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• Handsomely said, we must allow, of the church of England,
and perhaps juftly observed ! But would the Doctor have ex'ceeded the bounds of discretion in acknowledging the expediency of a reformation in point of expression at least ? since the confessed obscurity of the terms now in ule can serve but to these two bad purposes,—to encourage opposition to her doctrines from her illwishers, and to encrease the danger, or perpetuate the disgrace, which is already brought upon her from the mistaken notions of those who are zealousy affected towards her.
The two tracts annexed to the work we have been reviewing, relate to the doctrine of an intermediate state, and are inscribed to the Rev. Dr. Law, Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge. The former of them was originally published in a Letter * to the Monthly Reviewers; and contained remarks on the first of Mr. Steffe's letters on that subject. It appears now with several additions, occasioned by some strictures we thought it not impertinent, at that time, to make upon them: how far they were proper, we leave the learned to judge, after alluring Dr. Dawfon, that as we received his remarks, at first, with great plea
sure +, so we are now far from being disobliged by his additional · observations on us.
The latter tract was originally published (says the Author) in the Grand Magazine for April 1758 I, in answer to Mr. Steffe's Brief Defence. In both these critical pieces the Dr. avoids taking either side of the question concerning the state of the soul after death; confining himself to the consideration of what Mr. Steffe advances from scripture, and shewing the insufficiency of the four texts produced by him to prove the doctrine of an intermediate state. In this he hath acted a prudent part, as things go. The clamour against Dr. Law's Appendix is well known; and the spirited writer of an historical view of this controversy has lately informed the world, that a very learned and candid
* See Monthly Review for May 1757.
+ The author of An Historical View of the Controversy concerning an Intermediate State, speaking of Mr. Steffe, says, • Remarkable it is, that the very man who had put the cause upon the determination of scripture alone, finding there was no managing Dr. Law's Appendix, or an acute and ingenious tract in the Monthly Review, which had taken him to talk, this very man did not scruple to call to his aid Pythagoras, Homer, &c, though, to save appearances, it was under the pretence of making them interpreters to Moses, Solomon, &c. What the success was
of this expedient may possibly appear upon some other occasion.'Hence we a parte conjecture this Author had not seen Dr. Dawson's second reply to Mr.
Steffe. It was indeed presented to us; but having a great number of articles at that time upon our hands, we could not give it a place in our Review: it, therefore, appeared in the Grand Magazine, # The Author is mistaken; it was May 1758.
advocate for the doctrine of the said Appendix, has, on account of his publishing his sentiments relative thereto, undergone some fuch hardships as have not been heard of for many years in this protestant country. We have had occasion to take notice of this alarm to the public in our review of that work * : and whatever reason there may be for delaying the publication of the case of the worthy person referred to, the friends of free enquiry must be naturally impatient to have it, as promised, with all iis circumstances.
To return to our Critic : whatever be his own sentiments of the doctrine itself, he certainly appears to be an able disputant, and has particularly recommended himself by that closeness of argument and punctual adherence to the question, (as reited on fcripture) in which his antagonist appears very deficient. Mr. Steffe's affectation of wit, too, when argument only should have been used, is properly treated by the Doctor, who takes occahon, from it, to introduce the following pertinent and pleasant remark upon a Right Reverend Author:
After pronouncing Mr. Sterfe's witticism to be perfearly irre nocent, he adds, But will the R. R. Author of The Divine Legation of Moses be thought to have exercised this fame talent of wit, either, in a manner worthy of himself, or, indeed, with innocence? It can, surely, be deemed but a vulgar pleasure his Lordship feems to take, in calling the controverters of the doce trine of an intermediate state by the name of Dreamers, Sleepers, Middle-men, &C. Such language is more worthy of that inferior and popular class of writers, (to which indeed it has hitherto been chiefly confined) than that eminence, which the Bishop of Gloucesier holds in the learned world. These gentlemen too, with whom his Lordship makes fo merry and so free, have been too long dinn'd with such sort of names to have their fleep broken by a repetition of the rude noise. Nor can the R. R. Author be thought to have acquitted himself with more decency and propriety of character, in making a very serious expreffion from a sacred writer serve the purpose of a witty sarcasm. “ St. Jude's filthy preamers only defiled the fiefh. These defile the spirit.” But, though we cannot suppose that St. Jude and the Bishop are equally serious, yet it is not so clear, that his Lordship, in bringing this charge of spiritual defilement against the dreamers, is altogether in jeft. Certain it is, that, however unwilling his Lordfhip might ve to suppress ro jocular a sentiment, he is willing we should consider the do&rine in a serious light, as of a dangerous and defiling nature. For the learned author of Considerations on the Theory of Religion, is represented as a reviver of the Sadducean opinion, of the extinction of the foul on death, his valuable que,
* See Review, Vol. XXXII. p. 345.
