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Besides Marlowe, Greene, Lodge, Lyly, Peele, drawn across it; and a sort of balcony in the rear and Kyd, there were other dramatists, who may be enabled the writer to represent his characters at a looked upon as the immediate predecessors of window, on the platform of a castle, or on an eleShakespeare, but few of whose printed works are vated terrace. of an earlier date, as regards composition, than some To this simplicity, and to these deficiencies, we of those which came from the pen of our great poet. doubtless owe some of the finest passages in our Among these, Thomas Nash was the most distin- early plays; for it was part of the business of the guished, whose contribution to “Dido," in conjunc- dramatist to supply the absence of colored canvas tion with Marlowe, has been before noticed: the by grandeur and luxuriance of description. The ear portions which came from the pen of Marlowe are, was thus made the substitute for the eye, and the we think, easily to be distinguished from those writ- poet's pen, aided by the auditor's imagination, more ten by Nash, whose genius does not seem to have than supplied the place of the painter's brush. been of an imaginative or dramatic, but of a satirical Moveable scenery was unknown in our public theaand objurgatory character. Henry Chettle, who was tres until after the Restoration ; and, as has been also senior to Shakespeare, has left behind him a observed elsewhere, "the introduction of it gives tragedy called “ Hoffman," which was not printed the date to the commencement of the decline of until 1630; and he was engaged with Anthony our dramatic poetry.Munday in producing " The Death of Robert Earl How far propriety of costume was regarded, we of Huntington," printed in 1601. From Henslowe's have no sufficient means of deciding ; but we apDiary we learn that both these pieces were written prehend that more attention was paid to it than has subsequent to the date when Shakespeare had ac- been generally supposed, or than was accomplished quired a high reputation. Munday had been a at a much later and more refined period. It is in. dramatist as early as 1584, when a rhyming trans- disputable, that often in this department no outlay lation by him, nhder the title of "The Two Italian was spared: the most costly dresses were purchased, Gentlemen," came from the press; and in the inter- that characters might be consistently habited; and, val between that year and 1602, he wrote the whole as a single proof, we may mention, that sometimes or parts of various plays which have been lost. more than £20 were given for a cloak, an enormous Robert Wilson ought not to be omitted: he seems price, when it is recollected that money was then to have been a prolific dramatist, but only one com- five or six times as valuable as at present. edy by him has survived, under the title of “The We have thus briefly stated all that seems absoCobbler's Prophecy," and it was printed in 1594. lutely required to give the reader a correct notion He seems to have been a low comedian, and his of the state of the English drama and stage at the "Cobbler's Prophecy" is a piece, the drollery of period when, according to the best judgment we which must have depended in a great degree upon can form from such evidence as remains to us, the performers.

Shakespeare advanced to a forward place among With regard to mechanical facilities for the rep- the dramatists of the day. As long ago as 1679, resentation of plays before, and indeed long after, Dryden gave currency to the notion, which we have the time of Shakespeare, it may be sufficient to shown to be mistaken, that Shakespeare “ created state, that our old public theatres were merely first the stage," and he repeated it in 1692: it is round wooden buildings, open to the sky in the not necessary to the just admiration of that noble audience part of the house, although the stage was dramatisl, that we should do injustice to his predecovered by a hanging roof: the spectators stood on cessors or earlier contemporaries : on the contrary, the ground in front or at the sides, or were accom- his miraculous powers are best to be estimated by a modated in boxes round the inner circumference of comparison with his ablest rivals; and if he appear the edifice, or in galleries at a greater elevation. not greatest when his works are placed beside Our ancient stage was unfurnished with moveable those of Marlowe, Greene, Peele, or Lodge, however scenery; and tables, chairs, a few boards for a bat- distinguished their rank as dramatists, and however tlemented wall, or a rude structure for a tomb or an deserved their popularity, we shall be content to altar, seem to have been nearly all the properties it think, that for more than two centuries the world possessed. It was usually hung round with decayed has been under a delusion as to his claims. He tapestry; and as there was no other mode of con- rose to eminence and he maintained it, amid strugveying the necessary information, the author often gles for equality by men of high genius and varied provided that the player, on his entrance, should talents ; and with his example ever since before us, take occasion to mention the place of action. no poet of any country, has even approached his When the business of a piece required that the excellence. Shakespeare is greatest by a comparistage should represent two apartments, the 'effect son with greatness, or he is nothing. was accomplished by a curtain, called a traverse,

THE LIFE

OF

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE.

CHAPTER I.

