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tunity. But, as every thing, lays our Author, however well intended, degenerates into abuse, circumstances are now estirely altered, and it is as requisite to have the cicisbeo as agreeable to the wife as to the husband. The choice of this very friendly domeftic, is now become a family affair, and is fettled with the marriage-articles : for when he is once chosen, he is seldom or ever changed; so that a lady is greatly to be pitied, whose çiçilbeo happens to prove difagreeable to her. At Lucca, we are told, their office is in higher esteem, than ja any other part of Italy: it being common to find some of then, who have served their respective mistresses for forty or fifty years together; and, who seem externally as affiduous to oblige them as the youngest of their profession. Their custom is to attend the lady, wherever she goes, to afist at her toilette, and to follow her even to confession, where his office is to hold her fan, her gloves, her prayer-book, and her lap-dog. (In treating of the fate of Sciences and the polite arts, that of music and the Italian theatre naturally takes up a confiderable fhare of the Writer's attention. It is at Venice, he says, that music is carried to the highest degree of perfection; particularly with regard to the execution both vocal and instrumental, At the time be happened to be there, indeed, the actors at all the opera-houses were but indifferent. This does not prevent his giving the superiority to their theatrical entertainments above thole of Rome. In the theatres of the latter, he obferves that, women are never permitted to come on the ftage, either as singers or dancers: the female characters in their operas being represented by eunuchs ; who, though many of them have angelic voices, are fo aukward in their carriage and gefture, that, to be able to hear them with any pleasure, one ought always to fhut ones eyes. At Naples, he remarks that the opera is extremely superb, that they have the fineft voices and the finest music; he intimates, however, that it is conducted with greater magnificence thao taste. :

As to the arts of sculpture, painting and cngraving, our tra, yeller Thews no want of talte or attention to such of these subjects as he takes an opportunity to mention. The fame may be said with regard to literature and Intiquities; but these are tno numerous for us to dwell on. We shall select, therefore, only one or two short specimens of his critical abilities this way. Every body hath seen, or heard of, the famous picture of the Roman Charity; in which is represented an old man, lucking at the breast of his daughter, through the grates of a prison. Mr. Richard observes, that, in the real history, it was a woman who was so relieved by her daughter. The keeper of the prison, fays Valerius Maximus, being greatly affected with compassion, at the situation of an ancient woman,

pican, fucking and Richard Wo relieved maximus, bankeat womento

· who was condemned by the pretor to be strangled, delayed the

purting his orders into execution, and even admitted her daugh. ter to come and see her ; taking care, however, that the latter brought her no food or apparent nourilhment. But, finding, to his great altonishment, that the old woman still survived, his curiosity tempted him to see what passed between them; when he saw, with much greater astonishment, the daughter nourilhing her mother with her own milk: a circumstance which, being related to the triumvir and pretor, the old woman's pardon was granted her, in consideration of this remarkable instance of natural affection in her daughter*' The painters, however, must not be censured, says our Abbé for having falsified history, in delineating a man instead of a woman ; because it is very posfible they only copied the Greek painters, who had before transmitted to posterity a fact of a similar kind. One Cimon, an Athenian, being far advanced in years, and condemned to be ftarved to death in prison ; his daughter, who was permitted only-td see him through the grate of his dungeon, made use of the same expedient to thew her affection and preserve ber father's life t. There is reason, therefore, to think the original picture founded on the Greek story rather than on the Roman

After giving a description of the tombs of Sannazarius I and Virgil, our Abbé observes, that the name of the latter is still held in great veneration even by the populace ; some of whom look upon him to have been a saint, and others a great magician. They pretend that he opened the way from Naples to Puzzoli, by virtue of his magical incantations; and that he constructed, by the same means, the brazen horse, which formerly stood in the square of St. Januarius ; and to which they tell us he communicated the virtue of curing the diseases of all such horses as fhould walk round it, or pass under its thadow. I was some time before I could discover any reasonable conjectures for the grounds of these traditions ; except what may be deduced from the Georgics ; where the poet displays a degree of skill in agriculture, the management of cattle, and other husbandry-affairs :

Quo non penetrat aut quid non excogitat pietas. Quid iam in audio tum quam matrem natre uberibus alitam. Putaret aliquis hoc contra rerum naturam fa&um, nifi diligere parentes prima naturæ lex flet. Val. Max. L. v. c. iv,

+ Hereno oc ftupent kominum oculi, cum hujus fafli pillam imaginem videret, cofusque antiqui conditionem, præfentis Spectaculi admiratione renowant. Id. ibid.

I As a proof of the ignorance and superstition prevailing among the common people of this country, this writer observes, that it has been thought necessary, in order to prevent the demolition of the two fine figures of Apollo and Minerva doce on each side this tomb, to write po their pedestals David and Judith :

but

but turning over the life of Virgil, prefixed to a translation of

the Ænead into Italian verse by Hannibal Caro, I found it there · related that Virgil studied physic and the mathematics at Naples; and that, on his arrival at Rome, he had cured a number of fick horses in the ftables of Augustus: with several additional stories relative to his wonderful skill in curing horses and other animals. It is certainly an imperfect idea, of what is here intimated, that gave rise to the above-mentioned notions about the secret virtue instilled by Virgil into the brazen horse.

In regard to the nature of the several governments, subsisting in different parts of Italy, our Author is by no means so accurate and particular, as might be expected from a writer who so freely censures others for the like defects. As to the articles of physics and natural history, he is also less fortunate in his observations and conjectures, than he appears on other topics. But we have already extended this article to a sufficient length.

K.

