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• The monastic orders did not all observe the same rule of discipline, nor the same manner of living. Some followed the sule of Augustine, others that of Basil, others that of Antony, others that of Athanasius, others that of Pachomius; but they must all have become extremely negligent and remifs in observing the laws of their respective orders, since the licentiousness of the monks, even in this century, was become a proverb, and they are said to have excited the most dreadful tumults and feditions in various places. All the monastic orders of all sorts, were under the protection of the bishops in whose provinces they lived, nor did the patriarchs claim any authority over them, as appears with the utmost evidence from the decrees of the councils held in this century.'
[To be concluded in our next.]
Conclusion of the Account of Mr. Mills's Husbandry. See our last. A R . Mills having, in the former volumes of his work,
W conducted the husbandman through the various methods of improving and managing most kinds of soil, and of cultivating the several productions of the field ; in the fourth, brings him into the garden,.--"an object of great pleasure, and not less profit, when attended to with due care and judgmento'..
How far gardening may, properly speaking, be esteemed a branch of husbandry, we pretend not to determine ; but as Mr. Mills. says, he has restricted himself to the useful parts of it alone, he may, perhaps, be right, in introducing it here.
He profefles to have divested the art of gardening of the cant expressions, and unintelligible reasonings, with which, he alledges, most of thofe who have treated of it abound. Amongst the writers of this class, Mr. Miller, author of the Gardener's Dictionary, very deservedly bears an eminent rank. . From this celebrated work, Mr. Mills has transplanted many and large extracts into his own. But notwithstanding the great obligations he owes to Mr. Miller upon this account, he thinks himself obliged to controvert many of that gentleman's positions ; for which he makes the following apology in the preface to this vol.
"I faiter myself that every candid reader of this work will acquit me of having fought occafion to censure other writers : for a carping temper is my aversion. If, therefore, I have presumed, in some instances, to differ in opinion from Mr. Miller; and if, through the carneftness of my desire to give the best information in my power, any warmth of expression may chance to have dropped from my pen, when I espouse a practice different
from that which he recommends ; I earnestly entreat the reader to impute it to the true cause, namely, my zeal to prevent his being mislead smisled] by some miftakes which have escaped that celebrated writer.'—. The reader must judge between us, 'in this, on my fide very unequal contest.' - Mr. Mills farther adds, that the justice which he owes to the public calls upon him to give reasons for his thinking differently from lo established a master. .
All this may be very right: but it feems rather somewhat odd, to set up those fame readers for judges in a controverfy; whom, but just before, he apprehended to be so extremely liable themselves to be misled by the mistakes of another.
What he calls CHAP. I. (though the only one contained in the whole volume) treats of gardening in general, so far as is profitable to the farmer, and the country-gentleman; and is divided into the following feven sections, viz.
$. I. Of the Kitchen Garden.
. III. Of the Orchard. S. IV. Of the Distempers of Fruit Trees, Š. V. Of the Culture of the Vine. [In Vineyards. ] 8. VI. Of the Culture of Olive Trees. Š. VII. Of the Culture and Management of Hops. Most readers, we presume, will be somewhat surprized at seeing vineyards and olive-yards made part of a system of husbandry; but those articles are intended, it seems, for the benefit of our colonies, chiefly; as the advantages which may arise from a proper culture of the vine, and olive-tree, in suitable parts of our (now) immense possessions in America, are acknowledged to be very great. .. · The pleasure or Power garden, being intended solely for ornament and recreation, is very properly omiited in this work; the (professed] defign of which is utility.-But . ."
Neither the husbandman, nor the country gentleman, who prefers utility to show, can fet about an easier or more profitable branch of culture, than that of the kitchen and fruit garden, which may very properly be intermixed, and occupy one and the same spot of ground, since they both require a good, deep foil, and nearly the same exposure: (and) the walls which inclose the kitchen garden, will be extremely serviceable for fruit.'
. The chief things to be considered in the choice of a spot of ground for a kitchen and fruit garden are, the situation, the foil, the conveniency of water, the extent proper to be inclofed, and the manner of inclosing, and laying it out.' • The foil (we are told) should be rich, rather stiff than light, and considerably deep : nor is a moderate degree of moisture any objection, in Mr. Mill's opinion. - The jituation (he says)
hould be nearly level: because heavy rains would wash away the richest part of the mould, if the declivity were considerable.
As water is absolutely necessary in a kitchen garden, care should be taken to provide it, so that it may be come at as easily as poffible : otherwise the plants may suffer (we are told) for want of it..
The size of this garden, Mr. Mills very judicioưlly determines, should be proportioned to the wants of the family ; but with a much larger allowance of ground than is usually allotted, in order that the plants may be benefited by stirring the earth between them whilft they grow.'
• It should be inclosed with a wall, either of brick or fone; but brick is best, for the greater conveniency of nailing up the fruit trees which are to be planted against it."
6. In the distribution of this garden, care should be taken to lay the walks out so as to obtain the greatest convenience for sup. plying each part with manure and water, and as easy access as possible to its different quarters, which may be surrounded with espaliers.'
