« السابقةمتابعة »
sate, and leave our Readers to judge how far they are new, how far they are just, or how near they approach to matheinarical truths. The following are some of Mr. Wathen's conclufions;- that the lues venerea, whether recent or chronic, local or universal, was never yet radically cured without the use of mercury ;--that the preparations contained in the London and Edinburgh dispensatories, possess every valuable quality yet known, or perhaps obtainable from this mineral ;-that if two or three drachms of the unguent. cerul. fort. be used every night, the mercurial symptoms will make their appearance from the third to the fifth day; and if continued in the same dore, a falivation will commence from the sixth to the ninth day; i.e. after having used three ounces of the ointment, or one ounce of the mercury itself ;--that twelve grains of the pil. mercul. P. E. taken night and morning, will affect the mouth in about eight days, and, persisted in for eight days longer, a ptyalism will be raised; i. e. by two drachms of the mercury thus divided ;--that the mercur. dulcis fublimatus, which is the best of the chymical class, when given from five to ten grains every night, will raise a falivation on the fixth, seventh, or eighth day; after having administered somewhat more than one drachm of this medicine;that the mercur. corrosiv. sublim. which is the most acrimonious preparation, given to one quarter of a grain twice a day, and persisted in for a long time, feldom affects the falivary glands, of operater in any sensible manner;- that this, the mercur. faccharatus, Belloft's Pill, Keyser's Pill, and indeed all the preparations of mercury are essentially the same ;—that nothing can be more. absurd than a bigotted attachment to any one of them; and that we may occasionally use them all, by adapting them to the patient's safe and situation ;-that the mercur. carros. sublim. is not to be depended on in these colder climates ;--that Keyfer's Pills are inadequate to the cure of a confirmed lues; and that the author of the Parallele des differentes methodes de traiter la maladie vénérienne, accounts for their reputation in France, from the interested patronage of the great; who have procured their general use in the army and navy, and given rewards to such patients, and fanction only to such surgeons, who have made use of Keyser's Pills :-- that these pills are nothing more than mercury dissolved in vinegar :-and that Mefl: Hawkins and Bromfield, after the most candid tryal, have rejected both these and the soJution. Thus much for the various preparations ; now for our Author's conclusions relative to the modus operandi of this mineral.
Mr. Wathen asserts, that mercury does not act by way of extinction ;~ that it has not the property of a specific antidotę ;--that when thrown into the blood in a sufficient quantity, it powerfully acts upon both the solids and fluids; diminishing
the bulk and rigidity of the former, (the bones excepted) and breaking down and dividing the texture of the Auids :-the few rum of the blood is now muddy, the cruor without tenacity, and the whole mass in a state of dissolution. Hence the symptoms of a true plethora, and the necesfity of some speedy evacuation ;-that nature generally determines this evacuation to be by the mouth; at other times by the intestines ; and but rarely by the skin or kidneys; that the venereal poison is fused and resolved in this common dissolution ; and expelled the body in the subsequent evacuation ;-that the perfect cure depends upon an exact proportion in these three things: a sufficient quantity of the medicine, a total dissolution of the poison, and its total evacuation :-and that the least deficiency in any of these points will necessarily render the cure incompleat.-Such are our Author's chief observations; bow near they approach to mathematical certainties, belongs not to us to determine. There are some however, we apprehend, who are extensive practitioners, accurate observers, and good reasoners, who must be charged with infidelity ;-who will even assert that mercury is a Specific ; an antidote to this particular poison ; that it destroys its nature ; renders it inactive; and that continued and encreased evacuations are not necessary to wash it out of the body as still noxious. . They will ask too, if dissolution be the peculiar operation of this mineral, whence the buffy, dense state of the blood, which sometimes appears after a long continued use of mercury? --whence the more than usually viscid saliva, which is evacuated in a salivation ? Has Mr. Wathen explained the peculiar operation of mercury ;-whence is it that the volatile fafts, or other powerful solvents, are not equally efficacious antivenereals ? --Whence is it, that one ounce of mercury used in the form of ointment ; two drachms of the same administered in the form of pills; and only one drachm of the mercurius dulcis, do all produce the same mercurial symptoms ?-Some will doubt whether all the preparations of mercury can with propriety be said to be effentially the same. The kelp or foffile alkali, as united with the marine acid, makes our common alimentary falt: and whence the necessity of concluding that mercury, when combined with the same acid, should retain its own individual nature ?
We fhall just mention Mr. Wathen's praétice. When the disease is recent and local, half an ounce of the mercureal ointment is to be rubbed every morning on or as near the part affected as possible ; four or five stools are to be procured every day, which is an evacuation proportioned to the quantity of Kuids dissolved by such a dose of mercury; and this course is to be continued for a month or more. There are practitioners who will call this a somewhat Haculean method. In the worit
and mnoft malignant degrees of the lues, where there are exoftores, caries, &c. a considerable quantity of mercury, a total change, a perfect resolution, and a plentiful evacuation by a regular ptyalyfm, are necessary to perfect the cure. In the less malignant degrees of the universal lues, where the disease is not fo firmly rooted in the solid parts, Mr. Wathen judiciously obferves, that it may be cured without a salivation ;-he gives the mercury in fuch doses as lightly to affect the mouth, and keeps it acting in this proportion, by the well-timed interposition of opening medicines.
The letter addressed to Mr. Collinson contains the case of a child which had swallowed an ear of dog's grass. This accident occasioned violent reaching, coughing, and a kind of ftrangulation; after this a pain in the stomach, fever, loss of appetite, stinking breath, and at times the expe toration of matter : all which symptoms disappeared in about fourteen days. A tumor then began to form upon the back; this fuppurated, and on opening it there was found a spike of the bordeum fpurium of Parkinson. Many cases similar to this are related by practical writers ; in most of which, however, the progressive motion of the extraneous body was not affifted by the circumstances here enumerated.