It deserves remark, that although John ShakeNo Shakespeare advanced or rewarded by Henry VII.-speare is often subsequently mentioned in the rec

Antiquity of the Shakespeares in Warwickshire, &c.-ords of the corporation of Stratford, no addition Earliest occurrence of the name at Stratford-upon-Avon. ever accompanies his name. We may presume - The Trade of John Shakespeare.-Richard Shakespeare that in 1556, he was established in his business, certainly tenant to Robert Arden, father of John Shake because on the 30th April of that year he was one speare's wife.--Marriage of John Shakespeare and Mary of twelve jurymen of a court-leet. His name in Arden: their circumstances.-Purchase of two houses in the list was at first struck through with a pen, but Stratford by John Shakespeare.-His progress in the cor. underneath it the word stet was written, probably by poration.

the town-clerk. Thus we find him in 1556 acting It has been supposed that some of the paternal as a regular trading inhabitant of the borough of ancestors of William Shakespeare were advanced, Stratford-upon-Avon. and rewarded with lands and tenements in War Little doubt can be entertained that he came from wickshire, for services rendered to Henry VII. Snitterfield, three miles from Stratford ; and upon The rolls of that reign have been recently most this point we have several new documents before carefully searched, and the name of Shakespeare, us. It appears from them, that a person of the according to any mode of spelling it, does not occur name of Richard Shakespeare (nowhere before in them.

mentioned) was resident at Snitterfield in 1550 : he Many Shakespeares were resident in different was tenant of a house and land belonging to Robert parts of Warwickshire, as well as in some of the Arden (or Ardern, as the name was anciently spelt, adjoining counties, at an early date. The register and as it stands in the papers in our hands) of Wilof the Guild of St. Anne of Knolle, or Knowle, be- mecote, in the parish of Aston Cantlowe. By ginning in 1407 and ending in 1535, when it was a conveyance, dated 21st December, 11th Henry dissolved, contains various repetitions of the name, VIII., we find that Robert Arden then became posduring the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., Rich- sessed of houses and land in Snitterfield, from Richard III., Henry VII., and Henry VIII. : we there ard Rushby and his wife: from Robert Arden the find a Thomas Shakespere of Balishalle, or Balsal, property descended to his son, and it was part of Thomas Chacsper and John Shakespeyre of Row this estate which was occupied by Richard Shakeington, Richard Shakspere of Woldiche, together speare in 1550. We have no distinct evidence upon with Joan, Jane, and William Shakespeare, of the point; but if we suppose Richard Shakespeare places not mentioned: an Isabella Shakspere is of Snitterfield to have been the father of John also there stated to have been priorissa de Wraxale Shakespeare of Stratford, who married Mary Arin the 19th Henry VII. The Shakespeares of den, the youngest of seven daughters of Robert Wroxal, of Rowington, and of Balsal, are men- Arden, it will easily and naturally explain the mantioned by Malone, as well as other persons of the ner in which John Shakespeare became introduced same name at Claverdon and Hampton. He to the family of the Ardens, inasmuch as Richard carries back his information regarding the Shake Shakespeare, the father of John, and the grandspeares of Warwick no higher than 1602; but a father of William Shakespeare, was one of the tenWilliam Shakespeare was drowned in the Avon ants of Robert Arden. near Warwick in 1574, a John Shakespeare was No registration of that marriage has been discovresident on “the High Pavement” in 1578, and a ered, but we need not hesitate in deciding that the Thomas Shakespeare in the same place in 1585. ceremony took place in 1557. Mary Arden and

The earliest date at which we hear of a Shake- her sister Alicia were certainly unmarried, when speare in the borough of Stratford-upon-Avon'is they were appointed executores" under their 17th June, 1555, when Thomas Siche instituted a father's will, dated 24th November, 1556, and the proceeding in the court of the bailiff, for the recov- probability seems to be that they were on that acery of the sum of £8 from John Shakespeare, who count chosen for the office, in preference to their has always been taken to be the father of our great five married sisters. Joan, the first child of John dramatist. Thomas Siche was of Arlescote, or Ars Shakespeare and his wife Mary, was baptized in scotte, in Worcestershire, and in the Latin record the church of Stratford-upon-Avon on the 15th of the suit John Shakespeare is called “glover," in September, 1558, so that we may fix their union English. Taking it for granted, as we have every towards the close of 1557, about a year after the reason to do, that this John Shakespeare was the death of Robert Arden. father of the poet, the document satisfied Malone What were the circumstances of John Shakespeare that he was a glover, and not a butcher, as Aubrey at the time of his marriage, we can only conjecture. had affirmed, nor a dealer in wool, as Rowe had | It has been shown that two years before that event, stated. We think that Malone was right, and the a claim of £8 was made upon him in the borough testimony is unquestionably more positive and authen-court of Stratford, and we must conclude, either tic than the traditions to which we have referred. that the money was not due and the demand unjust,