Mr. Mills declares himself an enemy to that too common practice of sowing peas and beans, for an early crop, on the borders, under a south wall, where fruit-trees are planted. This practice is certainly detrimental to the trees; and Mr. Mills thinks it of no great benefit to the above-mentioned crops themselves. . . : . It is a general opinion, she says, p. 20.] that plants bels tered by walls, so as to be defended from nipping winds, and to have the additional warmth of the reflected beat of the wall, are least liable to be destroyed by the winter's frosts; for which reason early crops are commonly fown in borders fo situated. The sun [hie adds] will undoubtedly give greater motion to the fap of plants there, and they may, for this reason, seem stronger. But if we consider, that the walls yield no protection against the feverity of the night's frost, and that the effect of this frost must be most severely felt by plants whose sap is in the greatest motion; we may rather fear that this situation, instead of being beneficial, may, in fact, counteract the very end proposed. To be satisfied of this, a friend of mine fowed some early peas in a border at the foot of a south wall, and at the fame time fome others, of the same fort, in an open field adjacent to the garden; and he found, that the latter were by much the least damaged by the winter's frosts; nor did he perceive any great difference in the season of their blooming.
In the next page, Mr. Mills points out another error, too cominon amongst gardeners; which is, - letting their plants (of whatever kind) remain on the ground till they have ripened their feeds, and wither; not considering that whilt a plant is
The genehe kitchen gar such as are cult, Salleting. Få to the
ial heads, under whare, 1, Those for their tender
full of fap, it preserves the earth in a loose state, probably by means of the moisture perspired from its roots; but yet, when permitted to stand till its feed is ripe, or the plant withers, it then leaves the impoverished earth dry and hard; being itself become entirely void of sap.
Sect. I. begins with an observation, that the Kitchen Garden, if rightly managed, is the inost useful and profitable spot of ground that either the country gentleman, or husbandman, can cultivate. .Two essential rules to be observed in the management of a kitchen garden are, never to crowd the ground with more plants then it is able to nourish properly ; and never to let any' part of it remain unoccupied, for want of a due succession of crops. By this means the master, whom I would advise always to be his own gardener, at least so far as personally to direct and fuperintend whatever is done, may have his table constantly supplied with such vegetables as he likes best, no part of his ground will lie useless, and each of its products will be brought to perfection.' • The general heads, under which Mr. Mills ranges the plants proper for the kitchen garden, are, 1, Those which are cultivated for their roots. 2, such as are cultivated for their tender Thoots, heads, or leaves. 3, Legumes. 4, Salleting. 5, Sweetherbs; and, 6, those raised in hot-beds. With regard to the culture proper for these several kinds of plants, we cannot pretend to infert it ; but must observe, that in general the rules prescribed appear to be, most of them, very rational. But though our author, in this part of his work, has made very considerable use of Miller's Dictionary, yet he sometimes strongly controverts what is advanced by that great master in the art of gardening. In proof of this, we refer to the article, asparagus, from p. 55, to 61, inclusive, where he attacks Mr. Miller pretty smartly, and with fome success : but the point in controversy is of no very great importance, and rather too long for our insertion.
Sect. 2. treats of the Fruit Garden. The useful and the agreeable (according to Mr. Mills) concur to recommend this branch of cultivation by so much the more strongly, as the plants which appertain to it, being perennials, require only occasional care, little trouble, and hardly any expence.' — (The two laft-mentioned circumstances can scarce be applicable, we think, to such Fruit-trees as are planted against walls; for, surely, the necessary pruning and nailing them, must be attended with both trouble and expence. It must be owned, indeed, that Mr. Mills is no great friend to the practice of planting against walls, as may appear from the following quotation, in which he prefers Espaliers.) Rev. Nov. 1765.
those raised in gumes. 4, Salletitor their tender
An undoubted advantage which espaliers have over walls is, that these last, being built close and compact, repel the winds, and by that means damage the tender plants that lie within the reach of the repulsion : whereas the former deaden the violence of the winds, which by not dwelling so long upon them as they do against walls, are consequently less liable to injure the trees, their blossoms, or their fruit.
• It is a general, and I believe I may say an hitherto almost unvaried, practice to plant all the finer fruits against walls, without sufficiently inquiring into the motives for lo doing.
The chief reason assigned for planting trees againsts walls is, the additional heat procured by the reflected rays of the sun, and the warmth communicated to the wall itself by the sun. This, say the advocates for this practice, haftens the ripening of the fruit, and exalts its flavour ; besides that the shelter of the walls protects trees, natives of warmer climates, from our severe north and north-east winds.'
"To this (says Mr. Mills) I answer, that it is a constant observation, that all plants brought from a warmer climate to a colder, endeavour to bloom at their usual season, unless prevented by cold. The consequence of this is, that if the early part of the spring happens to be warm, the blossoms of such trees swell, and expand themselves : but as we cannot be exempted from frost so soon in the season, these blossoms are nipped in the bud; that is, the first frosty night stops the cira culation in them, and they then necessarily die. A very sharp frost, even after the early fruits are set, has the same effect on their yet tender veffels; and the owner is surprized to find his fruit fall off, in a few days after, without any seeming cause; unless recourse be had to I know not what pestilential quality in the east wind, when the same effect would follow, did the frost come from any other quarter. Hence it is evident, that fruit trees would be benefited, rather then hurt, by preventing their too early blossoming.
Some gentlemen endeavour to guard against this accident, by sheltering their trees with skreens, which have a double effect; that of preserving them from the warmth of the sun by day, and that of defending them from the frost by night. But if these trees were plan ed as standards, where the air might play freely round them, the motion of the sap would be less forward, and the bloftoms would consequently be less exposed to the injuries which happen from their coming out too early. They would likewise escape another great inconvenience which attends their standing against walls; namely, the two (too) great inequality of the heat, as increased by the wall, and the coldness of the night, again which the wall affords no shelter, otherwife then as it !kreens the trees from the wind.
culation in even after the car and the ownwithout any feientia