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very efficacious in these other diseases, it fugoested to Deault the use of the lame remedy in the rabies canina.-Four men were on the same day bit by a mad wolf:--they were all plunged into the sea, notwithstanding it was the depih of uinier : two of them died wiih the usual dreadful symptoms; the other two, who were much terrified, and in whom the approach of the same symptoms was evident, were treated by Default in the following manner: he rubbed the cicatrices of the wounds, and even the whole arm with mercurial ointnient: this he repeated three days successively : the cicatrices then, which before were hard and elevated, became soft and even :- the ointment after this was only used every other day, and they were both perfectly cured: it must be observed that Default gave these patients also a dose of Palmarius's powder every day, which consists of a number of warm antispasmodic simples. --This inethod with the mercurial ointment has been since practiced with great success; but there is no necessity for using it in fo large a quantity as to produce a salivation ; if the mouth be slightly affected it is sufficient. We apprehend Dr. Tissot's method of treating this disease, might be rendered more simple, more practicable, and Jess expensive; which are points chiefly to be aimed at, in a work calculated for country people.

Chap. XV. Of the Ardent or burning Fiver. . The signs which make it evident are, a hardness and fulness of the pulse in a higher degree than happens in any other malady ; an excessive heat ; great thirst, with an extraordinary dryness of the eyes, nolirils, lips, tongue, and throat ; a violent head-ach, and sometimes a raving at the height of the paroxysm, or increase of the fever, which rises conliderably every evining. The refpiration is also somewhat opprefied, but especially at the return of this paroxylin, with a cough now and then, though without any pain in the breast, and without any expect ration, or coughing up. The body is costive; the urine very high coloured, hot, and in small quantity. The fick are also liable to start sometimes, but especially when they seem to Necp; for they have lit:!e found refreshing fiecp, but rather a kind of drowsiness, that makes them very little attentive to, or sensible of, whatever happens about them, or even of their own condition. They have sometimes a little sweat or moisture, though commonly a very dry skin; they are manifestly weali, and have either little or no smell or taste.

Here the general directions with regard to the management and diet in acute diseases, as laid down in Chap. III. are to be attended to ; and when the attack is extremely viclent, nourishment may be wholly omitted. Blecding thould be immediately perforined and repeated even to a third time the same day, so that the hardness of the pulse be fenfibly abated: the first discharge Mould be copious, the second, if requisite, should be made four hours after, and the third as the symptoms may render it necessary. These rules concerning bleeding are agreeable to our Author's judicious practice in all inflammatory cases. "The principal remedy, says Dr. Tillot, when treating of an inflammation of the breasl, is bleeding. As soon as ever the cold fit is over, twelve, fourteen, or even sixteen, ounces of blood should be taken away : this single plentiful bleeding gives more ease than if tweniy four ounces had been drawn, at three different times.' Cooling glysters ; bathing the legs twice a day in warm water; fomenting the breast and belly; almond-milk, prisan, and other soft, diluting liquors, are recommended : and if the fever still runs high, a large dose of spirit of sulphur is to be given every three hours in fyrup of violets. -Hæmorrhages from the nose frequently occur in this fever, and greatly to the relief and security of the patient.

The signs of amendment are briefly these: a fofter pulse ; less head-ach; a greater quantity of urine, and not so high coloured; the tongue rather moist; frequently between the ninth and fourteenth day, after a flurry of a few hours, large evacuations by stool; the urine drops a palely reddish sediment, and what floats above it is clear and of a natural colour; sweats in a greater or less degree; the mouth and nostrils grow moilt; the dry crust which covers the tongue softens and peels off; the thirst is diminished; the faculties become clearer; the drowsiness abates, and a comfortable Neep succeeds.

