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I « The Plague breaks out here and at Smyrna fome years, when it is not possible to trace whence it is conveyed; for some houtes, which were insected, and not well cleaned after the infected person is removed, lodge some of the venemous molecule in wool, cotton, hair, leather or skins, &c. all winter long; which, put in motion by the heat in April or May, break out of their nidus, where they resided, and recover so much life and action, as to enter into the cutaneous pores of any person, who comes within their reach, and so infect him; as it happened at the French palace, at Mr, Hubsch's and at Caraja's house, for two or three years running. But Plagues of this kind seldom spread, and are never so fatal as such as come from abroad. '
Many are of opinion, that the heat kills the Plague, as they term it, which is owing to a foolish superstition among the Greeks, who pretend, , that it must cease the 24th of June; being St. John's day, though they may observe the contrary happen every year; and the strongest Plague, that was at Smyrna in my time, anno 1736, was hottest about that time, and cona tinued with great violence till the latter end of September, when it began to abate ; but was not entirely over till the 12th of November,' when Te Deum was sung in the Capuchins convent.
"This mistaken notion may be in some measure owing to ai wrong fenfe put upon Prosper Alpinus, who allows that the Plague at Cairo begins to ceasc in the months of June and July, when the strong northerly winds (called. Embats or Etesian winds) begin to blow, which make the country much cooler than in the months of May, April, and March, when the Plague rages moft; which he very justly imputes to the great fuffocating heats and foutherly winds, which reign during those months in that country: and it is then that the ships, which load rice, flax, and other goods and merchandise for Constantinople receive the infection, and carry it with them hither; and, upon these goods being delivered to persons in different parts of the city, the plague breaks out at once with great violence among the trading people of the Greeks, Armenians, and Jew's; for I have observed, both here and at Smyrna, that the Turks are commonly the last of the four nations, who are infeéted; but when the Plague gets cnce among them, they suffer most by it, because they take the least care and precaution, and their families are much more numerous.
- The plague, as well as all other epidemical diseases, has its rise, progress, state, and declension, when it begins to lose its virulence, and many of the fick recover. Some years it is felt sporadically all the winter ; and we hear some accidents in the Phanar, among the Greeks, among the Jews, Turks, and Armenians; and even among the Franks ; for you may remember, that Pera was not clean all the winter 1762. Some years is
· ladges lodges in the villages upon the Bosphorus ; but during the winter it is never of any great consequence.' , Art. 12. An Account of a remarkable Tide at Bristol, By Dr.
Tucker. : The phenomenon of this tide was its rising suddenly, soon after it began to flow, almost to high-water mark, where it continued near half an hour : when it funk almost instantaneoally, three feet perpendicular: after which, it began to flow in again, and kept flowing on, till it rose to the height it was expected to do. - By the circumstances attending this extraordinary agitation, it seems the cause of it (most probably some fubterraneous eruption) could not be very diftant. Art. 13. A Letter containing fome Experiments in Electricity. By
Mr. Bergman of Upsal, in Sweden. . . Notwithstanding the many and great advantages, which the progress of science hath reaped from the extensive communications of modern commerce; we sometimes find one nation al. most half a century behind-hand with respect to the scientific discoveries of another. This does not appear, indeed, to be altogether the case with the learned in Sweden ; Mr. Bergman, however, after recapitulating the circumstances of some experiments, well known in France and England, closes his letter with the following questions and remark : Ullusne, in Anglia, · fulminis i&tus, virgis ferreis erectis, avertere conatus eft ? et quo fuc
ceffu ? In Pen ylvania tentari mihi narratum eft. Certe fi pru denter inftituatur, mulla binc mala metuenda video.'- If our experimentalists cannot make a satisfactory aniwer to the above quertions, they must admit that they are as far behind those of New England and Pensylvania, as the philofophers of Sweden are to those of Great Britain. Art. 14. An Account of a Fish from Batavia, called Jaculator. By
Dr. Schlafer. Our good friend, Dr. Schlofer of Amsterdam, hath, it seems, · presented the Royal Society with a very uncommon fish ; of
which this article contains the drawing and description. The moft extraordinary circumstance relating to it, is the manner of its obtaining food, which is pretty singular ; indeed so singular, that, if a personal acquaintance with this ingenious gentleman did not give us sufficient reason to think, that he could not mean to impose on others, nor is liable to be easily imposed on himself, we ihould hardly have been foon induced to give it credit. The Doctor having received from Mr. Hommel, governor of the hospital at Batavia, many uncommon fishes, well preserved, amongst them was this, called the Jaculator, or Shooting-fish; of which the governor gave him the following account:
• It frequents the fhores and fides of the sea and rivers, in search of food. When it spies a fly sitting on the plants, that grow in shallow water, it swims on to the distance of four, five, or fix feet, and then, with a surprising dexterity, it ejects out of its tubular-mouth a single drop of water, which never fails striking the fly into the sea, where it soon becomes its prey.
· The relation of this uncommon action of this cunning fish raised the governor's curiosity; though it came well attested, yet he was determined, if poffible, to be convinced of the truth, by ocular demonftration. : "For that purpose, he ordered a large wide tun to be filled with sea-water; then had some of these fish caught, and put into it, which was changed every other day. In a while, they seemed reconciled to their confinement ; then he determined to try the experiment. ·'. A fender stick, with a fly pinned on at its end, was placed in such a direction, on the side of the vessel, as the fish could
ftrike it. • " It was with inexpressible delight, that he daily saw these
fish exercising their skill in Thooting at the fly, with an amazing velocity, and never missed the mark.' Art. 15. An Account of the Polish Cochineal. By Dr. Wolfe of
- Warsaw. On this subject here are two papers, the one in Latin and the other in English. They contain the description of an infest, which Dr. Wolfe supposes may be found in England as well as in Poland. The naturalists may look for it in the month of June about the roots of the potentilla, fragaria, and polygonum minus. Art. 21. An Account of the Degree of Cold observed in Bedfordshire.