The Plays of William Shakespeare, in Eight Volumes, with the Core
rections and Illustrations of various Commentators. To which are added Notes by Sam. Johnson. 8vo. 21. 8 s. bound. Tonfon, &c. Concluded, from Page 301.
oncluded. n. 8vo. 21.0rsTo which or.
IT is presumed the distinction we endeavoured to establish, in
our former article, respecting the effects of dramatic representation, is too obviously supported by facts, to be called in question by even the most scrupulous reader. It is not a little surprising, therefore, to find the critics implicitly adopting each other's sentiments in this particular, and successively maintaining the necessity of our being so far deceived as to believe the distress of a tragedian to be real, before we can possibly be affected by it. Thus the ingenious Abbé Batteux, in treating of this subject, observes, that if the place of the dramatic action be changed, or the time of it prolonged, the spectator must necessarily pera ceive there is some artifice used ; after the discovery of which deceit, he can no longer be brought to believe any thing that passes, and consequently nothing in the representation will be capable of afiecting him.' It is notorious, however, as haib already been observed, that the spectator is affected, and yet beit is the ned on as nerere not their of chaich is indeed, if this to confinsight have chat
lieves nothing at all of the actual distress of the scene, or as our Editor calls it, the materiality of the fable. It is, allo, no less certain, that the interest we take in the representation of the drama, doth by no means depend on those retrospective refinements of intellect, to which Dr. Johnson imputes it. We are moved by sympathy, and to this end the appearance, the imia tation, of distress, even though we are conscious, on reflection, that it is no more than imitation, is yet sufficient:
Ut ridentibus arrident, ita fentibus a lsunt
Humani vultus. And hence the poet proceeds to lay down that rule, which hath been as frequently misapplied as his incredulus odi already, quoted : a view of the whole passage, however, will sufficiently explain it, as it did the former:
Si vis me Aere, dolendum est
Aut dormitabo, aut ridebo. We see here that it is the mere appearance, the imitation, of passion * only, which is insisted on as necessary and sufficient to affect the audience. Indeed, if this were not the case, the critics must have even gone fo far as to confine unity of character to identity of person. And this they might have done also, with almost as much propriety, as they pretend that a spectator actually supposes himself to be where the scene of the drama is laid. For it is surely as difficult for him to conceive himself actually at Elsinore, while he is sitting in Drury-lane theatre, as it is for him to imagine Mr. Garrick, whose face he knows very well, and who talks plain English, should be really Hamlet, prince of Denmark. Dr. Johnson, therefore, may fully prove the iinpossibility of the drama's being in its materiality credited, and yet by no means exculpate Shakespeare in the breach of the dramatic unities.
It does not appear to us that either Aristotle or Horace, from whom we seem to derive the necessity of observing the unities of time and place, had any such notion, as the moderns entertain, of the necessity of making the drama credible;' at least in such a manner as Dacier, Bossu, Rapin, Le Blanc, and Dr. Johnson would have us believe. The defective manner in which the plays of the ancients were represented, rendered indeed such an attempt to impose on the audience still more impracticable. than we even find it at present, with all the advantage of move' ing scenes, and perspective paintings.
Nothing seems clearer than that Horace, in particular, knew how far the-delusion could be carried, in its greatest deal
• Agreeable to this the poet says; FALSIS terroribus implet.
gree of perfection; and that the pallions only were to be imme. diately affected by dramatic representation. Now, it is not ne-' cessary, in moving the passions, that the affecting object or circumstance should have, in that particular instance, the sanction of the reason or understanding. It is sufficient that the common train of reflections which may be immediately excited by such object or circumstance, and which, being stored up in the memory, are directly suggested without particular ratiocination, do not offer any thing repugnant to that sympathy, which operates on the senses. Thus the fictitious distress of a miserable object in the street, may have the same effect on our passions as one. that is real, although very different passions might be affected by the different objects, when the understanding had distinguished between them. And hence, without making any absurd and unnatural distinction between passion and intellect, we see how far sentiment, which is a mixture of both, is engaged as the sole judge and arbiter of dramatic representations. But, as sentiment is not so blind as mere appetite or passion, so it is not, on the other hand, so discerning as reason, or intellect. It were absurd, indeed, to go to the theatre as to an academy. We go there only to see, veluti in speculum, the exterior appearance of the world; not to study that philosophy which teacheth us what it really is. And hence the understanding enters into a compact, as it were, to keep holiday, while the passions are amusing themselves within the ordinary bounds of sentiment, or what is usually called common sense. Even these bounds, however, are not to be broken. It is taken for granted, that the drama is materialiter a fiction. But, notwithstanding this, it is necessary that what is represented, should, as Aristotle says, be either what might have happened, or what ought to have happened ; that is, the drama must proceed agreeable to probability or neceffity. It is here to be observed, however, that as the objects of the drama are not immediately addressed to the understanding, so the understanding is not immediately to judge of this probability or necessity. Nor does it ; for we frequently see a philosopher affected as much as a clown, at a scene, which the one would know on reflection to be absolutely impossible, while the other, let him reflect as long as he pleased, would at last think it very probable. A philosopher, on the other hand, knows a thousand things to be probable, which a common man thinks to be utterly impossible. And yet, in the common concerns of life, they reason and act nearly alike; and in the playhouse, where the business of ratiocination is laid aside, it is posible for them to be equally affected with the representations of the drama, The reason is, that the philosopher, although he may know on reflection that what is represented is morally, or even physically, impossible; yet, knowing, at the same time, that