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her babe, when the remembers + that death may take it from her. The delight of Tragedy proceeds from our consciousness of fiction ; if we thought murders and treasons real they would please no more.' In reply to this, it may be safely affirmed, that we neither fancy the players nor ourselves unhappy: our imagination hath nothing to do with the immediate impresions whether of joy or forrow; we are in this case merely paslive, our organs are in unison with those of the players on the stage, and the convulsions of grief or laughter are purely involuntary. As to the delight we experience from Tragedy, it no more proceeds dire&tly from a consciousness of fiction, than the pleasure we reap from Comedy ; but is the physical consequence of having the transient sense of pain or danger excited in us by fympathy, instead of actually and durably feeling it ourselves. Hence that diminution of pain, which gives rise to the pleasing Sensation, to which the ingenious Author of the enquiry into the Origin of our ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful, gives the name of delight. And hence it is that such persons, who are most affected with the distress of a Tragedy, are generally moft delighted with its representation.
But we shall here take leave of this performance for the prefent; deferring our farther remarks, on the Editor's misapprehension of the dramatic unities, to another opportunity.
[To be continued.]
Two Papers on Fevers and Infellion, by James Lind Physician to the King's Hospital at Hajar, &c. 1763. 8vo, is. 6d. sewed. Wilton.
A UR Readers may polibly be surprised that a work pub. U lished so long ago should now firit appear in the Review,
The only excuse we have to offer for our seeming neglect, is, that we do not remember ever to have seen it advertised. Find. ing however, on perusal that the book is by no means undeserving the attention of the public, we deem it proper, in juftice to the Author, to our Readers, and ourselves, to give the following account of it.
Though we do not entirely disregard all theory on medical subjects, yet in general we are of opinion, that it merits attention only in proportion as it is founded on practical observation. Our Author begins bis first paper with a succinct history of several species of infectious fevers which occurred in X 3
Hallar Haslar hospital from June 1758, to the beginning of the year 1760. · From this history we shall select such facts or observations as we conceive may bc new to those who have not seen this performance. "The Revenge and Montague' about this time (1758) arrived from the Mediterranean, the crew of the former being in a very fickly condition. By smoking this ship well with the vapour of tar, the infection had abated.' In the Saltash, the Doctor informs us, the men were attacked by a fever resembling the jail diftemper described by Dr. Pringle. The ships which arrived at Spithead after the reduction of Louisburg brought with them a malignant fever, which attacked those also who were already afflicted with the scurvy. This circumstance the Doctor takes to be a proof of its proceeding entirely from infection, 'for, says he, I have found, that the scurvy is a disease in its nature opposite to that of a fever ; infomuch that even an infection is long resisted by a fcorbutic habit.' Admitting the fact upon the Doctor's authority, we apprehend it is only to be accounted for by that singular insensibility of the solids, which is considered as a pathognomic symptom of the fcurvy, and which it is not difficult to conceive, may render the body less susceptible of a disease the caufa prædisponens of which is probably an uncommon irritability of the arterial system, ''. : Having mentioned the yellow fever brought home by the fleet from North-America, and also another species of infé&ion communicated by ships 'manned partly from jails, our Author proceeds to enumerate their common symptoms, viz. cough, copious expectoration, with lancinating pains through the thorax. Sonie who recovered, remained dull of hearing, and a few died consumptive. This distemper, says the Doctor, if it had occurred elsewhere than in the ships, might perhaps have been judged solely inflammatory, and to have proceeded from causes very different from the real one.': Concerning the propriety of this observation we are not enabled to judge, as our Auihor says nothing of the state of the pulse, nor of the weather, to which the men had been exposed. - The Edgar, he informs us, was cleared of her infection by a large quantity of gun-powder fired on board her during an engageinent. A species of intermittent fever was communicated to the M1!ampe by two men from a guard - fhip. The favourable crisis of this distemper was by stool ; but the recovery of the majority of the patients was attributed to blisters. A patient from the Loelofe was blooded on the sixth day of the yellow fever, brought from America, which afforded the Doctor the first opportunity of inspecting the blood in that disorder. He found the mass viscid and sięy, and after it had food some
unigation witheans of delition of bikere molt fire were
time, the grumous concretion became covered with a yellow gluten half an inch thick, impenetrable to the finger, the lerum being as thick as fyrup, of a deep yellow tinge, and bitter taste.
Upon the whole it appears, that these several species of fe. vers (or perhaps rather varieties of the same species) were generally contagious, and that the patients were most frequently relieved by the early application of blisters; likewise that the only effectual means of destroying the noxious miafmain is by fumigation with tobacco, sulphur, arsenic, or gun-powder, "I never, says the Doctor, heard of any ship, which after having been carefully and properly smoked, did not immediately become healthy. Of this fact we do not entertain the least doubt;, but we must beg leave to differ in opinion from the Doctor, when in the next paragraph he says, " The modern practice of burning large fires in the open air in the streets of places infected with the plague, or other contagion, is founded on principles groundless and erroneous; and hath therefore been experienced not only unsuccessful but hurtful. Might not this have proceeded from a consumption and destruction of that principle in the air which is equally the food of aniinal life and of fire.'
