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tion is finished, and gone off, then the vessel should be immediately stopped down, and the liquor kept for some time in its lees, a great part of which will be assumed and allimilated by the liquor, which will thereby become richer and stronger in spirit; than it was before. If the vessel is not stopped down, the spirit produced in the fermented liquor will soon exhale, and leave behind only a vapid useless fluid; but if the liquor is kept quiet in a close vessel, it will gradually become more pure and spirituous,'
Chap. I. OF Wine. Mr. Mills obferves, that the directions given in this Chapter may, with little alteration, be adapted to the juice of other fruits in general, as well as to that of the grape in particular, This circumstance may render what is here said of greater use to the English husbandman, than it would otherwise be.
A due degree of maturity (he observes) is essentially necefsary in every kind of fruit, the juice of which is intended to be made into wine'; because the juice of unripe fruit is a rough acid liquor, which cannot be made to undergo a vinous fermentation, without great difficulty:'-- This, we fear, will always remain an insuperable obstacle to the making wine, of the grape, here in England; where that fruit is rarely brought to a due degree of maturity, in any fufficient quantities, for that purpose.
In some measure, however, to remedy this great inconvenience, he directs, that
In cold countries, where, for want of the sun's having force enough to mellow and enrich the juice of the grape, the Must is thin and poor ; [there] sugar, or dried grapes, ihould be added to the Muft, to give it a body.'
At p. 43----45, and at p. 54, 55, Mr. Mills attacks some particulars, advanced in Mr. Miller's account of making WINE, as given in his Gardener's Dictionary, in a very ungenteel, not to say illiberal, manner ; considering the great obligations he himself owes, in all his preceding volumes, to that (in genera!) very judicious and instructive work. So that even supposing what he here objects to Mr. Miller, to have some just foundation, yet we must be of opinion, that he certainly ought (all things considered) to have expressed his censure in terms not so harsh, as those he has really made use of. Let any impartial reader consult the pages referred to above, and judge whether our opinion, in this particular, be well founded, or not.
The colour of Wine, Mr. Mills says, is frequently artificial. He adds, Wine may be naturally of a pale dilute red; but a deep red is almost always the effect of artificial additions, as of the red-woods, elder-berries, bilberries, &c. In France, no fecret is made of these practices, the colouring matters being pux blicly thrown out after they have been used. Turbid wines are
fined by a mixture of whites and shells of eggs, powdered alabaster, and ifinglafs. The use of the shells and alabaster is to correct any small degree of acidity that the wine may have contracted.'
The following observations will probably be of service to fuch persons as may attempt making wine here. After the wine, and particularly that of countries where the sun is not very powerful, has passed its fermentation in the vat, and is drawn off into casks, it will require something to feed upon. To this end, it will be right always to preserve a few bunches of the best grapes, which may be hung up in a room till there be occasion for them ; when they should be picked off the stalks, and two or three good bandtuls of them should be put into each calk, according to its size.' When the wine is of an age at which it usually is bottled, [but what that age is, we are not informed] care should be taken to examine whether it be suffieiently bright; because a natural brightness is the most certain indication of the liquor's having undergone a due fermentation, and consequently of its being rendered most wholesome. To this agrees Dr. Neumann's definition of the characters of good wine, which closes the chapter. The goodness and wholesomeness of wines (says that excellent chemist) are judged of, from their being bright, clear, and sparkling in the glass ; of an agreeable reviving smell and taste; leaving, when held in the mouth for some time, a light sense of aftringency; being moderately strong and spirituous; paffing freely by urine; exciting appetite; producing a gentle sweat in the night; keeping the belly open the next day ; [he does not, surely, expect this from red Port) without being followed by any head-ach, heavi- , ness of the limbs, or other uncasiness. Such a wine, moderately used, is a very valuable cordial.'
Mr. Mills begins Chap. II. (which treats of Cyder and Perry,) with observing, that the principles on which Cyder is made, and hould be managed, are, in general, fo similar to the directions for Winc; that he thinks it needless to enlarge on this head. The following points, however, he recommends to be particularJy observed :
It is of great importance in making Cyder, that the fruit be thoroughly ripe. "The juices of unripe apples retain their harth four taste in spite of all endeavours, and never acquire that racy, mellow flavour which the fun only can bestow. It should there. fore be the first care of every one concerned in making of Cyder, to let his apples hang upon the tree till they arrive to their ma: turity.
When your apples are fit for gathering, (which fhould always be done by hand) it is essential to choose dry weather for
that purpose: for water is a bad ingredient in all vinous liquors.
One general rule for all fruits, is, to press their juice for fermenting, when the fruit is in the greatest perfection for eating.
· Apples that have lain any time in heaps, to sweat, are gene rally covered with a clammy moisture. This should be wiped off, for it is a watery juice, which would impoverish the Cyder.' The rotten parts fhould also be cut out, for they communicate to it a putrid taste.
He is an advocate for racking Cyder off the lees; for repeated experiments have proved, that fournefs in all fermented liquors • begins ever at the lees, and therefore the more of them is left among the Cyder, the more readily it will turn eager.'
Chap. III. treats OF BREWING : under the following heads:
§ 1. Of the Choice of Water for Brewing.Pure Rain-water, as being the lightest, is esteemed the best.-Well and Spring waters are commonly hard ; and hard water is very unfit for drawing a tincture from any vegetable-River-water is generally next to rain-water in point of softness.-Pond-water, if pure, is equal to any other for brewing.
§ 2. Of Malt.--Bite a grain of it asunder, and if it tastes mellow and sweet, breaks foft, and is full of flour from one end to the other, it is good. So also if it swims on the furface, when put into the water. The best way of grinding it, is to bruise it in a mill composed of two iron cylinders. These bruife the malt without cutting its husk, so that the hot water inftantly pierces its whole substance, and soon draws forth a rich tincture, with much less mafhing than in the common way.'
