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Art. 6. An Account of a singular Species of Wasp and Locuft. By
Samuel Felton, Elg. The insects here described are natives of Jamaica, and art given us as non-descripts. Art. 7. An Account of an American Armadilla. By Dr. Watsor,
This species of animals, we are told, hath been seldom, if ever, seen alive in England : nor is there any good figure of this creature in
any of the authors who have treated of it; they having taken their drawings from dead animals ; which were therefore of course hard, stiff and defective. The animal, of which the figure is now given, is, it seems, alive and in health, in the polietion of the Right Hon, the Lord Southwell: to whom it was brought over from the Mosquito fhore. Its weight is seven pounds, and its fize that of a common cat. It is a male, and hath improved greatly both in appearance and colour, since it hath been in his Lordship’s poffeffion. It is fed with raw beef and milk, and refuses our grain and fruits. In its own country, according to the accounts of those who treat of it, it burrows in the ground.
To this concise description of the animal, is annexed a welldrawn figure of i', on a large copper-plate. Art. 8. An Account of the Quantity of Rain fallen at Mount's-bay
in Cornwall, and of the Weather in that place. By the Rev. Mr. Ecrial
Thi is doubtless fome amusement, as this writer observes, in cuparing the journal of the weather in one part, with the accounts in the papers of storms, heats and drought, and their contraries, ir another: but, though amz foment may be one great end cf the common news-papers, something more than mere entertainment should be the end of a learned and philofophical fociety. Not that we mean to infinuate that atmospherical and meteorological observations are useless; on the contrary, we with to lec more of these journals kept in different parts of the world, by gentlemen as accurate and careful in their obfèrvations as Mr. Borlate. it is, indieit, only by a comparison of numerous accounts, properly authenticated, ihat we can ever arrive at any kind of certainty respecting the weather. Art. 10. Some Obferuations on the Cicala of North-America. Col
lested by Mr. P. Collinson. Of this paper, containing a very particular account of the infeci treated of, we shall beg leave to insert the whole.
In Forriylvania che Cicada is scen annually, but not in such nuinber's as to be remarkable; but at certain periods, of 14 or 15 years difiance, they come forth in such great swarms, that the people bave given them the name of Locufts. About the latter enu of April these Cicadæ come near the furface : this is known, by the hogs routing after them. They creep out of
the ground, near the roots of trees, in such numbers, that in fome places, the earth is so full of holes, it is like an honeycomb.
. Their first appearance is in an hexapode (an ill-Ihapen grub) with fix feet. This is their middle or nymph state: they creep up every thing near them, and fix their claws fast, on the shrubs, and bark of trees : then the skin on its back bursts open, and the fly comes forth, disengaging itself by degrees, leaving the case or exuviæ behind, in the exact shape, in which it was before occupied.
At first coming out, the Cicadæ are all white, with red eyes, and seem weak, and tender ; but next day they attain to their full strength and perfection, being of a dark brown colour, with four finely-veined transparent wings, as will be better seen than described, by the specimens.
• They come forth out of the ground in the night; being then secure from being disturbed by so many creatures, that prey on them, whilst they are under the operation of exchanging one ftate for another. From the tenth of May to the fifteenth, they are observed to be spred all over the country.
• As foon as the dew is exhaled, the Cicadæ are very active, flying about from tree to tree. The male makes a finging noise, calling the female, which he effects by a tremulous motion hé gives to two bladders, filled with air, under his wings. From their numbers the noise is so loud and troublesome, that it interrupts conversation with a continual dinn, from morning to evening. They continue coupling to the fixteenth of May : soon after the males disappear, and the females lay their eggs. They are much larger than the males.
• They never could be perceived eating any thing ; yet, as they are furnished with a long proboscis, which they frequently extend, they may fuck the dews, or the farina of flowers.
" The male, in coupling, hath, at the ed of his tail, two hooks, with which he enters between the rings, that surround the body of the female. These, spreading internally, confine them long together; which may be requisite, as there is a great number of eggs to impregnate, some say fix or seven hundred.
• Soon after this work is over, the female begins laying her eggs. To alift her in this operation, she is armed with a dart near half an inch long, fixed between her breast and belly, and which extends to the end of her tail. This she sheaths up, when it is not in use : with this dart she pierces the small twigs of trees, and, at the same time, injects an egg.' The darted twigs, engraved on the plate, will better shew the manner of this operation, than any verbal description.
• It is surprising to see how quick they penetrate into hard wood, and croud it full of eggs, the length of two or three
inches, ranged in a line close together, from twelve to eighteen in each partition. How she deposites the eggs in this direction, it was difficult to discover, they are so very shy whilst about this work: but my ingenious friend John Bartram, observing her, in the beginning of this operation, took a strong woody stalk of a plant, and, presenting it to her, she directly fell to work upon it, as he held it in his hand. It was very wonderful to see how dexterously she worked her dart into the stalk, at every puncture dropping an egg. This was seen very distinctly, as she did not touch the stalk with any other part of her body.
• The Cicadze fix on molt fort of trees, but like best the oak and chesnut, (which are the twigs engraven on the plate) and the fassafras, and all o:chard trees.
• They always dart to the pith of the branch, that, when the egg hatcheth, the little insect may find soft food in its infant ftate. When mature, they creep forih, go down the tree, or drop off, and soon make their way into the ground, where they have been found two feet dcep. Here they find a secure repose, until they have pafled through their changes, from a maggot to an hexapodc, and lastly to a fly.
