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at three times the expence of water carriage, and sometimes even refuse to supply their orders at all, rather than run the risque of forfeiting their credit, and submitting to the deducs tions that are made on this account.' - In the Jast place he enumerates the particular advantages of the intended canal ; and, to give an idea of these, he confiders the chief, fources of employment for the proposed navigation, under the three following heads : 1. Natural productions of the 'counties that lie near the canal. 2., Cultivated commodities and manufactures. 3. Imported raw materials, and general commerce.
He shews that in all these respects the canal will be productive of very great improvement; and he concludes with obviating some objections which may be urged against the propored navigation : : . It may be faid, that many estates will be divided by the canal : but, as in several parts, it will be carried through uncultivated commons, and lands that want draining; as a full compensation will be paid for the ground that is cut through; and as the farms will be again connected, by bridges and fords, at suitable distances; it is presumed no inconveniences will proceed from this circumstance, which are not amply counter balanced by the many advantages, that have been before pointed out, and muft evidently arise to every farm through which it may pass.
Nor must we here omit the trite objection of the dishonefly of watermen, that they will pilfer fruit and poultry in their paffage. But, certainly, this class of travellers may be ranked, in point of honesty, with the common carriers; and as one man and a boy, will be sufficient to attend the conveyance of twenty tons of goods along the canal, which by land would require the attendance of ten persons, the number of these dangerous visitors will be greatly decreased,
• The only remaining objection that has occurred to us, is, that by an inland navigation, between the ports of Liverpool and Hall, the coasting trade, that great nursery for seamen, will be diminished. To which it may be answered, that, in the first place, there is little or none of that trade between those two ports. Secondly, that as this inland navigation will give an opportunity for a more easy conveyance of the produels of the interior parts of the country, to the neighbouring ports, which may from thence be conveyed, by sea, to diftant parts of the kingdom, from whence other products, and commodities, may :be returned; the coafting trade must hereby be greatly promoted. And lastly, as this navigation will contribute to increase the produce of our farms, will benefit our present manufactures, and occasion the establishment of new ones, it must, of course, enlarge the amount of our exports; and, instead of
Jeslening, leflening, have a direct tendency to augment the quantity of our shipping, and the number of our feamen.
,,. It must also be observed, that when the other parts of this GREAT DESIGN are executed ; and the principal ports and manufacturing towns of the kingdom, come to have a reciprocal inland communication, by water ; then, though the coajling trade may be diminished, the export trade will not only be inconceivably enlarged, but the internal naţional commerce be carried on with much more ease and dispatch; less exposed to expensive and hazardous delays; and perfe&tly secure, in time of war, from the depredations of an enemy.'
Upon the whole, there has not, for many years, been a more interesting publication than this little treatise. The subject is of such great and national importance, as of itself to command ats tention; and the manner in which it is treated, will render that attention agreeable.
A Review of Mr. Phillips's Hiftory of the Life of Reginald Pollo : By Glocester Ridley, L.L. B.' 8vo. ss. Whifton.
THE Review we have given of Mr. Phillips's life of this
celebrated cardinal, must, in great measure, preclude the necessity of our enlarging on the present article. It will be fufficient that we apprize our Readers, in general terms, of the merit of Mr. Ridley's performance: a performance which we have perused with equal satisfaction and entertainment! The learned and ingenious Author hath critically and circumstantially scrutinized the artful production of the wily Catholic, through every påge; traced the Romith fox in all his windings and doublings; and hath pursued him with so much fpirit and fuce cess, that we imagine we shall hear no more of Maker Reynard, in this country.
· It is justly observed, by our Author, that the biographer's general design was to recommend the popish doctrines. As the best mean,' says he, to recommend them, he, (Mr. Phil. lips) endeayours to establish the pope's supremacy; and the me. thod he uses to excite his readers to attempt the recovery of this supremacy to the pope, is the example of Reginald Pole.' In: opposition to this general design, our Author undertakes to Thew, that the doctrines Mr. P. would recommend, are unfcrip. tural; that the mean to establish them is feditious and treasonable ; and that the history framed to excite his readers, abounds with misrepresentations and falfhoods. · As characters, like pictures, often appear different from the · Rev. Dec. 1765.
der example empt the; and the
different situations of the spectators, fo, says Mr. Ridley, 'it bas bappened, with respect to Reginald Pole ; for, besides the prejudices of papilts and protestants, his life was so cast betwixt England and Italy, that neither his countrymen nor foreigners saw the whole of him : his birth, parentage, ancestors, obligations, views and connections in England impress a form upon his conduct, of which the Italians, as strangers, were incompetent judges ; his qualities and accomplishments, which in great measure he acquired in Italy, and chiefly displayed there, were less seen in England, where he chose not to exert them.
