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« An undoubted advantage which espaliers have over walls is, that these laft, being built close and compact, repel the winds, and by that means damage the tender plants that lie within the reach of the repulfion : whereas the former deaden the violence of the winds, which by not dwelling so long upon them as they do against walls, are consequently less liable to injure the trees, their blossoms, or their fruit.
• It is a general, and I believe I may say an hitherto almost unvaried, practice to plant all the finer fruits against walls, without sufficiently inquiring into the motives for to doing.–
The chief reason assigned for planting trees againsts walls is, the additional heat procured by the reflected rays of the sun, and the warmth communicated to the wall itself by the sun. This, say the advocates for this practice, haftens the ripening of the fruit, and exalts its flavour; besides that the shelter of the walls protects trees, natives of warmer climates, from our severa north and north-east winds.'
"To this (says Mr. Mills) I answer, that it is a constant observation, that all plants brought from a warmer climate to a colder, endeavour to bloom at their usual feason, unless prevented by cold. The consequence of this is, that if the early part of the spring happens to be warm, the blofioms of such irees (well, and expand themselves : but as we cannot be exempted from frost so foon in the season, these blossoms are nipped in the bud; that is, the first frosty night stops the circulation in them, and they then necessarily die.--—A very sharp frost, even after the early fruits are set, has the same effect on their yet tender vessels; and the owner is surprized to find his fruit fall off, in a few days after, without any seeming cause; unless recourse be had to I know not what pestilential quality in the east wind, when the same effect would follow, did the frost come from any other quarter. Hence it is evident, that fruit trees would be benefited, rather then hurt, by preventing their too early blossoming.
Some gentlemen endeavour to guard against this accident, by sheltering their trees with skreens, which have a double effect; that of preserving them from the warmth of the sun by day, and that of defending them from the frost by night. But if these trees were planed as standards, where the air might play freely round them, the motion of the sap would be less for. ward, and the blossoms would consequently be less exposed to the injuries which happen from their coming out too early. They would likewise escape another great inconvenience which attends
their standing against walls; namely, the two (too) great inequality of the heat, as increased by the wall, and the coldness of the night, against which the wall affords no shelter, otherwife then as it skreens the trees from the wind.
Another advantage of standards, and that no small one, is, that their fruit is more likely to escape the ravage of those numberlefs insects which harbour and breed in every crevice of a wall, and adhere to the branches nailed to the wall. I must add to this, that the many, and some of them large, wounds which are made in trees, in order to make them spread in a certain stated form, render them, and especially such as are apt to gum, much shorter lived than they would naturally be; which is a very manifest disadvantage, because the older trees are, while they continue sound, the better and higher flavoured is their fruit. Indeed some trees do not bear either in plenty or perfection; 'till they have attained their full growth; by which time they are often destroyed by the sometimes necessary, but more frequently injudicious, use of the knife. Now a standard ercapes that danger.
* A farther reason which renders walls the less necessary is; that the fruits planted against them ripen before the sun has acquired its full force in this climate. This is what happens to all our apricots, to most of our nectarines, and to the finest of our peaches : for it is well known, that the month of July is our hottest season, and that the heat of that month will therefore the most perfectly exalt the juices and flavour of fruit.'
Our Author has surely mistaken the time when peaches and nectarines are ripe. He is greatly, but we think needlessly, afraid, that such of them as are planted against walls ihould be ripened before they can have the benefit of a July sun. Some few forts may perhaps, be ripe in that month ; but most of them will require the addition of August, not to say September, to render them fit for the table, notwithstanding all the advantage they can receive from a common brick-wall.
Mr. Mills, instead of peaches and nectarines, (as his argument required) gives us an instance, that
An apricot tree transplanted some years ago, even into a field, bore fruit, in the very unfavourable summer of 1763, much higher favoured than it had ever done against a wall, or indeed than any tree against the wall had ever borne, in the garden from whence it was transplanted; though the field was exactly the fame foil as the garden.'~' The same thing (he fays) happened to a green gage.'
'. Walls (he allows) may be necessary for the later peaches : though even a Catherine peach (he says) will ripen on a standard, in a favourable situation.' -- Credat Judeus Apella!
The Catherine peach, according to Miller, when planted against a wall, and in a good season, may be ripe by the middle of September Next follow some very judicious remarks and directions in Ha a
regard to the replanting of fruit trees from the nursery ; for which we must refer to the book, p. 236, et seq.
As Mr. Mills is not sanguine enough to suppose that what he has said against the expediency of fruit walls, will entirely banish the use of them; he next treats of the management of trees planted against walls. In this article he has chiefly followed Mr. Miller; though he, notwithstanding, gives him a lath, in pafling, at p. 248.—The following article relates to the management of fruit trees in Espeliers :-after which fucceeds the management of [his favourites Standard Fruit Trees.
After having thus pointed out the several methods of obtaining each fort of fruit from the tree; he considers, in the last place, the means by which it's poffeffor may best and longest preserve that reward of his expence and care. - A closet surrounded with good walls, and furnished with double doors, (he thinks) promises the best fuccefs. In this closet, different compartments, or bins, may be made of brick, which continues drier than stone. Large jars, or calks, will answer the same end, when closely stopped, and so do boxes : for the foot should be exposed to the air as little as can be.'
He then adds the following anecdote ; of which, it seems, he made a memorandum when the fact was related to him: viz.