or that he was unable to pay the debt, and was | Joan, was born, having been baptized, as already therefore proceeded against. The issue of the suit stated, on the 15th September, of that year: she is not known; but in the next year he seems to have died in her infancy, and as her burial does not apbeen established in business as a glover, a branch pear in the register of Stratford, she was, perhaps, of trade much carried on in that part of the king- interred at Snitterfield, where Richard Shakespeare, dom, and, as already mentioned, he certainly served probably the father of John Shakespeare, still reupon the jury of a court-leet in 1556. Therefore, we sided. In respect to the registers of marriages, are, perhaps, justified in thinking that his affairs baptisms, and deaths, at Stratford, some confusion were sufficiently prosperous to warrant his union has been produced by the indisputable fact, that with the youngest of seven co-heiresses, who two persons of the name of John Shakespeare, the brought him some independent property.

one a glover, and the other a shoemaker, were liv. Under her father's will she inherited £6 13s. 4d. ing in the town at the same time, and it is not alin money, and a small estate in fee, in the parish of ways easy to distinguish between the entries which Aston Cantlowe, called Asbyes, consisting of a mes relate to the one, or to the other. suage, fifty acres of arable land, six acres of meadow John Shakespeare was again chosen one of the and pasture, and a right of common for all kinds of four affcerors of Stratford in 1561, and the Shakecattle. Malone knew nothing of Mary Arden's speare Society is in possession of the original preproperty in Snitterfield, to which we have already sentation made by these officers on the 4th May referred, and, without it, he estimated that her for in that year, the name of the father of our great tune was equal to £110 138. 4d., which seems to us dramatist coming last, after those of Henry Bydyll, rather an under calculation of its actual value. He Lewis ap William, and William Mynske. 'In Sepalso speculated, that at the time of their marriage tember following the date of this report John John Shakespeare was twenty-seven years old, and Shakespeare was elected one of the chamberlains Mary Arden eighteen; but the truth is that we have of the borough, a very responsible post, in which he not a particle of direct evidence upon the point. remained two years. Had she been so young, it seems very unlikely that His second child, Margaret, or Margareta (as the her father would have appointed ber one of his name stands in the register), was baptized on the executors in the preceding year, and we are inclined 2d December, 1562, while he continued chamberto think that she must have been of full age in No-lain. She was buried on 30th April, 1563. vember, 1556.

The greatest event, perhaps, in the literary hisIt was probably in contemplation of his marriage tory of the world occurred a year afterwards that, on 21 October, 1556, John Shakespeare be- William Shakespeare was born. The day of his came the owner of two copy-hold houses in Strat- birth cannot be fixed with absolute certainty, but he ford, the one in Greenhill-street, and the other in was baptized on the 26th April, 1564, and the memHenley-street, which were alienated to him by orandum in the register is precisely in the following George Turnor and Edward West, respectively; form:the house in Greenhill-street had a garden and croft attached to it, and the house in Henley-street

"1564. April 26. Gulielmus filius Johannes Skakspere." only a garden; and for each he was to pay to the So that whoever kept the book (in all probability lord of the manor an annual rent of sixpence. In the clerk) either committed a common clerical 1557 he was again sworn as a juryman upon the error, or was no great proficient in the rules of court-leet, and in the spring of the following year he grammar. It seems most likely that our great was amerced in the sum of fourpence for not keep- dramatist had been brought into the world only ing clean the gutter in front of his dwelling. It is three days before he was baptized, as it was then a point of little importance, but it is highly proba- the custom to carry infants very early to the font. ble that John Shakespeare was first admitted a A house is still pointed out by tradition, in Henleymember of the corporation of Stratford in 1557, street, as that in which William Shakespeare first when he was made one of the ale-lasters of the saw the light, and we have already shown that his town; and in September, 1558, he was appointed father was the owner of two copy-hold dwellings in one of the four constables, his name following those Henley-street and Greenhill-street, and we may, perof Humphrey Plymley, Roger Sadler, and John haps, conclude that the birth took place in the Taylor. He continued constable in 1559, his asso- former. John and Mary Shakespeare having preciates then being John Taylor, William Tyler, and viously lost two girls, Joan and Margaret, William William Smith, and he was besides one of four per- was at this time the only child of his parents. sons, called affeerors, whose duty it was to impose A malignant fever, denominated the plague, broke fines upon their fellow-townsmen (such as he had out at Stratford while William Shakespeare was in himself paid in 1557) for offences against the bye-extreme infancy: he was not two months old when laws of the borough.

