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American provinces, the rivers of which are well known to abound with an inexhaustible plenty and variety of fish, that will yield fine Isinglass sufficient for the consumption of all Europe, provided a just encouragement be given to our fisheries.-That our Author's intent in the present publication was to set the subject of British Isinglass in its true light, and to communicate a method whereby the most perfect fining for the purpose of clarifying malt liquors may be made from the same, equal in efficacy to that made from any sort of foreign lsinglass whatever; that the coarser sorts, if perfectly dry and found, are not inferior to the best staple-ilinglass, for the uses of the brewer; they require only a longer time, and a proper management, to le formed into fining: that from some very accurate experiments, made by a gentleman of undoubted honour and veracity, it appears, that fining made with British Isinglass performs its office more speedily, and falls closer to the bottom, than the foreign ; that the fine, pellucid sorts, are consumed in making mockpearls, and in stilfening linens, silks, gauzes, &c. the use of gums and starch being jufily laid aside, on account of their disposing the fabrics to rot, crack, and mildew ; that the inferior forts have been reduced two hundred çer cent. since the commencement of the British manufacture; that for this article there is an annual remittance of forty thousand pounds sterling; that the yearly consumplion in the brewery is calculated at twentyfive tons; that one in four has been saved by the home manufacture, and that by an adequate supply of materials from our own colonies, this importacion may be entirely superseded.
If the above particulars are justly represented, we hope Mr. Jackson will reap the fruits of his application and invention, We think, however, it would have been more to his reputation, if, in one part, he had not appeared a little in the character of a nojtrum-monger. The virtues of Isinglass for the purpose of fining are much injured, if, by being exposed to beat, its difiolution is urged beyond a certain point: and this disposition to liquify is more remarkable in British than foreign lsinglass. • The whites of eggs, says Mr. Jackson, well whisked up, and commixed with British fining, greatly prevents its fuidity, and acts very powerfully in the business of fining ; but as that ad. dition is generally too costly for this purpose, we hope to be able to discover some cheap substitute to answer the same intentions. As this must be the result of experience, we shall be filent in this point, at present, except that it may not be improper to hint, that there is a certain faline matter easily procurable, which, if commixed to the proportion of a dram to a barrel of fining, greatly improves its clarifying principles, the rationale of which thall be mentioned hereafter.'-- Posibly our Author may have been provoked to this piece of secrecy by the prejudice and inviFf2
dious censures of his enemies; and of which he more than once complains. So firmly, says he, is this bigotry established, that I have lately been assured by unexceptionable evidence, that a certain saponaceous * brewer persists to deny the practicability of making lsingiass in England, and represen s the affair as an infidious trick to impose upon those less happy in discernment than himself; this circumstance reminds me of a story fathered upon a certain Welchman, who, on his arrival at London, mistaking British asparagus for leeks, began to devour the wrong ends; and, notwithstanding he was frequently admonished of his error, yet, rather than acknowledge it, continued to eat it so all his life-time.
Our Author supposes that the fining powers of Isinglass depend upon its fibrous texture. These fibres are easily rendered visible to the naked eye ; and are fitted for their operation by being separated, macerated, or in pait dissolved by a proper medium. Neither gum, size, glue, jellies, which are a kind of half-finished glue, or Ilinglass ittelf dissolved in hot water, possels the fining properties of ifinglass when duly divided by a subacid menftruum; and the best menitruum for this purpose is Jirong stale beer.That any person may have an opportunity of observing the operation of fining, or be satisfied as to the relative merits of British or foreign Isinglars, Mr. Jackson directs the following experiments.
• Provide a cylindrical glass, about five inches diameter, and two feet long, which may be easily procured at the glass-houses; let it be made pretty strong, with a narrow rim, that it may be laid over with a cover occasionally, and likewise have a glass cover fitted to it, like what the confectioners use. Let a small whisk be prepared, by stripping off as many slender twigs from a birch broom, or common whisk, as will give it the thickness of half an inch in the middle, where it is to be tied round with pack-thread ; draw off as much beer out of the butt intended to be fined, as will fill the glass within four inches of the top, then beat up about fix spoonfuls of fining in a bason, with the whisk, a few minutes by itself; after which add gradually a little of the beer in the glass, and whisk it again till it appears very light and frothy: ftir the beer about briskly in the glass, and immediately pour in te firing, and commix them very well, put on the cover, and place the glass in a good light; as soon as the mixture has lost its vertical morion given it by stirring, innumerable little masses, resembling brown-coloured curd, may be perceived to form and move in various directions throughout the whole liquor, which every moment increale in magnitude, till at length they feparate at considerable distances, and some parts fall down
* M. Combrune defines sort to be a fpecies of soap.
to the bottom, while others ascend to the top, on account of some air bubbles, confined in the curdled matter, which, on breaking at the surface, fall directly to the bottom; but if the air is not discharged, the curd will be suspended thereby, and form a kind of scum; if the fining is good, and the beer in proper condition to receive it, that part in the middle of the glass will become of a blackish transparent hue in a short time, and if prudently drawn off by a syphon, will be found very bright; in twenty-four hours the fining will settle pretty close to the bottom, and very little remain at top, unless the beer be in a fretting ftate ; in which case the fining will be carried tumultuously up to the surface, by means of the vast number of air bubbles perpetually generating and ascending in all fermenting Auids ; but as soon as that action is over, the fining will fall to the bottom, and produce its proper effect, especially if a sinall addition be slightly stirred in at the surface the next day, with caution not to disturb what is already subsided; thus it is evident, that at the very inftant that fining is commixed with beer to be clarified, the stale beer, in which the Ifinglass was diffolved, or divided, quits the fibres, and unites with the body of the beer; while at the same time the fibres, now set loose, and every where interspersed in the beer, attract and unite with the loose feculent particles, which, before this union, being of the same specific gravity with the beer, could not possibly subside alone, but by this reciprocal attraction having obtained an additional weight, are now rendered proportionably heavier, and precipitate together of course in form of the curdly magma just mentioned.'
