Hellenik divinities whose shapes are grotesque, monstrous or unhuman, are invariably not indigenous. Apparent exceptions to this canon, such, for instance, as the Horseheaded Demeter of Phigaleia, or the Arkadian Pan, on careful examination, serve only to confirm it.'4 After noticing 'the Four-faced Karthaginian Baal,' 1 the solar Time-king in his four changing seasons,' I remarked;—
1 Vide A. S. Murray, Manual of Mythology, 78.
* Plutarch, Quaest. Horn. xlix.
3 If the three-headed Lion-god of Meroe (vide Rawlinson, Herod, ii. 85), who has four arms (vide my remarks on the four-armed Lakedaimonian Apolldn, G. D. M. i. 350 et seg.) be solar, we should have an instance of solnr triplicity also. The Triform Ilekate appears at times on Roman lamps (Tide Birch, Ancient Pottery, 507, 511. As to these representations of the goddess, vide also Petersen, Archaeologisch-cpigraphische Mittheillungen aus Or-nterreieh, vol. iv. pt. ii.).
* O. D. M. i. 350. In this work I have examined many instances of unanthropomorpliic divinities which appear in Hellenik regions.
'In the Kerameikos, at a place where three ways met, stood a four-headed Dionysiak statue, the work of the sculptor Telesarchides. It has been frequently said that Hekate and Hermes derive their occasional triplicity, and other unanthropomorphic adjuncts, from presiding over places where three roads met and the like. But although in later times these ideas were to some extent connected, and though the statue of a tri-kephalik or tetra-kephalik divinity might indeed with much propriety be erected where three or four roads met; yet the previous supposed character of the personage would occasion the act, the idea of many heads would not spring from that of cross-roads. That the heads in origin were quite independent of the roads, is well shown in the instances before us, in which a four-headed god presided where three ways met.'1 Other epithets of Hekate, such as Trioditis,2 Triceps, Tergeminus, Trivia, etc., require no further remark; and with the degradation of the goddess, the process by which she at length becomes a demon-witch, culminating in the ShaksperianHekatS, I am not here concerned, nor in the present investigation can I refer further to the Moon-dog.
1 O. li. M. i. 862. "Orphik Hymn, i. 1.
MEDOUSA THE GORGO.
From the Triple-moon and the Unicorn-horse-moon I pass on to the Serpentine-full-moon, the victim of the solar Perseus, another version of the oft-recurring story. Careful study of the Homerik Poems reveals the intrinsically archaic nature and high antiquity of the majority of their ideas, and in the consideration of any mythic personage a passage in Homer, if available, almost always supplies an excellent startingpoint. It is generally, but not quite accurately stated that'Homer knows only one Gorgo.' The passages are as follows;—
'On it [the aigis of Athenaie] was a Gorgeian head of a dreadful portent.'l
'Hekt6r, having the eyes of a Gorgo.' 2
'An awful-looking Gorgo ' 3 was the device upon the shield of Agamemnon.
Odysseus fears 'lest Persephoneia from Hades should send a Gorgeian head of a dreadful portent.'4 From these passages we gather:—
1 Mas, v. 741. The phase htivoio nt\apov occurs again in the same connexion (Od. xi. 634). It is not necessary to render ntXap 'monster.' The essential meaning of the word is 'portent (cf. II. ii. 321: nfKwpa 6tS>v,' portents Eent from the gods'). That which is portentous is often monstrous, the appearance of monsters being particularly connected with the anger of heaven.
* II. viii. 349. • Ibid. xi. 30. "Od. xi. G34-5.
1. That whilst there was certainly one Gorgo, there may also have been others.
2. That its eye constituted the chief terror of the appearance.1
3. That this appearance, originally portentous,2 became, or was considered to be, monstrous.8
4. That, though having a bright eye, it is connected with Darkness and the Underworld. And
5. Was used heraldically as arms upon a shield. Fick would connect the obscure word Gorg6 with
the European root garg, 'to cry,' and compares the Sk. garj, 'to emit a deep sound;'4 but the idea of sound is so truly out of place in the myth (a circumstance which we are bound to consider), that I am compelled to reject this derivation. I had deemed the term as possibly an intensive variant of orge, 'natural impulse,' primarily 'swelling' (first physics, then meta-physics), as applied to the swollen, fullfaced Moon; for from Homer alone it is not very
1 Cf. the prominent unicorn-eye (sec. III. Nos. V. XIII. XXX).
* 'As when the sun new risen
Looks through the horizontal misty air
Paradise Lost, i. 594-7. s As HekatS.
4 Worterbuch, i. 665. A g sound appears to have been considered suitable to express the increasing, rounded (cf. yoyyo\os), humpbacked jri'6-bous-moon. In Akkadian gub means 'to wax' as the moon (vide R. B. Jr., Language and Theories of its Origin, 1881, sec. xvi. Occult Imitation).