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butes much towards making them afterwards so ungovernable. A matt seldom approaches the woman to whom he intends to make love, but with the most tervile complaisance. He is not only her servant, but her slave. He is obedient to her pod, and lives upon her smiles. And can any man rationally expect, that the woman to whom he thus behaves, will ever make him a dutiful and obedient wife? “ Lovers (says Of. borne) place like stupid idolaters, divinity in a filly creature, ser by the institutes of nature in a far inserior class of perfection, to that which makes it bis business to worhip and adore it ;- rendering thereby him subject to Navery that was born free, and her to command, who ought in righter reason to serve and obey." A woman muft undoubtedly think it very strange, that the man whose former behaviour to her was characterized by nothing but submission, and the most undistinguishing complaisance, fhould afterwards pretend to allume any fort of authority over her, or to controul her actions. And what adds to the absurdity of that sort of behaviour, which is generally made use of in courtship, is, that it is by no means the best way for a man to recommend himself to a woman of sense, or indeed even to the generality of them. They may like the adoration that is paid to them, but they despise those who make use of it ; at least, they undoubtedly esteem them lers, than if their behaviour had in it more manliness and dignity. It has been said, that women prefer fools and coxcombs to men of sense; but in this remark, the women, I believe, have not justice done them. At least, it appears only to be true of those men of sense, whose severity of manners makes them absolutely destitute of any of the arts of pleasing. Let a man of sense, who is at the same time a master of some address, (which the character of a man of sense surely does not exclude, though it does not necessarily include it) pay his addreses, as the phrase is, to a woman, without the least servility, and only with that manly complaisance and tenderness, which an amiable woman will naturally inspire in a man; and let his whole bebav our be free, fincere, sensible, and manly; and I will venture to afiert, that any woman (if she were not more deficient in point of underfandirg than the generality of women are) would prefer him to twenty fawning fips who might happen to be his rivals. Women are, in fact, so far from being fond of men of a soft complyirg temper, that they do, generally, rather prefer those, who either ivy natural temper, or by the particular prevailing manners of their profeffion, are characterised even by a blant freedom of behaviour. And surely there are not the men whom they can reasonably expect to make the most pliant husbands.'

We have observed several other fer fible remarks in this little tract; but, on the whole, che futject is but flightly discussed; and the question not absolutely and clearly decided at lait.

Art. 28. in Elwy towards elcblishing a Standard for an elegant and

uniform Pronunciaiion of the English Language, throughout the Britis Dominions, as prozlised by the 1:0ft learned and polite Speakers. A Work entirely new; and whereby every one can be bis own private Teacher. Designed for th: Use of Schools, and of Forsigniers as well as Natires; specially such ulcje Projislions


- engage them to speak in Public. By James Buchanan, Author

of the British Grammar, &c. 8vo. 55. Dilly. * This essay consists of a vocabulary of English words, printed in double columns; the one containing the words spelt as they are usually written, and the other, spelt in such a manner, as the Author conceives may direct the Reader to the true pronunciation of them. Against the plan itself, we object, firfi, that the false mode of orthography here used to facilitate the pronunciation will be apt to vitiate the learner's writing* our language, more than it will improve his Speaking it : secondly, that foreigners and others, who have not a thorough knowledge of the found of our vowels in the syllables of different words, cannot possibly receive any benefit by such a preposterous mode of spelling: and lastly, that, supposing neither of the former objections existed, Mr, Buchanan himself does not appear to understand how English is pronounced by polite or just speakers. Let our Readers judge, from the following specimens:

• We name the vowels a, e, i, o, u, y, by their long sounds, thus, ai, ee, ăweě, 7, eu, wy. Awer, rapidly pronounced, is the long found of [1], or as we pronounce the pronoun I.'t.

A paffes into the sound of short ő in many words, as marshal, filial, human, village, logician, &c. denoted mårshil, filyil, heimin, villidh, Jo-ječflăn, &.'

