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to be true; assuring us that courtezans are so far from being authorized at Rome, they are not permitted to reside within the walls. “ On the contrary, says he, the magiftracy are no sooner informed of a young woman's living an irregular and licentious life, than she is either banished the city, or committed to a house of correction. This rule is strictly obseryed; I myself having been witness of the application of the magistrate to a foreign Minister, for permislion to apprehend a number of loose women, who had taken refuge within the districts of his palace, in order to follow their infamous profesfion with impunity.” Not, says Mr. Richard, that the Romans are more strict in their morals than the inhabitants of the other cities of Italy ; but, as before observed, more solicitous to preserve external appearances.

“ This people are in general extremely impetuous in their passions ; jealousy or restraint working them up to the most ex • travagant excess. It is even common for those of the lower rank, to stab one another in the streets with the most determine ed resolution. He that strikes first is usually the conqueror; and, if he be not himself wounded, walks off with great ferenity, while the spectators take the other to some hospital. These barbarous scenes are so frequent we are told in Rome, that no less than twenty of these bloody rencounters happened between December 1761, and May 1762. I myself palling, * during this interval of time, near the Rotondo, heard twu peasants at high words with each other, and in a moment saw one of them allaflinated. A prodigious number of people were gathered round ; but they seemed to take little notice of the matter; the aflasin marching off unmolested *.”

Our Author goes on to relate several other facts and circumstances, serving to prove the fanguinary and barbarous difpolitions of these people ; and that even of the fair scx, and thole of the first rank. · Notwithstanding all which, we are told that there is no city

in the world where foreigners live at greater ease and securiiy .than in Rome. The natives have a kind of respect for strangers, founded on the noiion of their superior strength; and

* As our Author speaks so positively of the iteration of these alar. finations, we do not refuse him credit; otherwise such an acc dent as is here related might have happened, without our inferring such arros cious actions to pass off in general with impunity. Veeren remember ourselves to have seen not many years ago, a man flabbed by another, at noon day, before the East India house at Amilercam, in the prelerce of hundreds of people; when the aft:fin was fuseres to put up his knife, and walk off in like manner unmole łıd. This did not hi der the officers o joftice however, from making proper karcher him, and bringing him to conlign punishmentos

their fear of its effects. Add to this, that the Government interefts itfelf greatly in behalf of foreigners, and punifacs any insult on them, much more severely than if committed on a Roman.

On the whole, our Author's account of the modern Romans is a very disadvantageous one ; as well with regard to the moral as the physical character of that people; they being represented as no less detestable on account of their infincerity and cruelty, than contemptible for their indolence, cowardice and vanity.

Of the character and manners of the Neapolitans, Mr. Richard gives the following account. « The prefent nobility of Naples feem to entertain but little of that fpirit of revolt and independence, which fo greatly distinguished their ancestors, and of which we have even had some instances within the prefent century. Their manners are less rigid, and their converfation more eafy and polite. There is little gallantry, however, praaised in high-life at Naples. The regularity of manhers, which hath prevailed at count, for near twenty years paft, having given a great check to the former dissoluteness of the Neapolitan nobility; or at least, laying them under the neceffity

of keeping their intrigues of this kind very fecret. Their af. . femblies are numerous and brilliant ; they play high and are

permitted to indulge themfelves in all kinds of games whether of skill or chance."

Of the cirizens, or second rank of people at Naples, our Author speaks with refpect : of the Neapolitans in general, however, he seems to despair of giving the Reader an adequate · idea. " This nation, says he, is fo much at variance with itself, that it is hardly to be conceived how it could ever afford the fhadow of such a revolution, as was effected by the famous Maffienello. The common people, indeed, are perpetually employed in calumniating and reviling each other ; carrying their brutality so far as to brand one another with the moft odious vices ; and piquing themselves highly on their talents for abuse. It is with tome reason, therefore, they have been long considered as one of the moft barbarous and miferable nations of Europe. Disingenuous to the last degree, there is no trufting them in any transaction of commerce or otherwise : and yet, for the sake of money, and to indulge their natural idleness, they will descend to the most infamous species of traffic. It is by no means rare, to see a Neapolitan father make a practice of selling the honour of his daughters, or for a husband to live by the prostitution of his wife. Add to this, that the Neapolitans are flothful and slovenly to a proverb; which is so much the more to be regretted, as their persons are, for the most part, tall and well made : so that, if decently attired, they would make a fine figure; at leaft those of them who are

ed, as their, if decentem who mot

not maimed and mutilated by the shameful effects of their infamous debaucheries. But this is the case with so many of them, that it is no wonder it gave rise to the vulgar saying, current over Europe; Naples is a paradise, inhabited by devils." · After giving them this appellation, our Abbé proceeds to a description of their religious deportment; which, it must be owned, is gross and indeed diabolical enough.