Synopsis univerfa praxeos-medicæ, in binas partes divisa, quarum

prior contračtım omnium morborum, tum internorum, tum externorum conspectum exhibet ; altera vero rem medicamentariam, perpetuis commentariis illuftratam, fillit : Auctore Josepho Lieutaud, primario sirpis regiae medico, imperante diletrifimo Ludovico XV. 2. Vol. 400. Amstelodami, de Tournes.

A Synopsis of the Practice of Physic in general, in two parts ;

the first containing a succinct View of all Diseases, both internal and external ; the second, a materia medica, with comments, &c.

A S various as have been the opinions of mankind in every A other instance, so likewise have the medical writers in all ages differed widely from each other in their sentiments, as to the most eligible method of arranging diseases. Nothing can be more unquestionable, than that System, in every science, cortributes infinitely towards impressing distinct ideas on the mind; and that system is certainly the beít, whose several parts are most obviously distinguished. "

The mode of arrangement which is least systematical, is that of Mangetus in his Polialthæa, Dr. James in' his Medical Dic'tionary, &c. namely the alphabetical. This inethod is undoubtedly very exceptionable, because it presupposes in the ftudent a knowledge of the names of diseases, which, upon

observing

4

.

observing a certain concourse of sympoms, is perhaps the only thing of which he wants to be informed.

Aretæus, Coelius Aurelianus and others, divided diseases according to their time of duration, viz. into acute and chronic. This method alfo is by no means satisfactory; for nature has , fixed no positive limits between one and the other; nor does it afford us any marks of distinction in the first stage of dife' eases, the difference consisting only in the time of duration : now majus et minus non mutet speciem.

Monsieur Sauvages, in his Nofologia Methodica, from the example of modern botanists, has divided diseases into classes, orders, genera and species, characterizing each, not from their. causes, but from their most obvious symptoms. This we think the most eligible method, though the author, from the great difficulty of the undertaking, may not have been able to bring it to that degree of perfection which might be wished.

The author before us has thought fit to adapt the anato. mical method of Sennertus, and Jonstonus in his Idea univerfalis medicinæ. His first and grand division is into internal difeales, external diseases, and diseases of women and children. The first he subdivides into general diseases, and those whose feat. is uncertain ; internal diseales of the head ; internal diseases of the breast; internal diseales of the abdomen. The second, into general diseases ; external diseases of the head ; diseases of the trunk and limbs ; diseases of the skin. The third into diseases of virgins and married women ; diseases of children.

The objections to this mode of division are urged by Monsieur Sauvages, in the Prolegomena to his Nofologia, with equal energy and perspicuity : to him therefore we refer our read-, ers, and halten to consider the merit of our author, exclusive of his plan.

The book opens with an account of fevers in general, as necessarily preceeding that of each particular species. Our translation of the following paragraph, from this first section, will be sufficient to give an idea of Monsieur Lieutaud's opinion of this matter. Having declared his dilike to theory and conjecture, • I Mall now, (says he,) proceed candidly and without circumlocution, to deliver what thirty years experience hath enabled me to collect upon this subject. And to begin with the most familiar, I must declare, that after afsiduously attending the fick both day and night, I never observed more than four species of essential continued fevers; viz. I. Simple continued, or that which remains uniformly the same, without exacerbation, which definition however is not to be received in too limited a sense : its duration rarely exceeds fourteen days, unless disturbed by improper treatment. II. Putrid continued, which is diftinguided by remarkable exacerbations

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and violent symptoms, and which seems to proceed from a more bid affection of the blood and juices, tending towards putrefaction: hence it is, that this fpecies seldom terminates but in consequence of some notable evacuation, by which the blood and juices are freed from the offending cause, which spontaneous or critical evacuation is its peculiar characteristic. III. The ardent, diftinguished by intense thirst and internal heat. IV. Malignant, whose violent symptoms seem to arise from the brain and nerves being injured, by which circumstance alone it is sufficiently distinguished. This laft species is of longest continuance, generally epidemic, contagious or pestiJential.'

. If experience had sufficiently evinced the poffibility of curing all fevers by one specific medicine, these distinctions might jaftly be deemed useless ; but since those who have been most conversant with these disorders are convinced that, in this single genus of continued fevers, the different species require very different treatment; to distinguish them properly from each other, is certainly of great importance. For this reafon we shall take the liberty to enquire into the propriety of our author's system. . His first species, namely, simple continued, is the finochus imputris of Galen, the synochus fimplex of Riverius, the continens non putrida of Lommius, the febris inflammatoria of the moderns. The second species, namely, putrid continued is the fnochus of Sauvages, the febris continua putrida of Boerhaave. According to our author, the peculiar characteristic of this fever, is its termination by some critical evacuation, which every tyro in the medical art knows to be by no means peculiar to any one fpecies of continued fever. As to his third species, which he chuses to call ardent, it appears, from his particular defcription of this malady, to be in fact the bilious or remitting fever of other writers. (See Dr. Pringle's diseases of the army, p. 175.) With regard to his fourth species, namely, malignant, we greatly disapprove his making the supposed proximate cause of the disease, its distinguishing characteristic ; nothing being more unsystematical, or fallacious, than to diftinguish diseases any otherwise than by their obvious fymptoms. By this species of fever, the author means that which Dr. Pringle hath so accurately described under the title of the jail or hospital fever, and which may not improperly be considered as a species of the plague. It is the typhus carcerum of Sauvages. Our author, in his chapter upon this species, enumerates its symptoms minutely, in which, in general, he differs little from other authors : but in regard to its duration, he says, “I assert that the malignant fever never terminates before the twenty-first day; and that in general it is con

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