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* For it is observable that we acquire, and retain, our orthography by the eye, and not by the ear. Thus, in a hurry, we sometimes fee that a word is spelt wrong, though we cannot, without some consideration, discover in what particular letter the fault lies.

+ Awee ! - What English, or indeed any French, Dutch, or oths foreign reader, would ever discover the true pronunciation of the prenoun I, by such a mode of spelling? This is certain, that a common porter about St. James's would think that a wee was a good rbime for the pay of an Edinburgh porter, viz, a bawbee ; but he would as soon take an halfpenny for a thilling, as admit that awee could ever stand for I.

12 good fpeaker, though he had given into this absurd way of teaching, would have written these words thus, mār.fil, fil-i-ül, bio mun, &c.


Art. 29.

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Art. 29. A Differtation upon the Chronological Difficulties, imputed

to the Mofaic History, from the Birth to the Death of Jacob. By .. William Skinner, M. A. Vicar of Bolbury in Herefordshire.

4to. 2 s. Baldwin. Whoever reads the book of Genesis with attention, will find himself frequently embarrassed with apparent anachronisms; a full explication of which he will in vain feck for in any of the commentators whom we have confülted. The Author of this differtation has endeavoured to clear up these in a manner which appears to us in a great measure new : and those, to whom the subject is sufficiently interesting, will not think their time lost in a careful perusal of what he has written.

Mr. Skinner observes, that critics have generally agreed upon two con. clusions, as certainly deducible from the patriarchal hiłory recorded in Genefis ; viz. first, that Jacob lived only twenty years in Mesopotamia: and secondly, that Judah's marriage with the daughter of Shuah was por terior to Jacob's return to Canaan. Our Author enumerates no less than fourteen confiderable difficulties, which necessarily follow from thefe conclusions ; difficulties which would be esteemed even absurdities in any other book. All these he thinks may be fairly folved by fuppofing, in contradiction to the above conclusions, that Jacob lived several years at, or near Haran, beside the twenty that he served Laban for his daughters, and a share of his cattle; and likewise, that Judah married, while his father lived in Haran. He endeavours to shew these suppositions to be well founded, and attempts to reconcile those passages of scripture, which might appear either directly, or in their consequences, inconsistent with them. His folutions are for the most part ingenious; but we cannot think he has given a satisfactory answer to all the objections to which his scheme is liable, without a very extensive application of a remark he has made in his first section, the general truth of which we are not disposed to contravert, viz. “That the facred historian does by no means ftudy to be minutely accurate ; that he makes use of round or decimal numbers much more frequently than they naturally occur in the common courie of events; that many of the chapters or feétions are a kind of parentheses, or episodes; and that an exact chronological order is co: at all aimed at.' One example out of many the Author nas mentioned in a note, vid. Gen. 35. where Benjamin is reckoned among the fons born to Jacob in Padan-aram, though it appears in the very fame chapter that he was born near Bethlehem in Canaan..

Upon the whole, the settling disputed points in antient chronology is a subject so dry and unentertaining, that few of our Readers would thank us for giving a more particular account of this dissertation; which is however a tensible and judicious performance, We therefore refer those, who are cefirous of a farther acquaintance with Mr. Skinner's treatise, to the tract itself; whereia che Author has delivered his opi. nions with proper modesty, and expressed his sentiments with concifenels and perspicuity.


Art. 39. Gummatical Observations on the English Language, drawn 2. up potlarly with a view to Pratiice. By the Rev. Mir. Meming. 12mo. 2 s. bound. Robson.