• July 15th and fixteenth they were perceived coming forth : several darted twigs were perceived, and carefully examined, and opened : fome eggs were hatched, others not mature, of a dull brown colour. These were taken out, and spread on a table; in about an hour the eggs cra ked. It was very entertaining to observe, how the little insect contrived to disengage itself, from the shell. When it was got dear from its incumbrances, it run about, very briskly, seeking a repository in the carth.
" These Cicadc are spred all over the country in a few days; fut, being the prey of to many animals, their numbers foon decrease, and, their duration by the order of nature being short, quickly dilappear.
• They are the food of most kind of domestic and wild fowl, and many beals : even the squirils grow fat with feeding on them; and one of the reparts of the Indians, after having first plucked off their wings, is to boil and eat them.
• There are two diliinet species of Cicadæ in North Amevica; the one herc dcscribed being much larger than the other, The leilir frecies has a black body, with golden eyes, and remarkable yellow veined wings.' Art. il. An Account of the Plague at Conflantinople. By Dr.
Mackenzic. This paper, containing as well a natural history of the Plague, as a medicinal investigation of the distemper and mode of cure, we are induced to rank it under the present class. The account is given in a letter from Dr. Mackenzic, residing at Constan
tinople, tinople, to Sir James Porter, his Majesty's envoy at Brussels; and contains a number of particulars, contradictory to the generally-received notions of this dreadful distemper. "The ingenious Writer begins thus :
• So many great men have written upon the Plagué already, 'as Profper Alpinus, Sydenham, Hodges, Diemerbroeck, Muratori, Mead, &c. that it might be justly thought presumptuous in me to touch upon that subject after them. But as I find, that they differ in some circumstances, and that some of them have had an opportunity of seeing only one year's plague; I may be allowed to write to you such remarks as I have made for almost thirty years, that I have lived in this plaguy country, without any quotations or confirmations from other authors; which I hope will help to reconcile the different opinions of the abovementioned famous authors. Which task I would choose rather, than to contradict them ; for I am persuaded, that each of them 'wrote according to the best of his knowledge (as I do myself) without any intention of imposing in the lealt upon mankind.
' It is beyond dispute, that the plague appears in a different manner in different countries; and that it appears differently in the same country in different years : for we find most other diseases alter more or less, according to the constitution and disposition of the air in the same climate : for, fome years, fevers are epidemic, and very mortal : other years, they are epidemic, but not mortal; the small pox the same; &c. And so the Plague is some years more violent, and has some symptoms different from what it has in other years; which, I take for granted, must be the reason of any difference that may appear in the remarks of the celebrated authors already mentioned. There is one extraordinary fymptom, which the most of these authors mention, though none of them prove it, or pretend to have seen it; which seems to me inconsistent and incompatible with the animal conomy; making till proper allowance for Omnipotence and Divine Vengeance, as in that of Sennacherib's numerous army,
other such plagues, mentioned in scripture. What I mean, is, that a person cannot die of the Plague (such as it appears among us) instanteously, or in a few hours, or even the same day, that he receives the infection. For, you know, Sir, by your long experience in this country, that all such as have the Plague, conceal it as long as they can, and walk about as long as poffible. And I presume it must be the same in all countries, for the same reason, which is the fear of being abandoned and left alone ; and so, when they struggle for many days against it, and at last tumble down in the street, and die suddenly, people imagine, that they were then only infected, and that they died instantly of the infection ; though it may be supposed, according to the rules of the animal economy, that the noxious
euvia must have been for fome time mixed with the blood, before they could produce a fever, and afterwards that corruption and putrefaction in the blood and other Auids, as at last stops their circulation, and the patients die. This was the case of the Greek, who ipoke with your matter of horse, Knightkin, at the window, anno 1752, and went and died in an hour aftera wards in the vineyards of Buiuk deré; and it was said he died fuddenly, though it was very well known to many, that he had the Plague upon him for many days before this accident hap
• Mrs. Chapouis found herself indisposed for many days, anno 1758, and complained pretty much, before she was suspected of having the Plague. Captain Hills' sailor was infected in Candia 1730; was a fortnight in his passage to Smyrna, as the captain fwore to me; yet he was five days in the hospital there before he died. Mr. Lille's gardiner was indisposed twelve days before he took to his bed, and he lay in bed eight days before he died, in July 1745.
It is true, that Thucydides, in his account of the Plague at Athens, relates, that some were said to die suddenly of it; which may have led others into the same way of thinking: but Thucydides (with all due regard to him) must be allowed to have known very little of the animal economy, for he was no phyfician, though a very famous historian ; and he owns moreover, that, when the Plague first attacked the Piræum, they were so much strangers to it at Athens, that they imagined the Lacedæmonians, who then besieged them, had poisoned their wells, and that such was the cause of their death. Besides, he pretends to affirm, from the little experience he had of the Plague, that the same person cannot have it twice, which is absolutely false. The Greek Padré, who took care of the Greek-hospital at Smyrna for fifty years, assured me, that he had had the Plague twelve different times in that interval; and it is very certain, that he died of it in 1736. M. Broffard had it in the year 1745, when he returned from France; and it is very well known, that he and all his family died of it in April 1762.' The Abbé, who takes care of the Frank-hospital at Pera, swore to me the other day, that he has had it already, here and at Smyrna, four different times. But, what is ftill more extraordinary, is, that a vour" vcman, who had it in September last, with its most paiharmonic fymptoms, as buboes and carbuncles, after a fever, ho cayain on the 17th of April, and died of it some days ago, wule there is not the leaft surmise of any accident in or about Conftantinople fince December, this only one excepted: but there died four persons in the same little house in September; and as the house was never well cleaned, and this young woman