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ministers, from the model exhibited by the facerdotal orders among the Hebrews, the Greeks, and Romans, during the law of Moles, and the darkness of paganism. The barbarous nations, also, those fierce and warlike Germans, who, after the defeat of the Romans, divided among them the western empire, bore, with the utmost patience and moderation, both the dominion and vices of the bishops and priests, because, upon their conversion to Christianity, they became naturally subject to their jurisdiction; and still more, because they looked upon the miniIters of Christ, as invested with the same rights and privileges, which distinguished the priests of their fictitious deities. . · The corruption of that order, who were appointed to promote, by their doctrine and examples, the sacred interests of piety and virtue, will appear less surprizing when we consider, that multitudes of people of all kinds were every where admitted without examination and without choice into the body of the clergy, the greatest part of whom had no other view, than the enjoyment of a lazy and inglorious repose. Many of these ecclefiaftics were confined to no fixed places or assemblies, had no employment of any kind, but fauntered about wherever they pleased, gaining their maintenance by impofing upon the ignorant multitude, and sometimes by mean and dishonest practices, · · But if any should ask, how this account is reconcilable with the number of saints, who, according to the teftimonies of both the eastern and western writers, are said to have shone forth in this century? The answer is obvious ; these faints were canonized by the ignorance of the times. For, in an age of dark, ness and corruption, those, who distinguished themselves from the multitude either by their genius, their writings, or their eloquence; by their prudence and dexterity in managing matters of importance, or by their meekness and moderation, and the afcendant they had gained over their resentments and passions all such were esteemed something more than men, they were re verenced as gods; or, to speak more properly, they appeared to others as mea divinely inspired, and full of the deity. ." The monks, who had formerly lived only for themselves in solitary retreats, and had never thought of assuming any rank among the facerdotal orders, were now gradually diftinguished from the populace, and were endowed with fuch opulence, and such honourable privileges, that they found themselves in a condition to claim an eminent ftation among the supports and pilJars of the Christian community. The fame of their piety and sanctity was, at first, so great, that bishops and presbyters were often chosen out of their order, and the pafsion of erecting edifices and convents, in which the monks and holy virgins might serve God in the most commodious manner, was, at this time, carried beyond all bounds, ".

< The monastic orders did not all observe the same rule of discipline, nor the same manner of living. Some followed the sule of Augustine, others that of Bafil, others that of Antony, others that of Athanasius, others that of Pachomius; but they must all have become extremely negligent and remifs in observing the laws of their respe&tive orders, since the licentiousness of the monks, even in this century, was become a proverb, and they are said to have excited the most dreadful tumults and seditions in various places. All the monastic orders of all sorts, were under the protection of the bishops in whole provinces they lived, nor did the patriarchs claim any authority over them, as appears with the utmost evidence from the decrees of the councils held in this century.'

[To be concluded in our next.]

R.

Conclusion of the Account of Mr. Mills's Husbandry. See our last. M R . Mills having, in the former volumes of his work,

W conducted the husbandman through the various methods of improving and managing most kinds of loll, and of cultivating the several productions of the field; in the fourth, brings him into the garden, an object of great pleasure, and not less profit, when attended to with due care and judgment.'.

How far gardening may, properly speaking, be esteemed a branch of husbandry, we pretend not to determine; but as Mr. Mills. says, he has restricted himself to the useful parts of it alone, he may, perhaps, be right, in introducing it here. .

He professes to have diverted the art of gardening of the cant expressions, and unintelligible reasonings, with which, he alledges, most of those who have treated of it abound. Amongst the writers of this class, Mr. Miller, author of the Gardener's Dictionary, very deservedly bears an eminent rank. . From this ceJebrated work, Mr. Mills has transplanted many and large extracts into his own. But notwithstanding the great obligations he owes to Mr. Miller upon this account, he thinks himself obliged to controvert many of that gentleman's positions ; for which he makes the following apology in the preface to this vol. .. I faiter myself that every candid reader of this work will acquit me of having fought occasion to cenfure other writers : for a carping temper is my aversion. If, therefore, I have presumed, in some instances, to differ in opinion from Mr. Miller; and if, through the carneftness of my desire to give the best information in my power, any warmth of expresion may chance to have dropped from my pen, when I espouse a practice different

from

from that which he recommends; I earnestly entreat the reader · to impute it to the true cause, namely, my zeal to prevent his being mislead (misled] by some mistakes which have escaped that celebrated writer,'— The reader must judge between us, in this, on my side very unequal contest.' - Mr. Mills farther adds, that the justice which he owes to the public calls upon him to give reasons for his thinking differently from fo established a master. •

All this may be very right: but it feems rather somewhat odd, to set up those fame readers for judges in a controverfy; whom, but just before, he apprehended to be so extremely liable themselves to be misled by the mistakes of another.

What he calls Chap. I. (though the only one contained in the whole volume) treats of gardening in general, so far as is proficable to the farmer, and the country-gentleman; and is divided into the following feven sections, viz.

$. I. Of the Kitchen Garden.
8. II. Of the Fruit Garden.
8. III. Of the Orchard.
S. IV. Of the Distempers of Fruit Trees.
$. V. Of the Culture of the Vine. [In Vineyards. ]
Š. VI. Of the Culture of Olive Trees.
8. VII. Of the Culture and Management of Hops.

Most readers, we presume, will be somewhat surprized at seeing vineyards and olive-yards made part of a system of husbandry; but those articles are intended, it seems, for the benefit of our colonies, chiefly; as the advantages which may arise from a proper culture of the vine, and olive-tree, in fuitable parts of our (now] immense possessions in America, are acknowledged to be very great.