The augmenting danger of this fever, says Dr. Tissot, may be discerned, from the continued hardness of the pulse, though with an aba:ement of its strength; if the brain becomes more confused; the breathing more difficult; if the eyes, nose, lips and tongue become still more dry, and the voice more altered, If to these symptoms there be also added a swelling of the belly; a diminution of the quantity of urine ; a constant raving; great anxiety, and a certain wildness of the eyes, the case is in a manner desperate ; and the patient cannot survive many hours. The hands and fingers are at this period incessantly in motion, as if feeling for something upon the bed-cloaths, which is commonl, termed their hunting for flies.

Thus our Author concludes his observations on the ardent of burning fever. We cannot however quit this subject, without expreffing our concern, for the sometimes fatal omission of BLEEDING in this fever. The praEticioner, pollibly misled by the languor, drowsiness and inattention of the patient to what passes about him, fupposes it a fever of another species, omits bleeding, nor is sensible of his mistake iill it is too late; the brain is attacked, the violent symptoms hurry on, and every remedy is incffcctual.-- The disease is eally distinguihed by an at

tentive

tentive physician ; but, wherever there is a doubt, bleeding to the quantity of three or four ounces, clears up the point: -we thus ascertain the state of the blood, the nature of the fever, and the practice to be pursued. . CHAP. XXIV. Of the Dysentery, or Bloody-flux.

« The Dysentery is a Aux or looseness of the belly, attended with great restlessness and anguish, with severe gripings and frequent propensities to go to stool. There is generally a little blood in the stools, tho' this is not a constant symptom, and is not essential to the existence of a Dysentery; notwithstanding it may not be much less dangerous, from the absence of this symptom.'

After a more particular description of the approach and progress of this disease, Dr. Tissot observes, that many of the fick have not the least degree of fever or thirst, which is perhaps less common in this disease, than in a simple looseness.

« The most efficacious remedy for this disease is a vomit. Six grains of tartar emetic, (when there is no present circumstance that forbids the giving a vomit) if taken immediately on the first invasion of it, often removes it at once; and always shortens its duration. An emetic of thirty-five grains of ipecacuanha is not less effectual; it has been considered for a long time, even as a certain specific, which it is not, though a very useful medicine.'-Ipecacuanha has long been considered as a powerful remedy in this disease ; but its specific virtues in the true Dyrentery, have been more clearly pointed out by the accurate and ingenious Dr. Akenfide. In his commentary on this disease, he directs it to be given in the small dose of one grain every six hours, and affirms, from his own experience, that thus administred it is fingularly efficacious. • We shall pass over our Author's other practical directions, and only mention what he says concerning the good effects of ripe fruits in this disease: a practice more particularly indicated where the Dysentery proceeds from a putrid ferment lurking in the bowels. There is a pernicious prejudice, and which still generally prevails, that fruits are noxious in a Dyseniery, that they even give it, and aggravate it. Now ripe fruits, of whatever species, and especially summer fruits, are the real preservatives from this disease.-We had a great, an extraordinary abundance of fruit in 1759 and 1760, but scarcely any Dyfen. teries.--I have seen eleven patients in one house in the Dysentery, of whom nine were very tractable ; they eat fruit and recovered. The grandmother and one child, whom she loved more than the rest, were carried off. She managed the child after her own fashion, with burnt wine, oil, and some spices, but no fruit. She conducted herself in the very same manner,

and

vatives frees and especies ravate it. Om

and both diad.—This same distemper had nearly destroyed a •Swiss regiment in garrison in the South of France; the captains

purchaled the whole crop of several acres of vineyard; there they carried the fick soldiers, and gathered the grapes for such as could not bear being carried into the vineyard; those who were well eating nothing else: after this not one died, nor were any more even attacked with the Dysentery:'- An unbounded and promiscuous use of fruit in every species of Dysentery may not always be proper ; but in those Dysenteries which occur in the camp or navy;—wherever nature points out this practice by the ardent longings of the patient;- or where there is a broken dissolved state of the blood, and a putrid acrimony infests the bowels ;-an indulgence in eating sound ripe fruit, will gene. rally be attended with happy effects.

CHAP. XXVIIÍ. Directions with respect to Drowned Persons.