· By John Howard, Elai By this paper we learn, that at Cardington in Bedfordshire, on the 22d of November 1763, Fahrenheit's thermometer lunk fo low as to and But as no concomitant circumstances are mentioned, we are apprehensive this fingular observation will throw no great light on the locality of cold, which is the professed motive for the communication of this important piece of intelligence to the Royal Society. Art. 23. A Catalogue of the Fifty Plants from Chelsea Garden, pre
fented by the Company of Apothecaries, for the Year 1763. Art. 34. An Account of leveral Fiery Meteors seen in North Ame- •
rica. By Profelir l'inthrop. Prefixed to the account of incie meteors, the writer hath thrown out some ingenious hints relative to the appearance of meteors in general; with a view to the formation of a more fatisfactory theory of their motion than we at present possess.
· Art. 36.
Art. 36. An Account of the Effects of Lightening at South Weald in
Elex. By Dr. Hebirilen. A relation of the damage done to the church of South-Weald, a village in Essex, on June 18, 1764, much about the time of the like misfortune happening to St. Bride's steeple, and in Eflexftreet, London. Dr. Heberden closes his account with observe ing, that the whole appearance of the damage done to this church very much favours the conjecture of that fagacious observer of nature Dr. Franklin, who thinks it probable, that, by means of metallic rods or wires reaching from the roofs to the ground, any buildings may be secured from the terrible effects of lightening. Art. 40. Observations upon the Effects of Lightening, with an Ac
count of the Apparatus proposed to prevent its Mischiefs to Build. ings, more particularly to Powder Magazines. By Dr. Watson.
Dr. Watson hath here described, at large, and in a very satisfactory manner, the apparatus necesary to prevent the mischiefs to be aporehended by lightening; but, having mentioned several particulars of this kind in a foriner Review, we must refer those of our Readers who are desirous of farther information on this fubject, to the article itself. Art. 41. An Account of the Effects of Lightening in St. Bride's
Church, Fleetstreet, on the 18th of June 1764. By Edward · Delaval, Eja; · The ingenious author of this paper hath been very accurate and particular in his description of the damaged parts of this building; humanely judging it would be of ule, by describing the several circumstances or this accident, to thew more fully the neceffity of preventing the danger to which such buildings are exposed. Art. 42. A Letter from Dr. Laturence to Dr. Heberden, concerning
the Effects of Lightening in Efex-Sireet, on the 18th of June, 1764.
This accident hath been before mentioned, and differs little in circumstances from other accidents of the like kind. Art. 44. A Letter to the Marquiss of Rockingham, wish fome Ob
fervations on the Effitis of Lightning. This paper contains some very senlible remarks, by the ingenious Mr. Wilson ; well worth attending to, by those who would take such precautions, as the providential discoveries of fcience have put into our hands, to secure their persons and property from the melancholy efiects of such awful dispensations, as are frequently the disasters attending on thunder and lightening. Art. 47. Experiments and Observations on the Compressibility of
: Fluids. By John Canton, M. A. F. R. S.. In speaking of the accounts heretofore given by Mr. Canton,
This pape Wilson ; wetions, as the cure their P.
would take put into our hanefiets of such aw
to the Royal Society, concerning the compressibility of Auids; we expressed our dissatisfaction with the description he gave of the apparatus, whereby his experiments were determined. In the present paper he says nothing to remove the difficulties we suggested, and which, if we had not, would doubtless have suggested themselves to every reader who might know any thing of the matter. It must certainly be a very nice instrument, and subject to more irregularities than the experimentalift may possibly be aware of, which can serve to the construction of the following table, of the compreslion of Auids :
Millionth Parts. Specific Gravity.
918 Rain-water 46
1000 Sea-water - 40
1028 Mercury - 3
13595. Mr. Canton determines these fluids, allo, not only to be compressible but elastic. No doubt of it; compreffibility and elasticity are natural concomitants. We have many objections therefore to make to Mr. Canton's supposition, that the compressibility of fluids does not arise from the elasticity the fluids may contain. It was once thought that the Florentine experiment, regarding the incompreffibility of water, was conclusive : Mr. Canton, and others before him, have fhewn it was not so; and we make no doubt, but some time or other Mr. Canton's experiments will be as fully shewn to be inconclusive as that of the Academy del Cimento. The taking off the weight of the atmosphere, though by the most artificial means possible, is, in our opinion, no proof that all the air is extracted from a fluid, whereby it might be rendered compressible or elastic to three parts out of a million of its bulk. Having never seen Mr. Canton's apparatus, however, we do not pretend to depreciate the merit of his discoveries; and, as the news-papers inform us, the Royal Society have honoured him with their prize-medal on the occasion, we hope they are more important and satisfactory to others than they, at present, appear to the Reviewers, Art. 51. An Account of the Effects of Lightening on three Ships in
the East Indies. By Mr. Veicht. This article may be dispatched in the same manner as that numbered 42, above mentioned.
Art. 53. and 55. contain accounts of two remarkable meteors; both seen at Oxford; the one March 5, 1764, and the other April 23, 1764. By the Rev. Mr. John Swinton, B.D. F.R.S. Member of the Academy degli Afatisfi at Florence, &c.
To be continued.]