What the Doctor supposes, would certainly be the case, if by any means the surrounding fresh air were prevented from immediately supplying the place of that which the fire had rendered unfit for respiration; otherwise the supposition is entirely without foundation. We know from experience that smoke possesses a powerful antisceptic quality, probably owing to the ammoniac it contains; and hence we are of opinion that large fires in cases of contagious distempers, are of singular benefit : As to the power of sulphur and arsenic, as mentioned above, we cannot suppose any thing specific in them, unless we imagine the noxious miasmata to consist of certain animalculæ Acating in the air, and adhering to the inside of the ship; which postibly may be the case.
From the good effects of fumigation in ships, the Doctor very properly takes occafion to advise the like practice in the chambers where persons have died of any contagious diítemper; the corps being immediately removed, and the doors close shut for at least eight or ten hours. I have known, says our Author, that in several ships, the contagion of the small pox has been entirely stopt by means of wood fires, sprinkled with brimstone, kept burning, and closely confined in the infected place.' In page 51, he advises the burning of Cascarilla bark, or the defusion of the steam of camphorated vinegar, in the chimbers of the fick; and he concludes his first paper with directions for X 4
most effectually purifying houshold goods or apparel which are supposed to harbour infe&tion. This is performed by long fu migation in a clofe place.; and the linen, before it is put into hot water, should steep for some time in cold soap lees,
We shall now proceed to give a succinct account of the Doc-' tor's second paper; in which we are favoured with his method of treating those who have received infećtion. In general the firft symptoms are a shivering and sickness at the stomach. In this ftate a gentle vomit must be immediately exhibited, which will often entirely prevent the fever. Let me add, says our Author, that a loose stool or two should at this time be procured, either by means of the emetic or of clyfters. The patient Tould afterwards, when put to bed, take a sweating and quieting draught, containing 5 grains of salt of hartfhorn, and from 15 to 20 drops of Thebaic tincture. At other times we have given 5 grains of camphire every four hours, with large draughts of vinegar whey. But if fymptoms of a fever remain after the aduriniltration of the vomit, clysters, &c. or fould the cxhibition of an emetic have been altogether neglected, or unluckily delayed too long; or the patient injudiciously treated with sweating medicines, and ble ding, where the proof of infection is evident; reco:irse must speedily be had to blifters; thefe are to be applied to the back, if the bead or limbs are affected ; and to the breaft, fhould the pain have seized that part. When the infection by these means hath been removed, in 24 or 36 hours after the operation of the blister, the intestinal canal Thould a second time be gently cleansed, by giving rhubarb with a small quantity of vitriolated tartar.' "There observations, continues the Doctor, claim the more attention, as not being a few remarks made in private, or on any one particular fever, which might prove an exception to a gene: al established principle in practice. They are the result of an attention to soine thousand patients, whose cases are still preserved in the hospital.' · The morbid appearances after death in such bodies as were opened, were thefe. In a patient who died of the yellow fe:er was found in the left cavity of the thorax, near a quart of yellowish water, in which were many large fiakes of yellowish gluten; other cakes of the same nature, but in a purulent state, adhered to the pleura and lungs. In one who died on the tenth day of the fever, without having been yellow, a quantity of pus and purulent crufts were found within the pericardium, and the heart in different places excoriated. In a third, who died on the 13th day of the fever, above two quarts of pus and purulent jelly were found in the cavity of the abdomen.
Thus we have endeavoured to select from these two sensible papers, such observations as may be of most general utility.
Upon the whole, we think they will deserve the attention of all Practitioners (to use a word we very much dislike) and that the Doctor's method of treating his patients, is extremely rational and judicious; but before we take our leave, he must permit us to say that we should have read his papers with more pleasure, if the language had been more correct, and scientific; caul, guts, belly, are not more intelligible to medical readers, than omentum, intestines, and abdomen. We are by no means fond of a pedantic use of technical terms, yet there ought certainly to be a difference between the language of the fhambles,' and that of the anatomist.
A Letter to the Reverend Vicar of Savoy: To be left at 7. 7. Rouffeau's. Wherein Mr. Rousseau's Emilius, or Treatise on Education, is humorously examined and expladed. Translated from the German of Mr. J. Moser, Councellor of the High Court of Justice at Osnabruck, &c. &c. By J. A. F. Warnecke, LL. C. a Native of Osnabruck. 8vo. 1S. Dodsley.
A MONG a number of impertinent and fruitless attempts A to depreciate the character, and ridicule the sentiments, of Mr. Rousseau, we might have passed over the letter before us, with a very cursory animadversion, were it not ushered into the world with the name of a writer equally respectable in his polia tical and literary capacity. Not that a more material reason is wanting for expatiating pretiy largely on some particular passages of this performance; itsingenious author appearing to take advantage of the present difpuies between the divines and philosophers, to represent religion as a political device; in which human prudence is more concerned than either conscience or truth. But, as we cannot help thinking that both the present and future happiness of mankind depend greatly on the propagation of truth and the preservation of a due regard to the dictates of conscience, so we can, by no means, approve of such arguments as tend to establish religion and morals solely on a mere prudential and political foundation. This, however, seems to be the prevailing notion of the times, nor is it to be wondered at that the expounders of human laws should become advocates for political religions, when we have so recently seen even preachers of the gospel adopt the like sentiments. It may possibly admit of some excuse in a civilian, that his religion is absorbed in the ideas of civil policy; but what can excuse a divine for his eagerness to render the dictates of truth and conscience subordinate to political expedien:s; to subject the will of his God to that of