* There is little, in the external appearance of religion at Naples, consistent with a sacred solemnity; especially in the behaviour of the multitude that attend on divine worship. The vulgarity, which is common to their other actions, accompanies them to the sanctuary; where they come, for a quarter of an bour, on Sundays and Festivals, to hear Mass; and behave in the most indecent and irreligious manner imaginable. Not having the least idea of devotion, they rush tumultuously into the church; placing themselves on the first bench they see empty, or standing up together in companies, talking about indifferent affairs. At their entrance, indeed, they give a formal nod to the altar, or kiss their hand to the image of the Saint, wbese festival is celebrated : after which, I observed that both high and low usually kept their seat; never troubling themselves with what passed, till the elevation of the host called upon them again for another nod. Nay I have seen rude fellows turn into ridicule, and laugh at, ftrangers who knelt down devoutly during the celebration of Mafs*. Not that even the grofleft of these people are without their favourite Saints and private practices of devotion ; to which they are at, tached even to a degree of fanaticism bordering on brutality. I remember in particular seeing a furious old woman, in the Church of St. Thomas Aquinas, swearing and cursing at a Madona, placed in one of the niches, for having disappointed her on some interesting occasion, by not hearing her prayers, or refusing to comply with them. It was well for the poor Madona (which by the way was a fine image) that lhe was secured by an iron grating; or the old virago would have certainly demolished her.” . $ The great object of popular devotion at Naples is the li quefaction of the blood of St. Januarius, their patron. This is effected twice a year, in the Months of May and September. The time, even to the very hour, being known, in which this miracle is to be exhibited ; an innumerable multitude assemble about the chapel of the Saint, or to the place where the pro

• Such is the influence of custom, and the natural disposition of a people! We have seen, in like manner, a parcel of Dutch boors infult. a ftranger, who thought decency required him to fit without his hat, while their D:mine was preaching. Mm 4


celion is to display the folemnity. Here they begin to invoke the Saint, with confused exclamations and extravagant gestures; beating their breasts, and crying out, by thousands, for him to work the miracle : which if he does not effect immediately, they repeat their exclamations in the most obstreperous tones of impatience and resentment; calling out on all sides San Genaro fa dunq!!e presio : that is to say, frithee make hafte, Saint Jamuary. If after this, the miracle should unluckily be delayed, and any foreigner happen to be in the crowd, whose figure should displease the populace, it is ten to one but they take him for an Heretic, whole presence interrupts the operation of the miracle. In which case, he is certain to be pulled to pieces;' though perhaps he may happen to be all the while a good Catholic: so, at least, it happened lately to a principal domestic of a foreign ambassador ; who was even on his knees in the middle of the street, on this occafion : but, because he was thought to have rather a look of curiosity than expectation, and withal did not cry out San Genaro fa presto, he was remarked; and in a minute received a stab from almost every one, that could reach him with a stiletto. After the outrage was committed, indced, and the miracle over, some people expressed a lit:le regret; especially on finding a chaplet in the pocket of the deceased; by which they were very sure he was a good Catholic*.”

A fimilar. fatality, we are told, had like to have befallen an acquaintance of our Author; who, being a missionary of the · French congregation, was suspected by his dress to be a priest

of the Oratory, and consequently a Jansenist. This gentleman, however, we may suppose to have been too deep in the secret of the miracle, to risk his life in seeing it accomplished; he therefore prudentially and timely withdrew. · Of the Venetians, our traveller gives a more respectable idea than in general hath been entertained of that people ; the voluptuousness of whose manners hath been thought to counterballance the wisdom of their government and constitution. He observes, in particular, that the young nobility, and other persons of fortune, do not so faniiliarly consort with the courte

* This circumstance puts our Author in mind of the situation, in which the celebrated Leiboiiz Orce found himself in a little voyage on the Adriatic. Being on board a small ship, bound fioin Venice to Ancona ; and meeting with a violen: form, he over heard the seamen, who trok hins for an Heretic, consulting whether they hould not throw him overboard, to appease the tempest: upon which he pulled out a chaplet and cruciax (very necessary implements for a Protestant travelling in Catholic countries) and began to tell his beads very devoutly. This was fuficient; the mariners were convinced he was rio Jonas, and plied ibeir fails til they arrived safe at their destined haven.

zans as formerly; the latter being fallen into much greater contempt than that in which they were used to be held. On the other hand, the ladies of rank receive and pay visits, as in France, England and elsewhere; holding assemblies, to which the gentlemen are freely admitted; so that the jealousy and reserve, formerly sublisting between the virtuous part of both fexes, are in a great degree removed. In consequence of this reformation, we are told the ladies are more happy and the gentlemen more polite ; neither of them running the temptation and risk, they used to lie under, either from gaming or gallantry. Not, says our Author, that the profession of a courtezan is prohibited at Venice as it is at Rome; they are still under the protection of the government, who will not permit them to be cheated or insulted. Nay they are not yet become even infamous ; persons of all ranks and conditions, going openly to their miserable retreats, and enquiring their way to thein with the same unconcern as they would ask their way to a church *. • Of the manners of the Ficrentines, M. Richard gives an agreeable delcription ; although he does not represent their general character as very respectable. He observes, in particular, the prepofieition they entertain, particularly the ladies, for the English nation; inany individuals of which, he says, are tempted to purchase houses and reside there for a considerable time; chiefly induced by motives of personal attachment. . Of the Milanes, our Author gives a very favourable account, and also of the Genoefe; under which latter article he takes occasion to speak of the origin of that strange office and character of a Cicib 0; which is so well known in Italy, and for which the Italians have been so often rallied by the other nations of Europe. · An Italian Cicisbeo, according to our Author, owes his existence to the same principle as that of the Spanish Duenna, viz. the jealousy of the husband. It was formerly the custom, he says, for the bridegroom to make choice of some discreet and intimate friend; in whom he confided, as the incorruptible guardian of conjugal fidelity. It is natural to suppose these guardians to have been generally pretty far advanced in years, and not of the most promising figure and accomplishments ; unless indeed we are to conceive the rie of honour, in the primitive Cicisbeos, so great, as to defeat the influence of personal charms, aflifted both by time and oppor

. Of the Venetian carnivals, whose diversion hath been so mightily enhanced by fone Writers, the Abbé Richard gives an account, by no means calculated to excite the curiosity of those, who have been used to the more fprightly and amusing enieriainments of some other coun• ' ties.


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