The above phenomena, we apprehend, are not to be explained from any mechanical consideration of the fibrous texture of Isinglass, but manifestly point out what the chemifts call an ELECTIVE ATTRACTION.
Where the beer is specifically heavier than the fining, the fining rises and floats at the surface, says our Author: but where the beer and the fining are of the same specific gravity, they remain united, the feculencies do not subside, and the beer is then said to be stubborn.-Stubbornness, however, we imagine, does not so much depend upon a sameness as to the specific gravities, as upon some fault either in the beer or the fining, by which the elective attraction is prevented taking place. When beer is stubborn, Mr. Jackson recommends a particular attention to experiments made with his proof-glasses : these, he says, are made of the best glass, and contain about two quarts each, wi h a mouth about one inch and half, and bottom three ioches disa meter ; their form is pyramidal, the better to prevent thc 7:13 from adhering to the sides, and examine the colour of tecublast different densities, .
.. Thus, if we want to know the condition of different guyles or butts of beer, a glass must be appointed to every butt, which must be marked or numbered; each glass must be filled two thirds full, or more, with the respective beers placed in a good light, and the taste, colour, and fretting dispofition first examined i then having a little good fining ready whisked up in a bason, as before directed, put into each glass a common spoonful by meafure, with the usual precautions; 'twist a little paper over each glass, and let them stand quiet ; in a short time a person of tolerable discernment will perceive what beer, according to the common phrase, falls kindly, or turns out stubborn, proves cloudy or fretting, high or low coloured, &c. he will likewise perceive what quantity of fining is necessary for one fort more than another, the difference of time in becoming bright, and furnish himself with the most eligible methods of redressing general defçets; and thus, by experiments in the small way, he will be enabled to form right prognostics, and may safely proceed to the Jarge ; for whatever phænomena occur in the glass, will turn out exacily the same in the butt, due regard being had to difference in proportion.'- Our Author would have performed a very acceptable service to the brewer, had he pointed out the par icular means and management, necessary to remedy each particular fault ·
Mr. Jackson has precluded any observations on his language or manner of philosophising.-" The presling solicitations, says he, of some friends, and the urgent necessity of publication at this juncture, I flatter myself, will apologize for some inaccuracies, lic.'-We cannot enter into any detail of our Author's hints on malting, brewing, fermenting, &c. but recommend his eay to the perusal of those who are intereftçd' in these subjects.
Conclusion of the Account of Mosheim's. Ecclefiaftical Hisory.
qur Review for October, p. 330.
TTAVING, in two preceeding articles, endeavoured to give
I fome idea of the first volume of this excellent work, we shall now conclude our account of it, by laying before our Readers some extracts from the second volume, which is introduced with a history of the Reformation. This bistory is divided into four parts : the first contains an account of the state of Christianity before the commencement of the Reformation; the second comprehends the history of the Reformation from its first beginnings until the daię of the confesszon drawn up at Augsburg; the third exhibits
xpectation as rudden change, by opent of papain Luther repetites
a view of the same history, from this latter period to the com-mencement of the war of Smalcald; and the fourth carries it down to the peace that was entered into with the abettors of the Reformation, in the year 1555.
The view which Dr. Mosheim gives of this glorious revoJution in the state of Christianity, to which we are indebted for many inestimable advantages, though short, is clear and distinct, and contains many just and pertinent observations. He introduces it in the following manner : . " While the Roman pontif flumbered in fecurity at the head of the church, and saw nothing throughout the vast extent of his dominion but tranquillity and submission, and while the worthy and pious professors of genuine Christianity almost despaired of seeing that reformation on which their most ardent desires and expectations were bent, an obfcure and inconsiderable person årose, on a sudden, in the year 1517, and laid the foundation of this long-expected change, by oppofing, with undaunted resolution, his single force to the torrent of papal ambition and defe potism. This extraordinary man was Martin Luther; a native of Ailleben in Saxony, a monk of the Augustinian Eremites, who were one of the Mendicant orders, and, at the same time, professor of divinity in the academy that had been erected at Wittemberg, a few years before this period, by Frederick the Wise. The papal chair was, at this time, filled by Leo X; Maximilian I, a prince of the house of Austria, was king of the Romans, and emperor of Germany'; and Frederick, already mentioned, elector of Saxony. The bold efforts of this new adversary of the pontifs were honoured with the applauses of many, but few or none entertained hopes of their success. It seemed scarcely poflible that this puny David could hurt a Goliah, whom so many heroes had opposed in vain.
• None of the qualities or talents that distinguished Lutber were of a common or ordinary kind. His genius was truly great and unparalleled ; his memory vast and tenacious; his patience in supporting trials, difficulties, and labour, incredible ; his magnanimity invincible and independent on the vicissitudes of human affairs; and his learning most extensive, considering the age in which he lived. All this will be acknowledged even by his enemies, at least by such of them as are not totally blinded by a spirit of partiality and faction. He was deeply versed in the theology and philosophy that were in vogue in the schools during this century, and he taught them both with the greatest reputation and success in the academy of Wittemberg. As a philosopher, he embraced the doctrine of the Nominalists, which was the system adopted by his order; while, in divinity, he followed chiefly the sentiments of Augustin; but in both he preferred the decisions of scripture and the dictates of right reason Ff4