« السابقةمتابعة »
well deserves the attention and endeavours of skilful mecha: nicians *. p. 97.
After enumerating feveral of the moft ufual methods of preserving corn in granaries; he gives experiments on the prefervation of it by ventilation only; by flove-drying only; and by both those methods jointly; with remarks thereon. But these experiments and remarks, though very judicious, are rather too prolix and circumftantial for our insertion. He then gives a descriprion of what he calls the falfe mith, or corn-worm; and of the weevil; with the means of destroying both :-this promise, however, is not absolutely fulfilled. See p. 144. i
The preservation of corn in thips is faid to depend greatly upon its being firft stove-dried, and then frequently ventilated during the voyage.
PASTURES, taken in an extenfive sense, are the subject of the third part of this work; the first chapter of which treats of such plants as are usually intermixed with crops of corn, or which may be cultivated interchangeably with corn or pulse. These - are, turneps, carrots, parsneps, parsley, potatoes, cabbages, and clover. As parsey feems to be the least cultivated of any of these, we shall give an extract of what is said in commendation thereof, aš a valuable species of artificial pasture. The following are Mr. Mills's words :- Parsley is known to be so excellent a preservative against the rot in sheep, if they are fed with it twice a week, for two or three hours each time, that I cannot but regret'the want of experiments on the culture of this useful plant, which would certainly succeed well in rows, properly hoed, and prove a general benefit. The few skilful persons who have raised it in the field for the use of theep, have found it turn to great account, though sown only in the common broad cast way. How much then may be reasonably expected from its greater increase, and more perfect quality, when cultivated according to the principles of the new Husbandry! For that plants do attain a much higher degree of perfection in this way, than in the old method, has been constantly evinced, by frequently repeated, and always unvaricd experience. I therefore strongly recommend this object to the British farmer, whose flocks, superior to those of every other country, are a principal source of the wealth and grandeur of this happy land, as well as a valuable treasure to the individuals who possess them. It is likewife porn fible, or rather, perhaps, highly probable, that, besides preventing or curing the rot, the taste of the mutton may also be
* We have been told of a mechanick who actually has contrived and compleared a machine of this kind, to be worked by horfes: but how far it may answer the ends of either cheapnofs or expedition, we are not enabled to say.
improved by this pasture; for it is very certain that the Aesh of all animals acquires a peculiar flavour from their food. This is particularly remarked in venison: and it is as invariable, that the sweetest mutton is that which has been fed on the finest and sweetest grasses; whilst, on the contrary, the coarseft and rankeft mutton is produced from the groffest meadows and marshes.'
"The best time for sowing parsley in the field is about the middle or latter end of February. The ground cannot possibly be in too fine tilıh. Mr. Miller [in his Die?.] mentions iwa bushels of seed as a proper quantity for an acre of land rown pretty thick, in drills about a foot asunder, which will, indeed, be space enough for hand-hoeing : but I am inclined to think, that the plants will flourish best, grow largest, and be in all seIpects most perfect, if the distance between the rows be sufficient to admit a hoe-pluugh. Less feed will then be requisite, the culture will certainly be performed cheaper this way, than by hand, and I am confident that the piants will be larger, and better for the food of cattle.'
• Hares and rabbits are so fond of parsley, that they will come from a great distance to feed upon it; so that whoever chules to have plenty of those animals in his fields, need only stock them well with this plant: he will soon draw to them all the hares of the country : but, at the same time, if his parsley is nor fenced in very securely, they will be sure to destroy it.'
Chap. II. treats of perennial plants used for the food of cattle, and which require frequent help while they grow. These are, sainfoin, lucerne, the cytisus, and burnet. - The last of these being a plant much recommended at present, we shall give an extract of what Mr. Mills says upon it, -as follows:
"The public owes the improved culture of BURNET, a na.. tive of our country, and which promises very great advantages, to the laudable pursuits of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, in quest of a green and fucculent food for cattle during the winter months : but more immediately to the judicious observation of Mr. Rocque, who, remarking that burnet retains its verdure amidst all the inclemencies of the reason, resolved to try the effect of giving it a good culture. He has succeeded therein to his utmost wilh :- and it hids fair to be of singular utility where fiocks of sheep are kept, because, as it preserves its leaves unhurt by frost, the farmer may thereby have a constant stock of green food for his ewes and Jaubs, at a time when turneps and every other succulent plant may fail him.'
The following are the directions, said to be given by Mr. Rocque, for the cultivation of this useful plant. - In the mea-, dows about Windfor, we are told, half the grass is burnet. It will grow in the drieit land, where every thing else is burnt up. in summer ; but this never withers; one of the qualities of it being to continue in fap all the year. The land on which it is sown should be in fine tilth, and free from weeds, especially couch-grass, which is the most hurtful. If the land is poor, it should be dunged, and laid down very smooth. The seed may be covered with a very light harrow, for it will not bear to be buried deep, and the ground should then be rolled, that it may be smooth for mowing. It may be fown at any time between April and September.'
Mr. Mills observes, that if the seeds of plants which do not arrive at their perfection in a few months, or during the first year, such as lucerne, fainfoin, and burnet, are sown in the spring, or beginning of summer, and the weather prove dry, or cold, the young plants are often crippled or destroyed : but if they are sown in the latter end of July, or beginning of August; the rains frequent at that season, the heavy dews which fall, and the increasing coolness of the nights, often bring them as forward by the latter end of November, as those sown in April.'
Ten pounds of burnet-sced may do for an acre of land: but twelve, fourteen, or even fixteen, pounds will be better; because, when burnet is thin, the plants grow so large, that the hay made of them is coarse. There will rise in eight or nine days after the fowing *'- The plants must, at first, be kept very clean from weeds; but afterwards, we are told, that the quick and bushy growth of burnet, by which it soon covers all the ground, is, of itself, an almost effectual bar to weeds.' .
