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they do not adopt a set çf tenets, got and repeated by rote; but judge for theinselves, each from his own share of information and capacity; it is no wonder therefore that philosophers differ in opinion, and yet do they differ half so much as parties in po-, litics, or sectaries in religion? It is a prostiiution of the name of philosopher, and injurious to philosophy itself, to bestow that title upon every fuperficial smarterer, who affects to despise the wisdom of his ancestors before he hath acquired any of his own. Father Gerdil and Mr. Rousseau are in in this respect, however, on an equal footing; they both pretend to hold philosophy cheap, because they are nei:her of them philofophers. As to their pretensions to religion also, we think them pretty equally. matched ; at least it might puzzle a faint to determine which is the better Christian of the two, or indeed what to make of the Christianity either of the layman or the priest. On the whole, with regard to the work itself, we look upon it as a plausible and dangerous performance ; artfully calculated, under the pretence of controverting irreligious and immoral tenets, to spread abroad those of ecclefiaftical tyranny and arbitrary power; from the dreadful effects of which may heaven long preserve us and our pofterity!
Advice to the People in general, with regard to their Health: But
more particularly calculated for those, whó, by their Dilance from regular Physicians, or other very experienced Practitioners, are the most unlikely to be seasonably provided with the best Advice and Alliance, in acute Diseases, or upon any sudden inward or outward Accident. With a Table of the most cheap, yet effectual Rea medics, and the plainest Directions for preparing them readily. Translated from the French Edition of Dr. Tissot's Avis au Peuple, &c. printed at Lyons; with all his own Notes ; a few of his Medical Editor's at Lyons; and several occafional Notes, adapted to this English Translation, by J. Kirkpatrick, M. D. 8vo. 6s. Becket and de Hondt.
He exercise of a well-directed benevolence is attended 1 with pleasures the most pure and exquisite. Pleasures, indeed, which are only to be felt by the good and benevolent heart.-Dr. Tiflot seems to be one of those worthy members of the faculty who deem it the duty of a physician, to labour for the pieservation of Mankind : and we doubt not has often experienced the satisfaction and joy which naturally spring, from relieving the distresses or contributing to the well-being of his fellow-creatures. Sufficiently acquainted with the mclancholy
full an havoclefs the good policyhich may increate
effects of the pernicious treatment of diseases in difant villages and remote country-places; and affected with the deepest concern for the unhappy situation of the poor, in those parts of Swisserland, where many are lost, not only from a scarcity of good assistance, but also from a fatal fuperfluity of the worlt; Ďr. Tissot was induced to draw up this treatise for their comfort and relief; and thus to prevent, as far as in his power, fo dreadfull an havoc of the laborious and useful.part of mankind.
It is doubtless the good policy of every ttate, to be particularly attentive to all those means, which may increase the number; and best secure the health, industry, and virtue of the people at large.--The decrease of the nuinber of inhabitants, in most of the states of Europe, is a fa&, but too well established on the plainest calculations. This decrease, which is most remarkable in country-places, is to be attributed to a variety of causes; one of the greateft of which is the improper and prejudicial manner of treating diseases : to remedy which evil, Dr. Tissot has pub, lished this useful work.- A work caculated for the perusal of intelligent and charitable persons who live in the country, and who frequently have it in their power to aslist their poor and les, knowing neighbours both with medicines and advice. Our Author is so far from supposing that his directions should supply the place of a physician, that he says they are only to be used where such assistance cannot immediately be procured ; and the moment a physician arrives they ought to be laid aside.-Agree, able to this plan, Dr. Tissot has chiefly treated of acute, and inflammatory diseases, and such accidents as require the most expeditious relief.—But before he enters upon his subject, he points out in the introduction, the other concurring causes of depopulation: which may all, he says, be included in these two general affirmations ;-' that grcater numbers than usual emigrate from the country; and that the people increase less every where.' :
The Causes of Depopulation. 1. Emigration.-Military service, whether by sea or land; may be considered as one kind of emigration. The long train of evils, which necessarily attend these services, make a great disproportion between the numbers which go abroad and those which return.-Those who return, have suffered much through age, infirmities, or debauches; and they have been ablent too from their country during that period of life, which is best fitted for population. But another more serious species of emigration, is expatriation, which includes all those who abandon their country, to seck their fortunes abroad.-" This eyil, says Dr.
Tiffor, is unhappily become epidemical, is attended with many and peculiar disadvantages, and its ravages are still increasing.'.*
. 2. Luxury.-Great numbers not only desert their country, but those who remain multiply less than an equal number formerly did.-Luxury, by unboundedly increasing the expences of a'family, is a dreadful bar to matrimony.-Luxury also, with its too often attendant vices, idleness and debauchery, impairs the health and ruins the constitution. From these two causes, the fear of a numerous family, and the infirmities of a premature old age, it is, says Dr. Tissot, that the preceding generation counted some families with more than twenty children: the living one less than twenty cousins.'- Another inconvenience of luxury is, that the rich quit the country to live in great cities :
this is attended with many ill consequences to themselves and their multiplied domeftics. The country is deserted, and popu. lation greatly prevented by the numerous train of evils, which necessarily arise from the laziness and libertinism of a city life.Happy would it be for our mother-country, were these observations less applicable to her!
