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complied with, that God fuffered the theocracy to be administered by a viceroy, there was then, as was fitting, a great abatement in the vigour of this extraordinary providence; partly in natural consequence, God being now farther removed froin the immediate administration; and partly in punishment of their rebellion. And soon after this it is that we first find them beginning to make their observations and complaints of inequality. From hence to the time of the captivity the extraordinary providence kept gradually decaying, till on their full re-establishment, it entirely ceased *. For what great reasons, besides punishment for their crimes; and what consequences it had on the religious sentiments of the people, will be occasionally explained as we go along.':
His Lordship concludes his fifth book with the following addition in regard to the doctrine of the feep of the soul between death and the resurrection. After enquiring into the sentiments of the early Jews concerning the foul, he goes on thus :
• But from this uninterelting state, in which the doctrine, concerning the soul, remained amongst the early Jews, the Sad. ducees concluded that their ancestors believed the extinction of the soul on death. Hence likewise came some late revivers of this opinion, of the extinction of the soul; though maintained under the softer name of its peep between death and the resurrection : for they go upon the Sadducean principle, that the soul is a quality only, and not a substance.
In support of this opinion, the revivers of it proceed on the Tophism, which polytheists employ to coinbat the unity of the Godhead. All philosophical arguments (says the reviver, after having quoted a number of wonderful things from Scripture, to prove the soul a quality, and mortal) drawn from our 'notions of matter, and urged against the possibility of life, thought, and agency, being so connected with some portions of it as to constitute a compound being or person, are merely grounded on our ignorance t. Just so the polytheist.“ All arguments for the unity, from metaphysics, are manifestly, vain, and merely grounded on our ignorance. You believers (says he) must be confined to Scripture: now
"I will only observe at present, what the least reflection on this matter so naturally suggests, that this complaint of inequality never could have come from good men, a; it did even from Jeremiah himself, who thus expoftulates with the Almighty : Righteous art ihou, O Lord, when 1 plead with thee: get let me talk with thee of thy judgmen's : l'herefore doth the way of the wicked proper ? Wherefore are all shey happy that deal very treacherously? (Chap. xii. ver. 1.] It never, I say, could have come from such men, had they been at all acquainted with the doctrine of a furure state of rewards and punishments ; or had they noi been long Accuftumed to an extraordinary providence. "t Confiderations on the Theory of Religion, p. 398. Ed. 3d.
Sturt so it is wofes men to be to know thi
Scripture assures us, there are Gods many,” which, by the way, I think a stronger text, certainly a directer, against the unity of the Godhead, than any this learned writer has produced for the peep of the soul. But what say believers to this? They say, that Scriprure takes the unity, as well as the existence of the deity, for granted ; takes them for truths, demonstrable by natural light, Just so it is with regard to that immaterial substance, the soul. Scripture supposes men to be so far informed of the nature of the soul, by the same light, as to know that it cannot be destroyed by any of those causes which bring about the extinction of the body. Our dreamers * are aware of this, and therefore hold with unbelievers, that the soul is no substance, but a quality only; and so have taken effectual care indeed, that its repose shall not be disturbed in this, which we may emphatically call, the sleep of death. We can never prove, (says another of these keepers:6) that the soul of man is of such a nature that it can and must exift and live, think, alt, enjoy, &c. separate from, and independent of, the body. All our present experience Mews the contrary. The operations of the mind depend constantly and invariably upon the fate of the body, of the brain in particular. If fome dying perfons have a lively use of their rational faculties to the very last, it is because death has invaded fame ather part, and the brain remains found and vigorous I. This is the long-exploded trash of Coward, Toland, Collins, &c. And he who can treat us with it at this time of day, has either never read Clarke and Baxter on the subject, (in which, he had been better employed than in writing upon it) or never understood them. - So far as to the abstract truth. Let us consider next the practical consequences. Convince the philofophic libertine that the soul is a quality arising out of matter, and vanishing on the dissolution of the form, and then fee if ever you can bring him to believe the Christian doctrine of the refurre&lion? Whilc he held the soul to be an immaterial substance, existing, as well in its separation from, as in its conjunction with, the body, and he could have no reason, arising from the principles of true philofophy, to stagger in his belief of this revealed doctrine.--Th u fool, that which thou fowest is not quickened except it diel, is good philosophy (indeed!] as well as good divinity: for if the body, instead of its earthly nature were to have a heavenly, it must needs pafs through death and corruption to qualify it for that change. But when this body died, what occasion was there for the soul, which was to suffer no change, to fall asleep?
• But their press of the foul is mere cant: and this brings me
"* St. jule's faithy dreamers only defiled the flesh. These defile the Spirit. .: + Taylor of Norwich. : lb. p. 401. || St. Paul'
to the last consideration, the sense and consistency of so ridiculous a notion. They go, as we observed, upon the Sadducean principle, that the soul is a quality of body, not a substance of itself, and so dies with its substratum. Now sleep, is a modification of existence, not of non-existence; so that though the Aleep of a substance hath a meaning, the sleep of a quality is nonsense. And if ever this soul of theirs re exerts its faculties, it must be by means of a reprodution, not by a mere awaking ; and they may as well talk of the sleep of a mushroom turned again into the substance of the dunghill from whence it arose, and from which, not the same, but another mushroom shall, in time, arise. In a word, neither unbelievers nor believers will allow to these middle men that a new: exifting soul, which is only a quality resulting from a glorified body, can be identically the same with an annihilated soul, which had resulted from an' earthly body. But perhaps, as Hudibras had discovered the receptacle of the ghosts of defunét bodies, so these gentlemen may bave found out the yet subiiler corner, .where the ghosts of defunét qualities repose.'