« Chance convinced an excellent and attentive houfewife of the success of such care as is here recommended for the preserva. tion of fruit. Her residence was then in Switzerland, where the houses are generally built of stones, with thick walls, in which there frequently are cupboards, which shut with doors exactly fitted to them. In one of these, this lady put a plate of fruit; but, by chance, this cupboard was not opened till some months after, when, to her great surprize, the fruit was plump and found, and had loft very little of its original favour.'
He concludes with directing the fruit to be packed up close in vessels, ar bins, with a layer of dry straw betwixt each layer of fruit ; and then to be kept perfectly dry, as above-mentioned, till wanted for use.
Sect. III. which treats of the Orchard, seems more proper than fome others, for a system of Husbandry; but as it contains little new, being chiefly copied from Evelyn and Miller, we shall not give any Extracts from it. We mult, however, remark, that we think Mr. Mills may be under a mistake, when he afferts, ihat almost all the Kentif) Cherries are gathered from trees planted in t ledges'--The writer of this article has travelled ihrough the whole length of Kent, more than once; and has, occasionally continued for some weeks together, in a part of that County, abourding both in cherries and apples: but he cannot, at present, recollect that he ever observed either of them commonly gowing in the Hedge-toti's. The most usual practice, (betwixt
Rochester and Canterbury, in particular) is to plant their fields with the above kinds of fruit trees, in strait lines every way, and to plow between the rows for a crop of corn.
And the year following they usually cross-plow the same field; by which method no more ground is loft from the plough, than a small square plot, where each tree is planted ; and, at the same time, the trees themselves are greatly benefited, by those frequent stirrings of the earth about their roots.
Sect. IV. contains many useful directions relating to the Diftempers of Fruit-trees; for which we refer to the Book.
Sect. V. (Of the Culture of the Vine) is chiefly adapted to the use of those who are inclined to try their skill in the management of a Vineyard.—Tho' Mr. Mills seems doubtful as to the fate of Vineyards in England, yet he appears certain that they may be brought to perfection in our American colonies, where he thinks they may be rendered an object of importance to the industrious inhabitants ; for whose use this Section is professedly intended, as well as the next, upon the Culture of Olive Trees. But as neither of these articles feems to fall within the province of a mère English Husbandman, we shall proceed to the last Section in this volume, which treats of the Culture and Management of Hops.—The Directions here given for the management of this useful plant, are very distinct and minute, but too prolix for our insertion. We shall therefore content ourselves with giving Mr. Mills's account of the annual charge of an acre of Hopground, in most parts of England where hops are cultivated, which (he says) is computed thus, viz.
In all 150
15 0 0 per ann.
But then he also adds, that in some places they pay 4 or 5 1. an acre yearly for the rent of the land; and in the next paragraph he owns, that if the husbandry part be hired, it may cost 31. 10 5. an acre. -He likewise owns that an acre will require 3000 poles, which may cost after the rate of 20s. for an hundred, i, e. 301. for the first poling of an acre; and that a recruit of 500 Poles yearly will be necessary to keep an acre of hop-ground in constant repair.Here is a yearly expence of 5l. or, if they cost but 15 s. an hundred (which is his lowest price) of, at least, 31. 15 s. per ann. to be added to the interest of the money sunk in the fi f poling, -which must have been 221. 10 s. at the lowest price of poles mentioned, viz. 155. an hundred, So that his original computation of only 41. for the wear of the poles, is certainly too low, according to his own account. We
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are therefore clearly of opinion, that 20 l. is much nearer the real annual expence of an acre of hop-ground; agreeably to what we have been told by several experienced Kentish Planters.
Mr. Mills computes the produce of an acre, at an average of years, at the rate of 30 l. a year; which, we apprehend, may be pretty near the truth: for tho' an acre may sometimes be worth from 50 to 80l. or even icol. (as he alledges) yet, at other times, its produce has been frequently known to be worth nothing at all. We therefore think that he is quite right in cautioning the husbandman, whose circumstances are but middling, against embarking too far in this very expensive, and yet precarious branch of agriculture.
In Part V. which begins Vol. V. Mr. Mills treats of the making and managing Fermented Liquors. The Introduction to this Part is, Concerning Fermentation. And here our Author the more regrets that we have not yet any rational set of experiments on this subject, because he owns himself not fufficiently acquainted with the chemical principles on which Fermentation depends, to supply the deficiency. He therefore proposes only to select the most judicious directions or remarks that have been hitherto made on this head, by others; particularly Boerhaave : from whom he gives us the following process of Fermentation.-" The mass of crude fermentable liquor, at first resting, and posseffing a certain space in the [containing) vefsels, gradually begins to swell, rarify, and conceive an inteltine motion, through its whole body, acting upwards, downwards, and sideways, in strange circumvolutions, without ceasing, though with a different force. In the mean time, bubbles are every moment formed in every part of the mass, and constantly endeavour to rise up to the surface, where they burst with a hisSing noise,' or often break in the mid-way. Hence the whole mals froths, discharging with an audible ebullition a certain tartish spirit, which proves acrimonious to the nose, surprisingly elastic, and capable of bursting almost any vefsel by its great expanfive force.'-[The following remark deserves particular regard.)- If a large vessel full of fermenting Mult, in the height of its a&tion, should discharge this condensed spirit through a small orifice, and a strong healthy man should draw in at his noftrils the vapour so iffuiing, he would instantly fall down dead: or if he received but little thereof, he would become apoplectic, and remain an idiot his whole life.'
The following practical observation may be of use to such as brew or prepare their own liquors ; viz. that when the fermenta