it made its appearance, having been brought from London, where, according to Stow, (Annales, p. 1112, edit. 1615,) it raged with great violence

throughout the year 1563, and did not so far abate CHAPTER II.

that term could be kept, as usual at Westminster, Death of John Shakespeare's eldest child, Jonn.-Two John until Easter, 1564. It was most fatal at Stratford

Shakespeares in Stratford. - Birth and death of John between June and December, 1564, and Malone Shakespeare's second child, Margaret.-Birth of William calculated that it carried off in that interval more whakespeare : his birth-day, and the house in which he than a seventh part of the whole population, conwas born. - The plague in Stratford.--Contributions to sisting of about 1,400 inhabitants. It does not apJohn Shakespeare elected alderman, and subsequently pear that it reached any member of the immediate bailiff-Gilbert Shakespeare born.- Another daughter, family of Jolin Shakespeare, and it is not at all unbaptized Joan, born. -- Proofs that John Shakespeare likely that he avoided its ravages by quitting Stratcould not write.

ford for Snitterfield, where he owned some property It was while John Shakespeare executed the in right of his wife, and where perhaps his father duties of constable in 1558, that his eldest child, I was still living as tenant to Alexander Webbe, who,

in 1564), had obtained a lease for forty years from of John Shakespeare,) it can never be entertained his relative, the widow Agnes Arden, of the mes hereafter, because the Shakespeare Society has been suage in which Richard Shakespeare resided. put in possession of two warrants, granted by John

In order to show that John Shakespeare was at Shakespeare as bailiff of Stratford, the one dated this date in moderate, and probably comfortable, the 3d, and the other the 9th December, 11 Elizathough not in affluent circumstances, Malone adduced beth, for the caption of John Ball and Richard a piece of evidence derived from the records of Walcar, on account of debts severally due from them, Stratford: it consists of the names of persons in the to both of which his mark only is appended. borough who, on this calamitous visitation of the plague, contributed various sums to the relief of the poor. The donations varied between 78. 4d. (given by only one individual of the name of Richard Symens) and 6d.; and the sum against the name of

CHAPTER III. John Shakespeare is ls. It is to be recollected that the grant of arms to John Shakespeare considered.-Sir W. at this date he was not an alderman; and of twenty Deihick's conduct.-Ingon meadow in John Shakespeare's four persons enumerated, five others gave the same tenancy:-Birth and death of his daughter, Anne.-Richamount, while six gave less: the bailiff contributed ard Shakespeare born in 1574, and named, perhaps, after

his grandfather.-John Shakespeare's purchase of two 38. 4d., and the head alderman 2s. 8d., while ten freehold houses in Stratford. - Decline in his pecuniary more put down either 2s. 6d. or 2s. each, and a affairs.-Sale of John Shakespeare's and his wife's share person of the name of Botte 4s. These subscrip of property at Snitterfield, to Robert Webbe.-Birth of tions were raised on the 30th of August, but on the

Edmund Shakespeare in 1580. 6th of September a farther sum seems to have been ALTHOUGH John Shakespeare could not write his required, and the bailiff and six aldermen gave 1s. name, it has generally been stated, and believed, each, Adrian Quyney 1s. 6d., and John Shakespeare that while he filled the office of bailiff he obtained and four others 6d. each: only one member of the a grant of arms from Clarencieux Cooke, who was corporation, Robert Bratt, contributed 4d. We are, in office from 1566 to 1592. We have considerable we think, warranted in concluding, that in 1564 doubt of this fact, partly arising out of the circumJohn Shakespeare was an industrious and thriving stance, that although Cooke's original book, in tradesman.

which he entered the arms he granted, has been He continued steadily to advance in rank and preserved in the Heralds' College, we find in it no importance in the corporation, and was elected one note of any such concession to John Shakespeare. of the fourteen aldermen of Stratford on the 4th It is true that this book might not contain memoranda July, 1565 ; but he did not take the usual oath until of all the arms Cooke had granted, but it is a cirthe 12th of September following. The bailiff of cumstance deserving notice, that in this case such the year was Richard Hill, a woollen-draper; and an entry is wanting. A confirmation of these arms the father of our poet became the occupant of that was made in 1596, but we cannot help thinking, situation rather more than three years afterwards, with Malone, that this instrument was obtained at when his son William was about four years and a the personal instance of the poet, who had then half old. John Shakespeare was bailiff of Stratford- actually purchased, or was on the eve of purchasing, upon-Avon from Michaelmas 1568, to Michaelmas New Place (or "the great house," as it was also 1569, the autumn being the customary period of called) in Stratford. The confirmation states, that election. In the mean time his wife had brought him the heralds had been “ by credible report informed," another son, who was christened Gilbert, on 13th that “the parents and late antecessors” of John October, 1566.