$ 3. Of Hops. The newer the hops are, the better they will always prove; for the fragrance of their favour is in some degree loft by keeping, though they be ever so well preserved.'
§ 4. Of the Brewhouse, and of the vessels used in Brewing.
Too great care cannot be taken to keep every vessel perfe&tly clean and sweet, for if they are tainted, the liquor put into them contracts a difagreeable fcent.'
$ 5. Of the heat of Water for Mashing.-The malt should not be put to it whilft boiling hot.
$ 6. Of Mafbing.–When the water is brought to a due heat, the malt is to be put in very leisurely, and uniformly mixed therewith. Remark. It is found that the grains, after the several taps are spent, remain of the same bulk as before, or at Jeast very little diminished. May we not from thence infer, that the part absorbed by the water, and in which the virtue of the malt and the strength of the beer consist, is contained in an exceedingly small compass ? It is indeed true, that hot water and repeated mathes do fwell a little the hulls and skins of the malt;
but no allowance for this increase will be sufficient to remove the cause of our surprize.'
$ 7. Of boiling the Wort.- Observation :--That long boiling of the hop is a pernicious practice, and produceth an inert; auitere, and nauseous bitter, in the place of a pleasant, active, and aromatic one. But every brewer may easily suit the degree of bitterness to his own palate, thus : - Inftead of putting the hops into the wort when this is put into the copper, or before it boils, they may be put in five minutes before the wort is taken off the fire: if this is not fufficient to give the desired degree of fragrant bitter, ten minutes may be taken; and fo on to the time which shall be found to answer. I prefer putting the hops to wart towards the latter end of the boiling, rather than at the beginning, because the continued boiling of the liquor will difsipate their fragrance, even though the hops are taken out of the wort.'
As the design of boiling the wort is to clear the liquor of impurities, and to obtain the virtue of the hop; a much less time than usual will be sufficient. It is, in fact, of greater consequence than is generally imagined, that the wort be not boiled longer than is necessary; because that longer boiling discharges it of so much air, that the fermentation often becomes imperfe&t: it gives, especially to strong extracts, a viscidity which fermentation can scarcely ever get the better of, and it inevitably disperses the fragrancy of the hops. From what I have seen, I am well assured, that from 20 to 30 minutes boiling is sufficient for strong extracts, and from 30 to 60 for small beer.' This method of boiling firong beer a forter time than finall, may (for any thing we know) be very right; tho'we apprehend it to be just the reverse of the common practice.
Private persons, who would regard only pleasure and health in their malt liquors, should never exceed eight, feldom fix, bushels of malt to the hogshead of their strongest beer. it is only of this strength, it will never hurt them, unless taken to great excels; and at the same time it will be strong enough to exhilarate the spirits sufficiently to enliven conversation. The quantity of hops must be suited to the taste of the drinker, and to the time that the liquor is to be kept. The common allowance is, from one pound and an half? (a very small allowance, truly!] ' to three pounds for a hogshead. For very strong beer, fome go as far as fix pounds.-Small beer should always be brewed by itself; and in that case, two bushels and an half of malt, and a pound and an half of hops, are sufficient to make a hogshead.'
$ 10. Of fermenting Malt Liquors. Cauțion ;- When the fermentation is at its height, all the. dirt, or foul yeast, which rises on the surface, must be carefully kimmed off, whatever be the quality of the liquor.'
Though it be not common to rack beer off from the hogfheads into whiA it is first put; yet as the lees in the cask will be constantly rising upon every change of air, and so produce frequent frettings, or Night fermentations, to which it is often owing that beer becomes foon hard, or contracts a degree of acidity; it seems to Mr. Mills highly adviseable, the better to prevent this, to rack the beer off into perfe&tly clean and sweet casks; as soon as it is become tolerably clear. The cause of the frettings being hereby removed, the liquor thus managed will remain long in a state of perfection, and probably become thoroughly fine without the affiftance of art.
11. Of the Distempers of Malt Liquors.--Among others, incident to beer, Mr. Mills mentions its appearing ropy: which, he says, is very difficult to cure.- We have known it effectually cured, by putting a bunch of hyssop into the cask.
Chap. IV. treats of Distillation ; and Chap. V. Of Vinegar.But we pass from them, as it is high time we should, to Part VI. in which the Author speaks of the culture of some plants which though not necessarily included in the general management of a farm, are nevertheless, objects of great benefit to the public, as well as to the husbandman who rears them judiciously. These are Hemp, Flax, Madder, Woad, and Weld or Dyer's-Weed. -Concerning the culture of each of these plants, he has collected (chiefly from M. Du Hamel) a variety of seemingly good directions : for the particulars of which, we must, however, refer to the work itself;which is concluded with an
APPENDIX, containing corrections of, and additions to, all the five Volumes.
These additions (which are pretty considerable) we shall hope to see inserted in their proper places, whenever a new Edition is called for; which may probably be the case foon: as we really think Mr. Mills's Work, a very judicious compilation, upon the whole, and highly deserving the notice of the public. We only wish that he had been somewhat more liberal of his own reflections upon the quotations he makes ; a task, which (if we may judge from a few specimens of that kind) he seems very capable of performing; and which we would therefore beg leave to recommend to his confideration, upon a revisal.
In the Preface to this volume, (which was published with the last number) he mentions the present Work as being only the first part of his general plan : but what that plan is, he does not say. He hints, however, that what still remains to be done will require so much time and labour, that, considering his bad ftate of health, it is impoßible for him to promise when it may be in his power to finish it,