The Italians therefore are apt to dwell with rapture on these; which the English deny not to have been thining, but were too distant from their observation to make equally strong impressions : while they look with horror on the former, as exhibiting the strongest features of ingratitude, resentment, and treason; which the Italians, although they see them, yet, the distance loftening them to their eyes, are wont to extenuate or overlook. That milder merit of the heart, which distinguished him among his favourites at Padua, is loft to us amidit that most illiberal abuse, with which he foams against his King and benefactor : the appearances of humanity and disinterestedness, which he put on at Rome, drop off when we look at him travelling from court to court, to rouse up the Princes of Europe to invade his country, to spirit up civil wars in the bowels of it; and during his short administration here, bathing his hands in the blood of his countrymen. Yet all this can bigotry and superstition confecrate into virtue, nay into Patriotilm, ņay into a tender love for that very King, and as the least equivocal pledge of his loyalty and affection. i. Be it, that he was naturally of a mild and humane difposition : what was able to drive him so violently from his natural bent? Mr. Phillips represents it as proceeding from his zeal for religion, his affection to his King, and his love of his country, Thele will offer themselves to examination in the course of this Review. At present it must appear a paradox, to urge a zeal for religion as the defence of rebellion ; an affection for his King as the cause of attempting to depose him; and invasions, civil wars, and cruel executions, as the proofs of his love for his country. A Review of his life, as related by Mr. Phillips himself, may perhaps discover a cause more adäquate, and less equivocal, powerful enough to change his natural bent, and which is supported fufficiently by history.'
Our Author now proceeds to his Review of the Cardinal's life, as related by his Biographer, Mr. Phillips; and whoever shall attentively and impartially peruse this very acute, elaborate, and : masterly Review, will gather from it a very different, and, we really believe, a much truer idea of the character, principles,
and conduct of Cardinal Pole, than what might naturally be collected from an implícit regard to the artful and specious representations of Mr. Phillips.-It would be in vain for us to attempt, in a work circumstanced and limited like ours, to aim at giving an adequate view of even the principal points here debated; and therefore we shall content ourselves with an extract from Mr. Ridley's expoftulatory conclufion, as a specimen of the Author's manner, in controversial writing.. • Addressing himself, then, to his antagonilt, he thus draws towards a conclusion of his work:-. Having now, fays he, finished my Review of The life of Reginald Pole, and Mewn that the Author of it has greatly misrepresented facts and authorities, to recommend his hero to our esteem and imitation; in order to inspire his Readers with a love of those corruptions in religion which he embraced, and with a defire to restore them in this kingdom, by those means, without which they cannot be supported, a reconciliation with the Pope and the re-establishment of his supremacy : means, which if persuasion has not force enough to recommend, ought (in his opinion) to be introduced even by sedition and rebellion, from the encouraging examples of that great Patrict, St. Thomas of Canterbury, and those Martyrs also who were hanged for treason under Queen Elizabeth ;-Permit me, Mr. Phillips, to leave your book, and apply myself to you, in testimony of my Christian charity and good will to your person, however justly I may resent your attempt as a Polemical Historian. There are connections betwixe us, which give me a title to address you, as my countryanan, my fellow-subject, and a Christian brother.
• As my countryman, pray for the peace of our Jerusalem; for your brethren and companions Jakes with her prosperity: nor endeavour to prevent her, by such publications as these, or any other feditious attempts, from being a city at unity with itself. You must be sensible, that though we have borne with those of your Communion, whilst they appeared too few to do us any milchief, yet you cannot increase without danger to us. The methods therefore which you, and others of you, are taking to add to your numbers, must diminish the likelihood of your living in tranquillity amongst us: we know we cannot be safe, if yours become the prevailing profession; and therefore we mut, when we see it attempted, and you may be assured we Thall, execute such of our laws against you as are neceilary for our own preservation, or enact such as may be more properly executed. You have made a very bad use of our long fulpenfion of the old ones, and should be cautious of provoking us to new provisions ; for if you imagine that we ihall continue supine, till you are a match for us, you may find yourselves great
ly mistaken; and if ever a contest happens on this point, i will be a dreadful one.
.. Can you then wish to see your country plunged in the hörrors of civil war ? can you attempt to excite a new pilgrimage of grace, zealously contending to ravish from us that liberty, which, jo indulgence to your hereditary prejudices, reaches out its civil prorection to you? You exprefs a sense of your happiness in living under the equity and moderation of these times ; pero haps multitudes of your friends are Aying from the refentment of their respective states to bark in the fun-fhine of English liberty ; live and enjoy it : but use not this liberty as a cloke of maliciousness, nor grudge it to your countrymen, while they extend it to you. How would Roman Ca:holic powers treat theit Protestant subjects, were they first to give them such a protection as you enjoy here, and then receive such a return for it, as you and those of your communion make here? How would they treat the Author of a book written in such a manner against their established church and laws, as yours is against ours ? How would you think he ought to be treated ? Be fo good as to consider these questions, and what plane answer can be returned to them. . Consider further, in what confufion and disturbance of property you are labouring to embroil your country: you tell us the Abbey and Church lands, by the mediation of Pole, have been secured to the pofleflors and confirmed by the Pope : but we know the precarious tenure when your Pope shall be able to give effect to the decrees of his predecessors; the fecurity granted was intended to be but temporary, Pole himself per: fuaded the possessors to give back the apple, and threatning if they did not, that it should be taken from them, and the losers whipped into the bargain if they pretended to cry.
But above all consider, have you a heart capable of undertaking to bring the brand to kindle those dreadful fires again through the kingdom, which disgraced the administration of your Patriot Heio; and to sacrifice in them your fellow ci i: zens, friends, and benefactors. Should Popery once mo è prevale in England, the Protestant cause would be sunk so low, that a retuin of all the old barbarities might justly be feared. Can you then desire the revival of them? Are you really so much of the same spirit with your predeceffors in Queen Mary's days? how much esteem do you hope to conciliate from wishes of this complection ? what thanks do you conceive your country is indebted to you for labours to so bloody a purpose ?
• As my fellow subjeci, dare you openly avow an allegiance to a foreign potentate, and endeavour 10 persuade Englishmen io fübmit to any eartbly Prince as above their natural King ?