The pleasure or flower garden, being intended solely for ornament and recreation, is very properly omiited in this work ; the (professed] design of which is utility.-But ..

Neither the hulbandman, nor the country gentleman, who prefers utility to show, can set about an easier or more profitable branch of culture, than that of the kitchen and fruit garden, which may very properly be intermixed, and occupy one and the same spot of ground, fince they both require a good, deep soil, and nearly the same exposure: [and] the walls which inclose the kitchen garden, will be extremely serviceable for fruit.'

The chief things to be considered in the choice of a spot of ground for a kitchen and fruit garden are, the situation, the toil, the conveniency of water, the extent proper to be inclosed, and the manner of inclosing, and laying it out.” • The foil (we are told) Thould be rich, rather stiff than light, and considerably deep : nor is a moderate degree of moisture any objection, in Mr. Mill's opinion. - The jituation (he says)

should

Ghould be nearly level: because heavy rains would wash away the richest part of the mould, if the declivity were considerable:

As water is absolutely necessary in a kitchen garden, care sould be taken to provide it, so that it may be come at as easily as posible : otherwise the plants may suffer (we are told) for want of it.

The size of this garden, Mr. Mills very judiciously determines, should be proportioned to the wants of the family ; but with a much larger allowance of ground than is usually allotted, in order that the plants may be benefited by stirring the earth between them whilst they grow.'

• It should be inclosed with a wall, either of brick or stone; but brick is beft, for the greater conveniency of nailing up the fruit trees which are to be planted against it.'

In the distribution of this garden, care should be taken to lay the walks out so as to obtain the greatest convenience for sup plying each part with manure and water, and as easy access as possible to its different quarters, which may be surrounded with espaliers.'

Mr. Mills declares himself an enemy to that too common practice of sowing peas and beans, for an early crop, on the borders, under a south wall, where fruit-trees are planted. This practice is certainly detrimental to the trees ; and Mr. Mills thinks it of no great benefit to the above-mentioned crops themselves. . : . It is a general opinion, [he says, p. 20.] that plants shel, tered by walls, so as to be defended from nipping winds, and to have the additional warmth of the reflected beat of the wall, are leaft liable to be destroyed by the winter's frosts; for which reason early crops are commonly sown in borders fo situated. The fun she adds] will undoubtedly give greater motion to the fap of plants there, and they may, for this reason, feem stronger. But if we consider, that the walls yield no protection against the feverity of the night's frost, and that the effect of this frost must be most severely felt by plants whose sap is in the greatest motion; we may rather fear that this situation, instead of being beneficial, may, in fact, counteract the very end proposed. To be satisfied of this, a friend of mine fowed some early peas in a border at the foot of a south wall, and at the same time fome others, of the same fort, in an open field adjacent to the garden and he found, that the latter were by much the least damaged by the winter's frosts; nor did he perceive any great difference in the season of their blooming.'

In the next page, Mr. Mills points out another error, too cominon amongst gardeners ; which is, - letting their plants (of whatever kind) remain on the ground till they have ripened their feeds, and wither; not considering that whilft a plant is full of sap, it preserves the earth in a loose state, probably by means of the moisture perspired from its roots; but yet, when permitted to stand till its feed is ripe, or the plant withers, it then leaves the impoverished earth dry and hard; being itself become entirely void of sap.

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Sect. I. begins with an observation, that the Kitchen Garden, if rightly managed, is the inost useful and profitable spot of ground that either the country gentleman, or husbandman, can cultivate.

Two essential rules to be observed in the management of a kitchen garden are, never to crowd the ground with more plants then it is able to nourish properly; and never to let any part of it remain unoccupied, for want of a due fuccession of crops. By this means the master, whom I would advise always to be his own gardener, at least fo far as personally to direct and superintend whatever is done, may have his table constantly supplied with such vegetables as he likes best, no part of his ground will lie useless, and each of its products will be brought to perfection.' • The general heads, under which Mr. Mills ranges the plants proper for the kitchen garden, are, i, Those which are cultivated for their roots. 2, such as are cultivated for their tender Thoots, heads, or leaves. 3, Legumes. 4, Salleting. 5, Sweetherbs; and, 6, those raised in hot-beds. With regard to the culture proper for these several kinds of plants, we c?nnot pretend to insert it ; but must observe, that in general the rules prescribed appear to be, most of them, very rational. But though our author, in this part of his work, has made very considerable use of Miller's Dictionary, yet he rome:ines strongly controverts what is advanced by that great mifter in the art of gardening. In proof of this, we refer to the article, asparagus, from p. 55, to 61, inclufive, where he attacks Mr. Miller pretty smartly, and with some success : but the point in controversy is of no very great importance, and rather too long for our insertion.

Sect. 2. treats of the Fruit Garden. The useful and the agreeable (according to Mr. Mills) concur to recommend this branch of cultivation by so much the more strongly, as the plants which appertain to it, being perennials, require only occasional care, little trouble, and hardly any expence:'- (The two laft-mentioned circumstances can scarce be applicable, we think, to such Fruit-trees as are planted against walls ; for, surely, the necessary pruning and nailing them, must be attended with both trouble and expence. It must be owned, indeed, that Mr. Mills is no great friend to the practice of planting against walls, as may appear from the following quotation, in which he prefers Espaliers.) Rev. Nov. 1765.

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