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indifference to certain persons, or from her despair of mending them, or from the same practice which the much liked in Mr.. Addison, I cannot determine; but when she saw any of the company very warm in a wrong opinion, she was more inclined to confirm them in it than oppose them. The excuse she commonly gave when her friends asked the reason, was, That it prevented noise, and saved time. Yet I have known her very angry with some whom she much efteerr.ed for sometimes falling into that infirmity.
. She loved Ireland much better than the generality of those who owe both their birth and riches to it; and, having brought over all the fortune she had in money, left the reversion of the best part of it, one thousand pounds, to Dr. Stephens's Hose pital. She detested the tyranny and injustice of England, in their treatment of this kingdom. She had indeed reason to love a country, where she had the esteem and friendship of all who knew her, and the universal good-report of all who ever heard of her, without one exception, if I am told the truth by those who keep general conversation. Which character is the more extraordinary, in falling to a person of so much knowlege, wit, and-vivacity, qualities that are used to create envy, and consequently censure; and must be rather imputed to her great modesty, gentle behaviour, and inoffensiveness, than to her superior virtues. .. Although her knowlege, from books and company, was much more extenfive than usually falls to the share of her sex ; yet she was so far from making a parade of it, that her female visitants, on their first acquaintance, who expected to discover it, by what they call hard words and deep dilcourse, would be fometimes disappointed, and say, they found she was like other women. But wise men, through all her modesty, whatever they discoursed on, could easily observe that she understood them very well, by the judgment shewn in her observations as well as in her questions.'
2. “On the Education of Ladies.'-The ladies are in this fragment, treated, by the Dean, with his usual severity. He states this question, “ Whether it be prudent to chuse a wife, who hath good natural sense, some taste of wit and humour, fufficiently versed in her own natural language, able to read and relish history, books of travels, moral or entertaining discourses, and to be a tolerable judge of the beauties in poetry?” In discussing this question, the author inclines to the negative, and seems to be of opinion with those who maintain, tliat all affectation of knowledge, beyond what is domestic, only serves to render women vain, conceited, and pretending : that the natural levity of women wants ballaft; and that when once the begins to think she knows more than others of her sex, she will
begin to despise her husband, and grow fond of every coxcomb who pretends to any knowledge in books.'-This may be very true, with respect to those ladies who have only the affectation of knowledge; but where they have acquired real knowledge, and have had their minds really improved by a liberal education, we do not apprehend that the consequences which this witty (narler hath here set forth, are much to be feared. But the Dean was so great an enemy to matrimony, that he took every occasion of manifesting his dislike of a state to which, indeed, his arbitrary, tyrannical disposition, was but ill adapted. We do not think it was possible for any woman, not even Mrs. Johnson herself, to have been happy with such an Humourist.
3. · A Discourse to prove the Antiquity of the English Tongue. fhewing from various instances, that Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, were derived from the English. Whether this piece was intended as a satire upon the conjectural labours of some learned Etymologists, or whether the Dean threw it out merely in conformity to his own favourite maxim, Vive la bagatelle, is a quel tion not worth our very profound investigation ; but it is a droll performance, as will appear from the following specimen.
o I think,' says this merry Philologist, “I can make it manifest, that our language, as we now speak it, was originally the same with those of the Jews, the Greeks, and the Romans, however corrupted in succeding times by a mixture of barbarisms. I shall only produce, at present, two instances among a thousand from the Latin tongue. Cloaca, which they interpret a necessary-house, is altogether an English word, the last lettera being, by the miltake of some scribe, transferred from the beginning to the end of the word. In the primitive orthography it is called a cloac, which had the same signification, and still continues fo at Edinburgh in Scotland :, where a man in a cloac, or cloak, of large circumference and length, carrying a convenient vessel under it, calls out, as he goes through the streets, Wha has need of me? Whatever customer calls, the vessel is placed in the corner of the street, the cloac, or a cloak, surrounds and covers him, and thus he is eased with decency and secresy.
But although I could produce many other examples, equally convincing, that the Hebrews, the Greek, and the Romans originally spoke the same language which we do at present; yet I have chosen to confine myself chiefly to the proper names of perSons, because I conceive they will be of greater weight to confirm what I advance; the ground and reason of those names being certainly owing to the nature, or some distinguishing action or quality in those persons, and consequently expressed in the true anticnt language of the several people. .
"I will begin with the Grecians, among whom the most antient are the great leaders on both sides in the fiege of Troy. For it is plain, from Homer, that the Trojans Spoke Greek as well as the Grecians. Of thefe latter, Achilles was the most valiant. This Hero was of a restless unquiet nature, never giving himfelf any repose either in peace or war; and therefore, as Guy of Warwick was called a Kill-cow, and another terrible man a Kill-devil, fo this General was called a A Kill-ease, or destroyer of ease; and at length, by corruption, Achilles. . . Hector, on the other fide was the bravest among the Trojans. He had deffroyed fo many of the Greeks, by hacking and tearing them, that his foldiers, when they saw him fighting, would cry out, “ Now, the enemy will be hackt, now he will be tore." At last, by putting both words together, this appellation was given to their leader, under the name of Hack-tore; and, for the more commodious founding, Hector: . As to Jupiter himfelf: it is well known that the statues and pictures of this Heathen God, in the Roman-catholic countries, resemble those of St. Peter, and are often taken the one for the other. The reason is manifeft: for, when the emperors had established Christianity, the Heathens were afraid of acknowledging their heathen idols of the chief God, and pretended it was only a ftatue of the few Peter. And thus the principal Heathen God came to be called by the antient Romans, with very little alteration, Jupiter. . • Hlexander the Great was very fond of eggs roasted in hot ashes. As soon as his cooks heard he was come home to dinner or sup. per, they called aloud to their under-officers, All eggs under the Grate : which, repeated every day at noon and evening, made strangers think it was that Prince's real name, and therefore gave him no other; and posterity hath been ever since under the same delusion.