Shakespeare “were for their valiant and faithful Joan seems to have been a favorite name with the services advanced and rewarded of the most prudent Shakespeares: and Joan Shakespeare is mentioned prince, Henry the Seventh ;" but, as has been before in the records of the guild of Knowle, in the reign stated, on examining the rolls of that reign, we can of Henry VIII. ; and John and Mary Shakespeare discover no trace of advancement or reward to any christened their first child, which died an infant, person of the name of Shakespeare. It is true that Joan. A third daughter was born to them while the Ardens, or Arderns, were so "advanced and John Shakespeare was bailiff, and her they also bap- rewarded ;" and these, though not strictly the “patized Joan, on 15th April, 1569.

rents," were certainly the "antecessors" of William We have now traced John Shakespeare through Shakespeare. In 1599, an exemplification of arms various offices in the borough of Stratford, until he was procured, and in this document it is asserted reached the highest distinction which it was in the that the "great grandfather” of John Shakespeare power of his fellow-townsmen to bestow: he was had been " advanced and rewarded with lands and bailiff, and ex-officio a magistrate.

tenements” by Henry VII. Our poet's "great grandTwo new documents have recently come to light father," by the mother's side, was so " advanced and which belong to this period, and which show, beyond rewarded;" and we know that he did " fuithful and all dispute, that although John Shakespeare had approved service" to that "most prudent prince." risen to a station so respectable as that of bailiff of That William Shakespeare could not have proStratford, with his name in the commission of the cured a grant of arms for himself in 1596 is highly peace, he was not able to write. Malone referred probable, from the fact that he was an actor, (a proio the records of the borough to establish that infession then much looked down upon) and not of a 1565, when John Wheler was called upon by nine- rank in life to entitle him to it: he, therefore, may teen aldermen and burgesses to undertake the duties have very fairly and properly put forward his father's of bailiff, John Shakespeare was among twelve other name and claims as having been bailiff of Stratford, marksmen, including George Whately, the then and a “justice of peace," and coupled that fact with bailiff, and Roger Sadler, the "head alderman." the deserts and rewards of the Ardens under Henry There was, therefore, nothing remarkable in this VII., one of whom was his maternal "great grandinability to write ; and if there were any doubt upon father," and all of whom, by reason of the marthis point, (it being a little ambiguous whether the riage of his father with an Arden, were his ". antesignum referred to the name of Thomas Dyxun, or cessors."

B

We are persuaded that when William Shake- | March, 1573-4, as the son of "Mr. John Shakespeare applied to the office in 1596, Garter of that speare." Rirhard Shakespeare may have been day, or his assistants, made a confusion between the named after his grandfather of Snitterfield, who per"great grandfather" and the " antecessors" of John, haps was sponsor on the occasion. and of William Shakespeare. What is stated, both The increase of John Shakespeare's family seems, in the confirmation and exemplification, as to parent- for some time, to have been accompanied by an age and descent, is true as regards William Shake increase of his means, and in 1574 he gave Edmund speare, but erroneous as regards John Shakespeare. and Emma Hall £ 40 for two freehold houses, with