We should have made no farther extracts from this work, bad we not apprehended that the contents of this chapter cannot be too universally known.

Whenever a person, says Dr. Tissot, has remained a quarter of an hour under water, there can be no considerable hopes of his recovery: nevertheless, as several circumstances may happen to have continued life, in such an unfortunate situation, be. yond the ordinary term, we should always endeavour to afford them the most effectual relief, and not to give them up as irrecoverable too soon : fince it has often been known, that until the expiration of two, and sometimes even three hours, such bodies have exhibited some apparent tokens of life. The water, our Author observes, which is sometimes indeed forced into the stomach of a drowned person, is not the cause of death: the real cause is suffocation, or an interception in the action of breathing: the water which descends into the lungs, during the painful struggles of the unhappy sufferer to draw breath, not only Itops the action of the lungs themselves, but intercepts also the return of the blood from the head, and hence an apoplexy is complicated with the fuffocation. This second cause, however, the descent of water into the lungs, is far from being general, as is sufficiently evident from diffećtions : the stoppage of refpiration only, without the additional cause of water forced into the Jungs, will necessarily produce suffocation and apoplexy.

In these unhappy cases, the only intentions to be pursued, are, to unload the lungs and brain, and to restore the extinguished circulation. To obtain these ends it is necessary, immediately to strip the sufferer, to put him into a warm bed, and to rub him well with dry coarse linnen :-a strong and healthy person should breathe forcibly into the patient's lungs, and the moke of tobacco should in like manner be introduced :--the ju

gular

3

gular vein, or any large vein in the neck, must be opened, and ten or twelve ounces of blood taken away ; this is particularly indicated, in order to renew the circulation, and to diminish the diftention of the brain and lungs :-the fuine of tobacco should be thrown up, as speedily and plentifully as possible, into the intestines, by the fundament :--the strongelt volatiles should be applied to the nostrils; and the powder of some strong dry herbi, sage, rofemary, mint, rue, and especially marjoram or welldried tobacco, should be blown up the nole:-as long as there are no signs of life, it is dangerous to pour much liquid of any kind into the mouth; but as soon as it can be done with safety, five or fix common spoonfuls of oxymel of squills diluted with warm water should be taken within the space of one hour; if this is not at hand, a strong infusion of the blessed thistle, sage, chamomile flowers, sweetened with honey; or even warm water, with the addition of a little common salt, should be given :

not to desert the patient too soon, after the first appearances of recovery ;-and to be attentive whether any other disease supervenes. - Dr. Tissot disapproves of wrapping a drowned person in the warm, just-flea'd skin of an animal; the rolling him in an empty hogshead; or the hanging hinn up by the feet.”

16 A girl of eighteen years old was motionless, frozen as it were, insensible, her eyes closed, her mouth wide open, a livid colour, a swoln visage, with a tumour of the whole body, which was over-laden or water-soaked : this miserable object was extended on a kind of bed, of hot or very warm athes, quickly heated in great kettles; and by laying her quite naked on these afhes; by covering her with others equally hot; by putting a bonnet round her head, with a stocking round her neck, stuffed with the fame, and heaping coverings over all this, at the end of half an hour her pulse returned, she recovered her fpecch, and cried out, I freeze, I freeze; a little cherry-brandy was given her, and then the remaincd buried, as it were, eight hours under the ashes; being taken out of them afierwards without any other complaint, except that of great lassitude, which went entirely off the third day.'- This method deferves imication, but fould not make us inattentive to other means. Our Author says, heated gravel or sand, mixed with falt, or hot salt alone, have been found equally efficacious.

Chap. XXXIII. Of Mountebanks, Quacks, and Conjurers.

This chapter contains fo many excellent observations, fo thorough a knowlege of mankind, and so great a degree of benevolence, that we thall give our Readers a fhort abftract of it.• One dreadful scourge, says Dr. Tissot, still remains to be treated of; and which, as long as it continues, will defeat our utmost precautions to preserve the hcalth and lives of the cond

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