If the burnet does not grow equally every where, some plants must be drawn where they are too thick, and planted where they are thinneit:'-" The seed sown in May may be mowed (he fays) at the latter end of July :'_but quære; and see the note *.
• The first spring-cutting will purge horses"; and Mr. Rocque believes it will also cure the grease: but it is only the first crop that purges.'-- Burnet should be mowed but once the first year, in order to leave it rank in the winter ; and in this case it will be ready to feed in February or March, or to mow again in April.' :
" When the feeds of this plant are to be saved, it must nei. ther be fed, nor mowed, in the spring. The seed will be ripe about the middle of June, when it must be reaped, like wheat, and threshed on a cloth, before it is too dry, because it is apt to Thed, and it should afterwards. be dried perfectly.
* Here we almoft doubt the fact. - A friend of ours, who sowed some burnet last May, did not discover any appearance of the plants for more than twice that space of time. It was not cut the last week of August; but it covered the ground pretty weil, at that time.
foot only good and Mr. Ring ftung bycia
tue in it, whiche: and Mr. ks but allo for
• Burnet does not lose its leaves in drying; and though the hay made of it be sticky, it will, after threshing, be very agreea able to horses, which are lo fond of it, that they never waste any. One acre will produce upwards of three loads of hay, and above forty bushels of seed, Horses are fonder of this seed, than of oats: and it is not only good for horses, but also for all manner of caule; even for swine : and Mr. Rocque has experienced another virtue in it, which is, that, being ftung by a wasp, the leaves of this plant rubbed pretty hard upon the part fo injured, immediately took off the inflammation.'
What has been said above, may possibly induce some of our Readers to make a trial of this much commended plant; and whether it merits all the encomiums that have been bestowed upon it, will best appear from their own experience. At prefent, however, it seems very deserving of that attention which every friend to Agriculture will be ready to piy to a plant, which promises lo much in the single article of a green winter pasture for sheep. If this circumstance should be happily confirmed by experience, it will indeed be a valuable acquisition; as it mult be owned, that few persons would chuse to eat the mutton of sheep fed upon turneps, (which always give it a rank taste) if any other were to be had (in fufficient quantities) during the winter-season, and early in the spring.
Chap. III. gives a comparison of the Old Husbandry and the New,
As this is an object of the greatest importance, not only to the husbandman, as an individual, but to the nation in general; Mr. Mills hopes to be excused, if he recapitulates Tome parts of what has been already said. Many gentlemen, he says, in this kingdom, have raited wheat in drills, horse-hoeing the alleys; and, where due care has been taken, generally with success : the grain has, in almost all instances, been larger and better than that in the broad-cast way, and seldom less in quantity: sometimes it has been much more.
5 Most of the experiments related in the second volume of this work fhew, that, taking them only as single crops, they were equal to those sown in broad-caft, and raised at a much less expence, if we consider the saving in seed and manure: but if the producc of the same land is taken for several years running, the advantage is grectly in favour of the horse-hoeing Husbandry, in which the land, being never rested, brings a constant yearly return to the farmer. This difference will appear very considerable, if we reckon, on the other hand, the loss of a crap, and the expeixe of a fallow.'
What will infinitely enhance the importance of this Hufbandry, is the advantage which may arise from a judicious change of crops. This change of species becomes the more adviseable, when we seflect, that a crop of some of the before
mentioned roots is of equal, or rather superior, yalue to a crop of wheat.
Mr. Mills, in fumming up his comparison of the old Hurbandry and the new, says,—The importance of the new Hura bandry will appear considerable in a national light; for ( if (as he goes oii) wè compute the land now under corn in this kingdoin, we might estimate one third to be fallow * ; but I will fuppose is to be only one fourth : and if we reckon the crops, for instance of wheat, to be, in general, under three quarters of an acre; and that, 'from land kept constantly in so excellent order as it is in the new Husbandry, we might expect four quarters ; the difference to the nation will become very great indeed : such as, perhaps, no political arithmetician has yet dreamed of:—and the number of people may be proportionably
Another circumstance attending the general practice of the new Husbandry, in point of population, is, that as the land will yield a greater increase of its various productions, and that increased variety will require a greater attention than is usually bestowed on farms, there must, in general, become much less exo tensive than they now aret: and the certain consequence of this will be, that the number of farmers and labourers being increased, the number of people in the country, the only fource of population, will also be greatly augmented. If we look round this kingdom, and remark the numbers of acres lying waste and uncultivated, and then add 'thereto the happy conse, quences of an improved culture of the rest ;, a very great, and a nęw, source of population immediately presents itself. This (as he very juftly concludes) surely deserves the most serious attention of the legislature, and of every individual who is poflefied of wastes and commons. .
In Chap. IV. Mr. Mills proceeds to treat of NATURAL Grasses: the production of which, writers on Husbandry (he says) rightly commend as the cheapest, easiest, least hazardous, and most profitable branch of farming. And then adds, ... It is surprising to think, how long a due attention to this important object has escaped the notice of mankind, and how
•• This looks somewhat like an Irishin:--for how Mould the land now under corn(in the old way of Husbandry) be, any of it, at the some time failow? We presume, therefore, that he only means that a tiird or fourth part of the whole arabie land in the kingdom, is (in the old wav) juilois every year. This, perhaps, may not be anuch anussi ough we can., not help thinking the calculation full high enough, upon the whole.,
+ This would be an excellent regulation for the public: as nohing tends so much to hinder popula ion, and increase the pulover of ingiuffron as' the turn many gentlemen have unhappily taken, of ihrowing, their estates into large farmso.