It appears that Sir William Dethick, garter-king- gardens and orchards, in Henley-street. It will not at-arms in 1596 and 1599, was subsequently called be forgotten that he was already the owner of a to account for having granted coats to persons whose copyhold tenement in the same street, which he had station in society and circumstances gave them no bought of Edward West, in 1556, before his marright to the distinction. The case of John Shake- riage with Mary Arden. To one of the two last- speare was one of those complained of in this re- purchased dwellings John Shakespeare is supposed spect; and had Clarencieux Cooke really put his to have removed his family; but, for aught we know, name in 1568-9 to any such patent as, it was asserted, he had lived from the time of his marriage, and had been exhibited to Sir William Dethick, a copy continued to live in 1574, in the house in Henleyof it, or some record of it, would probably have street, which had been alienated to him eighteen. remained in the office of arms in 1596 ; and the years before. It does not appear that he had ever production of that alone, proving that he had merely parted with West's house, so that in 1574 he was acted on the precedent of Clarencieux Cooke, would, the owner of three houses in Henley-street. to a considerable extent at least, have justified Sir It is, we apprehend, indisputable that soon after William Dethick. No copy, nor record, was how this date the tide of John Shakespeare's affairs beever so produced, but merely a memorandum at the gan to turn, and that he experienced disappointfoot of the confirmation of 1596, that an original ments and losses which seriously affected his pecuni.. grant had been sent or shown, which memorandum ary circumstances. At a borough hall on the 29th may have been added when Sir William Dethick's January, 1578, it was ordered that every alder conduct was called in question; and certain other man in Stratford should pay 6s. 8d., and every bura) statements are made at the bottom of the same gess 38. 4d. toward "the furniture of three pikemen, document, which would be material to Garter's vin- two billmen, and one archer." Now, although John dication, but which are not borne out by facts. One Shakespeare was not only an alderman, but had been of these statements is, that John Shakespeare, in chosen “head alderman" in 1571, he was allowed 1596, was worth £500, an error certainly as regarded to contribute only 3s. 4d., as if he had been merely him, but a truth probably as regarded his son. a burgess. In November, 1578, when it was required

It is really a matter of little moment whether John that every alderman should "pay weekly to the relief Shakespeare did or did not obtain a grant of arms of the poor 1d.," John Shakespeare and Robert Bratt! while he was bailiff of Stratford; but we are strongly were excepted. Several other facts tend strongly inclined to think that he did not, and that the asser- to the conclusion that in 1578 John Shakespeare tion that he did, and that he was worth £500 in was distressed for money: he owed a baker of the 1596, originated with Sir W. Dethick, when he sub- name of Roger Sadler £5, for which Edmund sequently wanted to make out his own vindication Lambert, and a person of the name of Cornishe, from the charge of having conceded arms to various had become security; Sadler died, and in his persons without due caution and inquiry.

will, dated 14th November, 1578, he included the In 1570, when William Shakespeare was in his following among the debts due to him :--- Item of; seventh year, his father was in possession of a field Edmund Lambert and Cornishe, for the debt of Mr. called Ingon, or Ington, meadow, within two miles John Shacksper, £5.” And so severe the pressure of Stratford, which he held under William Clopton. of his necessities about this date seems to have been We cannot tell in what year he first rented it, be that in 1579 he parted with his wife's interest in cause the instrument proving his tenancy is dated two tenements in Snitterfield to Robert Webbe for 11th June, 1581, and only states the fact, that on the small sum of £4. 11th December, 1570, it was in his occupation. It has been supposed that he might not at this The annual payment for it was £8, a considerable time reside in Stratford-upon-Avon, and that for this sum, certainly, for that time; but if there had been reason, he only contributed 38. 4d. for pikemen, &c., "a good dwelling-house and orchard" upon the and nothing to the poor of the town, in 1578. This field, as Malone conjectured, that circumstance notion is refuted by the fact, that in the deed for the would, in all probability, have been mentioned. We sale of his wife's property in Snitterfield to Webbe, may presume that John Shakespeare employed it for in 1579, he is called " John Shackspero of Stratford agricultural purposes, but upon this point we are upon-Avon," and in the bond for the performance of without information. That he lived in Stratford at covenants, “ Johannem Shackspere de Stratford-uponthe time we infer from the fact, that on the 28th Avon, in comitat. Warwici." Another point res September, 1571, a second daughter, named Anne, quiring notice in connexion with these two newlywas baptized at the parish-church. He had thus discovered documents is, that in both John Shake four children living, two boys and two girls, Wil- speare is termed “yeoman," and not glover : perliam, Gilbert, Joan, and Anne, but the last died haps in 1579, although he continued to occupy a at an early age, having been buried on 4th April, house in Stratford, he had relinquished his original 1579. On the baptism of his daughter Anne, he trade, and having embarked in agricultural pursuits, was, for the first time, called "Magister Shake to which he had not been educated, had been una speare in the Latin entry in the Register, a distinc- successful. This may appear not an unnatural mode tion he seems to have acquired by having served of accounting for some of his difficulties. In the the office of bailiff two years before. The same midst of them, in the spring of 1580, another son, observation will apply to the registration of his named Edmund, was born, and christened at the fifth child, Richard, who was baptized on 11th parish church.

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