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a man by those exterior signs, which his moral conduct fo palpably contradicted. Who could maliciously suspect the secret principle of that toleration to which he pretended? For my part, I detest that cruel fubtilty which thus fullies the good actions of men; nor can I even entertain an idea of deducing such actions from evil motives. Hence the greater disguft I felt for Mr. de Montmollin, the more I endeavoured to conquer it, by reflecting on the obligations he had conferred
At length this pastor hath thrown off the mask, and displays himself to be what he is; his former conduct being explained by his present behaviour. Nothing can be more evident than that the pretended toleration, which he gave up at a time when it was the most justifiable, arose from the same fource as the cruel zeal which he fo suddenly assumed or affected. What could be his motive then, or what it is now, I know not, but certainly it cannot be a good one. with the greatest honour he admitted and even pressed, my partaking of the Holy Communion ; on every occafion soliciting my company, applauding, and appearing particularly pleased when I dropped any thing in conversation that seemed to be levelled at Christianity. And yet no sooner did I undertake to prove that I never really attacked Christianity, or at least that I had never such a design, than he himself immediately attacks me with the utmost violence ; endeavours to excommunicate me, to proscribe me, inflames his parish against me, and pursues me with a degree of virulence bordering on madness. Can such inconsistent behaviour be consistent with his duty ? No. Charity is not inconstant ; virtue never contradicts itself; and there is no duplicity in the dictates of conscience. After having Thewn himself thus intolerant, it was too late for him to reassume the garb of toleration ; the affectation was too gross, and as it was impossible for it to pass on the world, he has done well to appear again in his natural form and dispofition. In deftroying his own work, and doing me more harm than he ever did me good, he hath effectually obliterated all obligation: all I owe him at present, is veracity; this I also owe to myself; and, since he hath forced me to speak, I certainly shall speak the truth.
You desire, Sir, to know the real circumstances of this affair, Mr. de M. has published a narration quite in character, as an ecclefiaftic, artful enough to take all the advantages annexed to his profession. For my part, Sir, I shall give you a simple relation of the matter, in the common stile of honour and probity, I am none of those persons, thank heaven! to whoin the world make their court while it despises them. On the
contrary, I have the honour to be one of those who are esteemed and persecuted. When I first took refuge in this
country, I brought no recommendations to any body; not even
Lord Marshall* I had no other than that sincerity, I always carry with me; and with my Lord Marshall no other was necessary. About two hours after my arrival ; and while I was writing to his excellency to informi hirm of it, and put myself under his protection, I was interrupted by the entrance of a stranger ; who, acquainting me that he was the parson of the parish, paid me a number of compliments; and, finding I was writing to the Lord Marshall, offered to add a few lines at the boitom of my letter, by way of recommendation, I did not accept his offer, but fent it away, and it had its defired success without such addition. Not expecting, in my circumstances, to find the pastor of a church so very obliging, I then Spoke of it, as an extraordinary example, to many persons, and among the rest to Colonel Roguin; whose friendship and regard had induced him to accompany me to this place. Mr. de M. continued his civilities ; of which at length I began to think I ought not to lose the advantage; I therefore wrote to him, defiring to know if I might not be admitted to the ens suing communion ? His answer, which he brought himself, was to assure me that, he was highly delighted with the step i was desirous of taking; that both he and his people thought themselves honoured by the offer; and that he flattered himself so unexpected a proceeding would afford great edification to the faithful. I must confess to you, Sir, that I thought this moment one of the most agreeable I had ever experienced in my whole life. It is necefiary to have experienced all my misfortunes, to have undergone all the sufferings of a susceptible mind, to be able to judge of the consolation I felt at the prospect of holding society with brethren, who might indem, nify me for the lofles I had sustained, and the distance of those whose friendthip I could no longer cultivate. It appeared to me that a fincere union with this little flock, in the exercise of affectionate and rational devotion, would help me to forget the malice and attempts of my enemies. With these sentiments my heart was so greatly affected, that at first I often used to burst into tears of complacence in the midst of the congrega-, tion. Not having lived among Protestants, I had formed an idea of their clergy, as of a kind of angels. The purity and simplicity of their worship appeared to be what my soul panted after; it seemed peculiarly calculated to support the hope and resolution of the unhappy. The communicants seemed to me as Chriftans without guile, united to each other by the tendereft ties of love and charity. How have they fince cured me of this agreeable delusion!
* This circumstance M. de Montmoliin had endeavoured to represent in a disadvantageous light; as he also did the fijendship and protection with which Mr. L.o.fleau was favoured by tis excellency.
Mr. Rousseau proceeds to recount the particulars of this extraordinary pastor's future conduct towards him : as that he affected on all occafions before Mr. Rousseau, and even in the pulpit, an unnecessary zeal for religious toleration ; that he ad. mitted him to the Holy Communion, as before observed, not only without entering into any examination concerning the particular articles of his creed; but even promising never to concern himself about it; that he lavishly commended and appeared highly to approve of those very letters from the mountains, which he afterwards made the plea for persecuting the Author ; that he frequently spoke to Mr. Rousseau about a general edition of his works, approved of the project, and would have interested himself in the property of it, had Mr. Rourseau permitted him. This refusal on the part of Mr. R. made the pastor reflect that it would not be very consistent with his character and function to engage in such an undertaking: about the same time the body of the clergy thought it incum-, bent on them likewise to oppose it, and accordingly made remonstrances against it to the court.