3. The decay or neglect of agriculture. This cause, says our Author, has, to this very moment, prevented the increase of the people in France. Agriculture increases subsistence, and there is a reciprocal and necessary relation between sublistence and population. « An old Roman, says the Marquis of Mirabeau, who was always ready to return to the cultivation of his field, subfifted himself and his family from one acre of land. A lavage, who neither sows nor cultivates, consumes, in his single person, as much game as requires fifty acres to feed them. Consequently Tullus Hoftilius, on a thousand acres, might have five thousand subjects: while a savage chief, limited to the same extent of territory, could scarcely have twenty: such an immense disproportion does agriculture furnish, in favour of population. Observe these two great extremes. A state becomes dispeopled or peopled in that proportion, by which it recedes from one of these methods, and approaches to the other.”Agriculture may be considered as almoft equal to the production of every advantage. · From this, arises a plenty of commodities, the superfluity of which will be carried to other countries; hence trade, commerce, and the various arts and manufactures which are necessarily connected with them.- Abilities and genius are exerted, and ought to be encouraged.--Many soon excel in arts, sciences and professions.- And from these sources a nation becomes rich, happy, and respectable. .
4. • The manner of treating fick people in the country.'--I have been a witness, that maladies, which, in themselves, would have been gentle, have proved mortal from a pernicious treatment: and I am convinced, that this cause alone makes as great a havoc as the former. This afflicting confideration has determined me to publish this little work.' In the remaining part of
the the introduction Dr. Tissot more fully marks out the nature of his undertaking, mentions the persons for whose perusal it was chiefly intended, and explains a few terms which were unavoidable. —He then proceeds to the work itself, and begins with enumerating
The most usual Causes of popular Maladies, 1. Excellive labour.-Soinetimes the labourer at once finks down into an irrecoverable state of faintness and exhaustion : He is more frequently however attacked with some acute, inflammatory disease. This cause is still more diftreiling, if there is joined with it, that kind of exhaustion which is the consequence of real poverty.
2. Country people when over-heated with hard labour or ex. ercise, very often suffer from imprudently lying down and repofing in some cold place. This is the source of many violent, - acute, and dangerous diseases.
3. An indulgence in drinking cold water when a person is extremely hot. This cause acts in the same manner with the preceding, and produces similar bad effects : its consequences however are more sudden and violent; hence quinfeys, cholics, inflammations of the breast, liver, or intestines ; prodigious swellings, suppressions of urine, and inexpressible anguish. • Astonishing it is, says Dr. Tissot, that labouring people thould babituate themselves to this pernicious custom, which they know to be so very dangerous to their very beasts.'
4. The inconstançy of the weather. This is most prejudicial in those climates where there are frequent and sudden transitions from heat 10 cold : thele changes are sometimes attended with heavy fhowers of rain, and even cold rain, in the middle of a very hot day : this must be particularly hurtful to the labourer, who is exposed in the open fields; and who from being barhed in a hot sweat, is at once plunged as it were into cold water.
5. The construction of the houses and cottages; many of which either lean close to an higher ground, or are sunk a little in the earth : thus the inhabitants are unavoidably exposed to cold and noxious damps.
6. The custom in many yillages and country places, of have ing dunghills, ditches with stagnated putrid waters, and other offensive matters, either before their doors or directly under their windows. - The pealants who are accustomed to these smells, become in a great measure insensible of them, but the cause is nevertheless unwholesomly active.-" To this cause, says our Author, may also be added, the neglect of the peasants to air their lodgings.' They are frequently small, close, crouded, dirty, and rarely sweetened with the admission of the external air: from such a cause proceed the most perplexing and malig
Rey. July, 1765,
nant fevers, and which would more frequently attack the inhabitants, did not their employments necessarily call them out into the fresh and open day.
7. Drunkenness. This cause is but too universally active and destructive: many it cuts off even in the vigour of life by a violent and premature death ; others link down into infirmities and old age, long before the time of their natural approach.
8. The provisions of the common people. Damaged corn, ill made bread, and other unwholesome and indigestible aliments. • The abuse of allum, says the English Translator, and other pernicious materials introduced by our Bakers, may too justly be considered as one horrible source of the diteases of children.' Hence obstructions in the bowels and other viscera, feebleness, Now fevers, hectics, rickets, and other lingering and fatal dircases.--Dr. Tiffot concludes this enumeration of the most usual causes of popular maladies, with observations on the drinks of the country people in Switzerland ; which the Translator judiciously accommodates to our own climate.
Chap. II. treats of the causes which aggravate the diseases of the people. Diseases which in themselves are dangerous, are ren. dered ftill more so, and very ofien prove mortal, through a wrong and mistaken management. 1 here is a most fatal prejudice among the common people, that all distempers are to be cured by sweat. This they endeavour to bring on by methods the moft hurtful. A close stilling apartment, a load of covering, wine, saffron, venice treacle, hot sudorifics, and other prejudicial means are used, which alone are sufficient to excite a most ardent fever. Thus for a day or two the patient diffolves away in profuse sweats, and an untimely discharge of the thinner part of the blood, leaves the mass more dry, more viscid, more infamed. Thele sweats so extremely hurtful soon terminate, and cannot easily be raised again ; the dose however is doubled, the inflammation is increased, and the patient expires in terrible anguish : the simple attendants still ascribing his death to the want of sweating. This method of treating acute, inflammatory diseases, as certainly kills the patient, says Dr. Tissot, as if a ball had been shot through his brains.'
Diseases are also much aggravated by the quantity and quality of food with which the patient is too often very imprudently stuffed. • From the first attack of a fever, digestion ceases.' Whatever solid or rich food therefore is taken in, it corrupts, proves a source of putridity, and adds nothing to the strength of the patient, but greatly to that of the disease. The poor patients who are compelled to swallow down good broth, soups, eggs, or even flesh, foon fall into anxiety and ravings, their strength is diminished, and the fever heightened. Dr. Tiltot concludes with cautioning against the common, but some