We are told, by the Rev. Mr. Fleming, that one reason perhaps why, in the general method of education, so little attention is paid to the English language, is the want of a proper Introduction to it; a book so accommodated, both in size and substance, to the ordinary business of instruction, as not to give too much trouble to the teacher, or to the youth under his care.' We do not pretend, indeed, for our parts, to judge how little trouble in the ordinary business of instruction the teacher may chuse to take himself, or how much he may lay upon his pupil; but we own that we thought Dr. Lowth's little tract extremely well calculated both for the one and the other. But fuppofing that the pub. lic demand may fufficiently encourage the labours of different writers, equally well calculated for the general good, we cannot bestow any great commendations on those of Mr. Fleming; who is, in our opinion, much too indifferent å grammarian himself to take upon him to instruct others. This Author, indeed, hath many good observations in common with other writers on the same subject ; but yet he is frequently mife taken, either in the implicit adoption of the mistakes of preceding gram. marians, or misapprehensions of his own. - To mention only one or two instances, in his directions concerning the use of participles.• Participles, says Mr. Fleming, are used as adjectives to fubstantives.' Among other examples of this, he quotes the following;

The swallow twittering from ibe.straw-built Shed

-He fmiled to see the philosopher thus employed. Now both these examples are false ; the active participle in the first line, and the passive one in the fecond, being not here used as adjectives; but retaining in both their verbal quality as participles.

Again, in the exemplification of the use of participles as fubftantives to adjectives, he brings the following instances ;

I see no reason for your being afilicted.. Here being afflixed is supposed to be a noun fubftantive. Mr. Fleming however thould have obferved that the particles a or the, before parti ciples thus used, are absolutely necessary to entitle them to the denomi. nation of substantives.


ving instances ;

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S E R M O N S. . . . I. A Strong Tower ; or the Saint's Refuge. -Occasioned by the Death of the Rey. Mr. Daniel Whitewood, of Portsmouth Common, who departed this Life the 26th of August, 1765. Preached on the Common, Portsmouth. By Samuel Meadows, Keith, &c.

2. On the Death of his late R. H. William D. of Cumberland. By F. Webb. Kearsly.

3. On the fame Subject, at St. Thomas's, Southwark, and at the Evening Lecture in Hanover-Street, Long-Acre. By C. Corbyn. Young,

4. On

4. On the same Subject, by Benjamin Wallin. Buckland.

5. Reflections on the Death of a Prince and a great Man.-At Taunton, Nov. 10. on the Death of his R. H. the D. of C. By Joshua Toulmin. Young.

6. At St. Andrew's, Holbourn, April 18th 1765, on the Anniversary Meeting of the Governors of the Small-pox Hospital, By Richard Eyre, D. D. Rector of Brightwalton, . Berks. Woodfall.

7. Before his Excellency Francis Bernard, Esq; Governor, the Hon. his Majesty's Council, and the Hon. House of Representatives of the Province of Massachuset's-bay in NewEngland, May 29, 1765, being the Anniversary for the Election of his Majesty's Council for the Province. By Andrew Eliot, A. M. Pastor of a Church in Boston. London re-printed, by Meres.

* Contains a very sensible view of the duties and qualifications of rulers, on the one part, and, on the other, of the people's duty to their governors.-If we may form a judgment of the preacher from his discouise, he is doubtless a good Christian, a worthy pastor, and a true patriot. ·

8. De Artibus et Doctrinis, quibus Theologia Studiosos erudiri oportet. - Coricio ad Clerum habita Cantabrigiæ in Ecclef. S. Maria

Prid. Term. port Fef. S. Michael. 1765. Beecroft. · We recommend the perusal of this short, but judicious dif course, to those students of divinity, if any such there are, who think that a very moderate share of knowledge and learning is sufficient to enable them to discharge the pastoral office with credit and usefulness.


THE obliging letter from Dr. Luzac, .of Leyden, came re.

· gularly to hand. The Doctor is by no means, however, obliged to the partiality of the Reviewer ; who was neither deceived in the design or execution of his ingenious performance ; but took that opportunity of mentioning a book, which he thinks has been much less attended to, than it deserves. As to the * other pieces mentioned by this Correspondent, they are, or shall - be, taken due notice of in our Appendix. .

*** The Author of the Paper signed PHILALETHES, containing REMARKS on Mr. De VOLTAIRE, is referred to The Universal Museum ; or, Complete Magazine ; to which work we recommended the said Remarks,

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