[To be continued.] R .
Improvements in the Doctrine of the Sphere, Astronomy, Geography, Navigation, &c. deduced from the figure and Motion of the Earth; and absolutely nécessury to be applied in finding the true Longitude at Sea and Land. Rendering all other Methods more correct, and in some Cofes by more than Half a Degree, or thirty geographical Miles. By Samuel Dunn, Professor of Mathematics in London. 4to. 2$. 6d. Hawes, &c.
It has been the custom, for a long series of years, to adjust
I all kinds of instruments for taking altitudes of the fun, moon, or stars, by the plumb-line; which has always been supposed to have a direct and invariable tendency towards the center of the earth'in ail latitudes : and even since it has been discovered that the earth is an oblare spheroid, or the diameter of the equas tor longer than the polar axis, it has been concluded that the direction in which heavy bodies endeavour to descend; is accusately perpendicular to the furface of the earth and fea. But, in the work before us, Mr. Dunn has undertaken to prove, that, fuppofing it were possible to take observations at sea without any error, and also that a time-keeper could be made so very accurate, as to keep equal time without the least variation; yet it would be impoffible, in some cases, to find the longitude either at sea or land, within thirty geographical miles of the truth,
without w hout making use of the correction's he has given in this treatise. Thele corresions are deduced from the following principles :
1. If the earth be considered as a perfect sphere, or globe, of solid and homogeneous matter, and at rest, a heavy body let fall towar's the earth, will move in a right line towards the earth's center; because the quantity of marier and quantity of attraction in the northern, fouthern, eastern, and western he. mispheres, a é čxacily mutual, and equal to each other.
2. Suppofe this globe to continue tolid, and to have a motion round it's polar axis once in 24 hours; then will the falling body, be impe led by two forces, one tending towards the center, and the oi her in the direction of the centrifugal force. . But it is knoin, thar when a body is acted upon by two forces under different directions, it will describe the diagonal of a parallelogram between both those directions. Consequently the falling body, supposing the earth a perfect fphere in motion round its polar axis, would not move in a right line towards the center of the earth, but towards a point situated to the eastward of that cente, supposing the diurnal rotacion performed in a dia rection from west to east.
3. Suppose the earth to be a spheroid, flat towards the poles, and at reft. A falling body will not move in a right-line towards the earth's center; because the quantity of matter in the northern and southern hemispheres will, except under the equi. noctial and poles, be unequal ; and consequently the falling body will nove in a line towards a point situated to the southward or northward of the center, according as the descending body was either in north or fouth latitude. That is, the point to which the line of direction tends will be to the southward of the cenier, when the falling body is in the north latitude, and to the northward of the center when in south latitude.
4. Suppose this spheroidal earth to be turning from west to caft round its polar axis ; : then will the falling body be impelled by two forces, as before in the spherical earth, and will move in the diagonal of a paralelogram, formed by these two forces. And from these two directions, the one a devia:ion in longitude and the other in latitude, the true and absolute direction or line of descent of failing bodies will be determined. - Such are the principles upon which our Author has founded the corrections already mentioned, and he finds, by computation, that the true and accurate direction of the plumb-line at Greenwich is 14" 15". different from a right-line drawn perpendicular to the surface of the earth. He has also shewn how to find, upon the same principles, the deviation of the plumb-line from the earth's center in any other latitude, from the equator to the pole.
But this being only a correction that takes place in a north and south direction, the Author proceeds to thew what the deviation will amount to in a direction east or west of the earth's center, by means of the centrifugal force of the earth's diurnal rotation.
Having given general rules for correcting both these errors, namely, the error in latitude arising from the oblate spheroidal figure of the earth, and likewise the error in longitude arising from the centrifugal force, he proceeds to fhew how the time of any instantaneous phenomenon may be affected by both these errors, by' a comparison of the conclusion deduced from the usual manner, with the true conclusion respecting the earth's center. In which he observes, that neither the usual method of taking altitudes by the apparent horizon at sea, nor the method of taking altitudes by the plumb-line, nor by the spirit level, nor by any equal altitude instrument, can possibly give the true time, be the observation made ever so correct, and with instruments that are ever fu accurately divided. And by a comparison of the true with the common way of computation, he concludes, that in the usual cases, this difference may produce an error of more than half a degree, or thirty geographical miles.
. As these corrections, if absolutely necessary, muft greatly af. fect the accuracy of every kind of observation, particularly those necessary for finding the longitude at sea ; it will be proper to examine whether they are really of that importance and ne. ceffity our Author asserts they are.
We shall not here question the truth of the principles on which these corrections are founded; but endeavour to Thew, that, however true the former may be, the latter are much greater than can fairly be deduced from them.
For, the dimensions Mr. Dunn has given to his spheroid are certainly erroneous. They are indeed founded on actual menfurations made at the polar circle and in France : but as these disagree both with the theory of the illustrious Newton, and also with the actual mensurations made in Peru, there is reason to think that they are defective; and consequently if any corrections are necessary to be made, such corrections will be different from those given by our Author,
According to the mensurations on which he has founded his calculations, a degree at the equator is equal to 56625 toises. But by the mensurations of the mathematicians who were sent to Peru, the length of a degree under the equinoctial is 56767.8 toises, or 142.8 more than it should be according to the mensurations made in Lapland and France. Now whoever peruses the accounts published by Bouguer, Condamine, and Ulloa, will be convinced that this error is much great r than they could have committed, unless they had agreed to deceive the public ;