tations from scripture scornfully térmed, A Number of Wonders ful Things, and this scrap of scripture, there be gods many, judged by the R. R. Author to be a stronger text against the unity of the godhead, than any this learned writer has produced for his opinion. The late worthy Dr. Taylor of Norwich is called • Another of these Sleepers,' and a very sensible quotation from him has the following decent reflection passed upon it: “ This is the old exploded trash of Coward, Toland and Collins.' And yet, I dare say, his Lordship will think this writer as honourably clasled, in point of authorship, with Coward, Toland, and Collins, as the Bishop of Gloucester would be, should some one, illnaturedly pleasant, and availing himself of his Lordship's decent ex, preffion, class his performance on this subject, with the old, por pular traf-of Goddard, Steffe and Fleming.'
An Inquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of the Croup. By
Francis Home, M. D. his Majesty's Physician, and Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh. 8vo, IS. Kincaid, Edinburgh. Sold by Millar in London.
D R. Home, who has already given the world several proofs
of the useful application of his genius and abilities, proposes, in this little piece, to ascertain the history, nature, cause, and cure of the croup; a disease which he looks upon as hitherto undescribed, and entirely, he says, unknown as to its nature, cause, effects, and cure.-The croup, from our Author's history of the disease, we apprehend to be a fpecies of catarrh, attended with an inflammatory fever; and, fo far as it is local, chiefly affecting the mucous membrane and the numerous glands of the trachea or windpipe. He obferves that it is peculiar to children ;--that he never saw or heard of one, above twelve years of age, affected by it ;-that it is local, and rarely found at any great distance from the sea-shore ;--that it likewise only attends certain seasons of the year, appearing from the month of October to the month of March.- Our Author gives twelve cases or histories of the disease, with the dissections of those bodies in which it proved fatal; and from these he deduces a number of corollaries. We Ihall transcribe one of these histories; which appears the least complicated with any similar disease.
September 29th, 1760, I was called to a boy of seven years : of age, who had been some days fick. He lived on Leithbridge, had been ill of the chin-cough the preceding winter, and had recovered of the measles about fix weeks before this. He had been frequently purged, and had been tolerably well,
excepting a light cough, till he was seized, four days before I saw him, with fever, heat, thirst, and the shrill croupy voice. When I saw him his pulse was quick, with a little degree of hardness, but not strong. He swallowed easily; but complained of a pain in the trachea, when he spoke, or when I prefled it with my fingers. His face had been swelled. Great drought. Breathing high, but not very quick. He fometimes expectorated, and had often frothy saliva upon his lips : the urine had a white ouzy fediment: his fenfes and his head were quite clear and distinct. He was immediately blooded, and at night had leeches applied to his throat, and a blister round it: the next day his pulse was weaker, and beat 175 in a minute : breathing quicker, and often altered : distinct in all his senses : died that night.