So good an understanding subsisted, before this, between Mr. Rousseau and his pastor, that the latter, proposing to fol. licit an addition to his ftipend, desired the former to write a. line or two, in his favour, to my Lord Marshall, on the subject. This Mr. Rousseau appears willing to have done in a private. letter from himself; but the pastor wanted such recommendation in a postscript to an epistle of his own: a method of writing to his excellency which Mr. Rousseau thought too unbecoming and familiar. He therefore declined it, and in so doing gave another offence to M. de Montmollin; who it seems was so very officious about Mr. Rousseau's house and person, that he wanted to know all his affairs ; to become acquainted with all his correspondents ; to direct and receive his will and testament, and in short to be director of his little family; all, which Mr. Rousseau objected to with all the civility he could, consisting with preserving his resolution. On these particulars seems to depend the principal motive of that zeal for the faith and that rancour against Mr. Rousseau, which this very christianlike and charitable
professor hath fince displayed. Mr. de Peyrou, to whom this letter appears to be addressed, had remarked, in his second epistle, that the conduct of this good pastor resembled much that of the English Quaker ; who, in order to be revenged on a cur that had bit his horse's heels, did not raise the arm of the flesh to strike him, because it was s inconsistent with his profession, but contented bimself with giving him a bad name, by calling out a mad dog! in consequence of which the poor animal was of course presently knocked on the head.
. Part I. Of the spiritual Liberty of Protejlants in Eng-
neral account, in the second number of the twenty ninth volume of our Review; in which article we entered likewise irto a particular and minute examination of the two firft tracts, viz. Of the right of private judgment in all matters of religion ; and, Of the liberty of publickly worshipping God: from an attentive view of which, it would be easy to collect what was our author's general train of thinking upon these subjects, and in what manner the other important and interesting questions would be treated. And upon the whole, we cannot help ob ferving, that the manner in which those tracts are written, is very artful and plaufible, and that whatever professions the learned prelate may have made to the contrary, he was not a thorough and consistent friend to the religious liberty of Protestants. Like many other political writers, both before and after him, he very willingly admits the natural right of men to think for themselves; he warmly afferts, and reasons with much force in favour of this principle, " That God intended to give to every one a right to judge at all times ultimately for himself, in matters of religion ;' and declares against compulsive and perfecuting measures in general, with great justice and propriety ; but when he comes to state the limits of toleration, to lay down cafes in which force and restraint may be used ; and to vindicate the necessity and policy of impofing legal tests upon fuch as may happen to depart from established modes and opinions, it appears that little more is meant by liberty, than the mere liberty of thinking and judging in private : but that to speak, or publish, or to act in consequence of such judgment, may in many instances justly draw down the power of the sword, and the interference of magistracy, though neither the persons, lives, reputations, properties, or any of the civil and temporal interests of mankind be immediately affected by it. If this be all the libert14 in which we are to be indulged, we cannot think ourselves under very great obligations to our lawgivers for the indulgence; for it is scarcely in the power of tyrants or inquisitors to deprive us of it : and if our right reverend author means no more than this, 'it will not be in our power to vindicate him from the character of a high-church man; an appellation which we have feen publicly ascribed to him.
Without pursuing these reflections any farther, we shall now direct our Treaders attention to the tracís here before us, upon
the subject of temporal liberty. In this part of his work, his lordship appears more in the character of an historian and antiquarian ; discovers an extensive knowledge of the civil laws and conftitution of his country; has handled the subject in a very agreeable manner; and, were we to judge only from these papers, we should, without the least Icruple, have classed him among the friends of public liberty. But indeed, a union of the characters of a state-whig and a church-tory in the same perfon, hath been very common.
There are fix tracts in this volume, upon the following sub. jects, viz.
I. Of the Liberty of the Subjects in Judicial proceedings, as to matters both criminal and civil.
II. Of the right and manner of imposing taxes; and of the other Privileges of the Parliament.
III. Of the Means whereby the free Constitutions of other Nations have been impaired, while that of England has been preserved and improved.
IV. Of the Antiquities of the Commons in Parliament.
V. Of the Royal Prerogative, and the hereditary right to the Crown of Britain.
VI; Of the Danger's that may be incident to the Present Esablishment, and the Prospect there is of its continuance.
We shall select from these tracts such passages as shall be most generally instructive and entertaining to our readers ; and from which they may be able to form an adequate judgment of the spirit and manner, in which the whole is executed.
As it seems to be of the greatest importance, in order to beget in the minds of men a just value for the civil constitution, under which it is our happiness to live, we shall begin with representing the provisions which have been made, by the laws of our country, in favour of the subject, respecting criminal matters : and these we shall collect in the order in which they arise in the work before us.- -In this manner does our author introduce his subject in the first tract. In treating of the freedom of the subjects in England, the thing that comes naturally first into view is, the security we have of not being long detained in prison, without just 'cause or due process of law. Our condition in this respect, differs not a little to our advantage, from those of most other subjects in Europe. I need not inform the public, how every one in France is liable to be treated : without any charge made against him upon oath, or any examination taken of him by a magistrate, an order or writ under the signet royal, is sufficient to cause him, whatever his rank or quality is, to be not only arrested, but to be carried instantly away to any prison in the kingdom, and there to be kept in the closest confinement, without any