« The next I shall mention is Andromache, the famous wife of Hector. Her father was a Scotch gentleman, of a noble family still subsisting in that antient kingdom. But, being a foreigner in Troy, to which city he had led some of his countrymen in the defence of Priam, as Dietys Cretenfis learnedly obeserves ; Hector fell in love with his daughter, and the father's name was An. drew Mackay. The young lady was called by the same name, only a little foftened to the Grecian accent. · Mars may be mentioned among these, because he fought againft the Greeks. He was called the God of War; and described as a fwearing, swaggering companion, and a great giver of rude language. For, when he was angry, he would cry, “ Kiss my « a--se, My a--fe in a band-box, My a--se all over :" Which he repeated so commonly, that he got the appellation of My-a--fe; and, by a common abbreviacion, M'ars; from whence, by leaving out the mark of elision, Mars. And this is a common practice among us at present; as in the words D'anvers, D'avenport; Danby, which are now written Danvers, Davenport, Danby, and many others.
The next is Hercules, otherwise called Alcides. Both these names are English, with little alteration ; and describe the principal qualities of that Hero, who was distinguished for being a slave to his mistresses, and at the same time for his great strength and courage. Omphale, his chief mitress, used to call her lovers Her cullies; and, because this Hero was more and longer subject to her than any other, he was in a particular mannor called the chief of her cullies; which, by an easy change, made the word Hercules. His other name Alcides was given him on account of his prowess : for, in fight, he used to strike on all sides, and was allowed on all sides to be the chief hero of his age. For one of which reasons, he was called All sides, or Alcides ; but I am inclined to favour the former opinion.
- . As
• Archimedes was a moft famous mathematician. His studies required much silence and quiet : but his wife having several maids, they were always disturbing him with their tattle or their business; which forced him to come out every now and then to the stair-head, and cry, “ Hark ye maids, if you will not be quiet, “ I shall turn you out of doors.” He repeated these words, Hark ye maids, so often, that the unlucky jades, when they found he was at his study would say, There is Hark ye maids, let us speak softly. Thus the name went through the neighbourhood ; and, at last, grew so general, that we are ignorant of that great man's true name to this day.
Misanthropus was the name of an ill-natured man, which he obtained by a custom of catching a great number of mice, then Thutting them up in a room and throwing a cat among them Upon which his fellow citizens called him Mice and throw puss. The reader obferves how much the orthography hath been changed without altering the sound: but such depravations we owe to the injury of time, and gross ignorance of transcribers. ,
Among the antients, fortune-telling by the stars was a very beggarly trade. The professors lay upon straw, and their cabins were covered with the same materials : whence every one that followed that mystery was called A fraw longer, or a lodger in straw; but, in the new-fangled way of spelling, Aftrologer.
pMofes, the great leader of those people out of Egypt, was in propriety of speech called Mow feas, because he mowed the seas down in the middle, to make a path for the Ifraelites. · There is a much greater variety of instances in the original dilcourse; but we have cited a number sufficient to shew what kind of humour the Dean was in, when he wrote this piece: which he thus gravely concludes" Thus have I manifestly proved, that the Greeks, the Romans, and the Jews, spoke the language we
now do in England ; which is an honour to our country that I thought proper to set in a true light, and yet hath not been done,
We intended by any other light, and yet hathe country that I
We intended to have finilhed our Review of these Pofthumous Works of a very favourite Writer ; but the matter is so curious, so various, and to entertaining, that we find it impossible to comprise the Article within the limits first proposed. But our Readers will forgive us :—it is not often we have it in our power to regale them with such delicious morsels.
The Psalms translated, or paraplırased, in English Verse: By
James Merrick, M. A. late Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. 410. 10s. 63. sewed. Newbery, &c. .
TITHEN the powers of imagination are employed to
V smooth the paths of duty, and to win, by ornament and harmony, our attention to the precepts of life; whatever may be the success of such efforts, their end, their motive, at leaft, we cannot but applaud. Truth, however, and impartiality, oblige us to acknowledge that every attempt which the modern mufe has made upon the sacred writings, allowing that The might have the most laudable motives in view, has been equally vain. Though her rhymes have not been unpolished ; though her versification has been smooth at least, and far above contempt ; yet we have taken up her productions without avidity, perused them with languor, and laid them down without any other satisfaction than that of finding ourselves at the end. What is the cause of this ? Those who have been at the pains of versifying the scriptures, and have seen with regret the ill success of their labours, willing at all events to defend the propriety of their undertakings, have transferred every caule of blame from the poet to the reader. It is the depravity of human nature, says the disappointed versifier : nothing that is pious, nothing of a sacred nature will ever succeed. This charge, however, we know, from other instances, to be by no means founded in truth. The principal cause, therefore, must certainly be derived from the different genius of the English and the Hebrew poetry : and, nothing, indeed, can be more strikingly opposite. The eastern muse is daring, fervent, and unsubdued in her progress ; snatching at figures remote in their nature and disposition ; frequently inattentive co confiftency and connection ; desultory in sentiment, and abrupt in expression. These properties are utterly unfit for the regular and limited walks of rhyme. [What a figure; 100, would Ofian make, were his