* On laying open the parts, there was no appearance of any inflammation on the fauces : but to my great surprize, the whole Superior internal surface of the trachea was covered with a white, foft, thick, preternatural coat or membrane, easily feparable from it, and generally lying loose upon it, and purulent matter lodged below, and around it. The subjacent parts were red; but no great degree of inflammation. As we searched downwards, the same appearances continued through the ramifications of the aspera arteria, though the membrane seemed here Lofter, thinner, and to become of a more purulent nature. All the branches of the windpipe and bronchiæ were filled with purulent matter; and we could easily squeeze it out, in great plenty, from all these pipes. The substance of the lungs was quite sound, and in a natural state.
From this and the other histories and dissections related by the Author, he deduces his corollaries. In the first corollary, are pointed out the pathognomonic symptoms of the croup: a peculiar, sharp fhrill voice, not easily defcribed, and which can be resembled to nothing more nearly than the crowing of a cock; a remarkable freedom from all complaints when in imminent danger; a quick, laborious breathing; frequent pulse, strong at first, but soft and weak towards the end ; little difficulty in deglutition or inflammation in the fauces ; often a dull pain, and sometimes an external swelling in the upper part of the trachea ; the senses quite distinct to the last; and all the symptoms most rapid in their progress :-sufficiently characterize this disease. From the thrill voice and difficult breathing, which our Author says are the leading symptoms, he calls it the suffocatia firidula ; but whether it can with propriety be called an undesçribed disease we pretend not to determine : those who will turn to Boer haave's account of the angina infiammatoria when it attacks the trachea; or to Sauvage's Cynanche trachealis; will find the 2ox acuta, clangosa, fibilans, firidula ; refpiratio parva, frequens,
erefla cum molimine; of which, our Author's leading symptoms, the sharp, thrill, ftridulous voice; and the quick, difficult, high breathing, would not be a bad translation.
In Corol. 2, Dr. Home observes, that as the suffocatio ftridula is peculiar to a certain, age, as it is local with respect to its situation, so it is likewise particularly connected with the cold and moist weather of winter.
In Corol. 3, our Author endeavours to ascertain the seat of the suffocatio sridula : it is not placed in the muscles of the glottis ; -- nor in the lungs ;-nor in the coats of the trachea ;but in the cavity of the trachea.-We profess we cannot see with what propriety this disease can be laid to be seated in the cavity of the trachea independant of its coats. It is true, indeed, the membrane which is found on dissection, and which is described by our Author, is feated in the cavity of the trachea ; but then this membrane is only to be considered as a symptom or effect; and is produced by an encreased secretion from the mucous membrane, or the glands of this organ, which are in a preternatural, diseased state : and Dr. Home so far forgets himself as soon after to observe, that this aistemper ought to be considered as originally feated in the mucous glands which are in great abundance in the coats of the trachea. The airy cavity of the windpipe is to be sure a very uncommon place for the seat of a disease; but our Author's sprightly imagination may posibly have catched the thought from a circumstance not unfrequent in bis part of the 'world ; the houles there consist of a great number of stories; and a person may have property in the upper parts of such a building, but none in the foundation :- now property fo situated may be justly termed a tenement in the air: and why may not Dr. Home be indulged in fixing the seat of the croup in a manner alike fanciful and aerial !
The observations and conclufions concerning the cause of the croup, in Corol. 4, are equally wild and unphilofophical, and quite unbecoming that gravity, soundness, and reserve, which are generally associated with the word COROLLARY.- Various, says be, have been the theoretical opinions of people, who never had the opportunity, or gave themselves the trouble, to search into the real cause of this distemper. But from the inspection of the morbid body, that true source of knowledge, we learn, that the cause of this disease is a preternatural, white, tough, thick; membraneous cruft, covering, often for many inches, the inside of the trachea.'-- This wonderful membrane seems to be our Author's hobby horse ; mounted on which, he with the greatest ease bounds over every difficulty relative to the nature, feat, and cause of the croup. But the observation of this mem. brane is not so very nouvelle as Dr. Home may imagine: it has been seen lining the back-parts of the fauces, the stomach and