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and hereupon Homer calleth Eumedes s10 Kriguxa. It were needless here to mention their rites in making peace, how they brought two lambs fruits in a bottle of goat-skin, golden chargers, and other vessels, &c. as it is noted by Homer.
The Romans likewise had their Fæciales, so called à fide et fædere facicndo, first instituted in Italy by Hessus, and brought to Rome first by Ancus Martius; their college consisted of twenty. The principal was called Pater Patratus, because it was requisite thąt he should be Patrimus, that is, have his father alive, and he himself have children. The second was called Verbenaceus, because when the Fæciales were sent clarigatum, that is, to challenge goods taken away clará roce, he carried the herb rerbena with flint stones et pirax.è cespite gramen, as Ovid calleth it,, which he received of the Prætor,
Dionysius Halicarnass. recordeth, that six especial points were incident to their office. First, that they should have a care, lest the people of Rome should wage war against any of their confederates. Secondly, that they should challenge and require again goods injuriously taken away by enemies. Thirdly, that they should proclaim war against such as refused to make restitution. Fourthly, that they should take notice of injuries done contrary to covenants. Fifthly, that they should carefully provide that conditions should be faithfully observed. Sixth.
ly, that they should treat and compound peace, and take notice what generals and commanders had done contrary to their oath. When they required restitution, they wore on their head a hood of yarn, and used these words: Audi Jupiter, audite Fines, auditat Fas, ego sum publicus nuncius populi Romani, juste pieque legatus venio, verbisque meis fides sit, &c. Likewise, when they proclaimed war, they did cast into the enemies' country a bloody spear burned at the upper end, uttering these words, as Au. Gellius reporteth: Quod populus Hermundulus, hominesque populi Hermunduli adversus populum Romanum bellum fecere deliquereque; Quodque populus Romanus cum populo Hermundulo hominibusque Hermundulis bellum jussit, ob eam rem ego populusque Romanus populo Hermundulo populisque Hermundulis bellum indico facioque. But this was stante republica. Under the emperors, as I find no mention of the Fæciales, yet it seenied they continued : for when Ammianus Marcellinus maketh mention of the siege of Amidas under Julian, he reported that a Persian did cast into the town a bloody lance, ut moris est nostri. After the decay of the Roman empire, and erection of kingdoms, the heralds of the old Franks carried virgas consecratas, when they were employed in messages, that they might not be touched or troubled by any : and this was juxta ritum Francorum, as Gregorius Turonensis writeth, libro 7, capite 32.
But in the time of Carolus Magnus began both the reputation, honour, and name of Heralds, as Æneas Sylvius reporteth out of an old library book of St. Paul, the author whereof derived their name from Heros; but others, to whom most incline, from the German word Herald, which signifieth, Old and ancient master. Yet he which writeth notes upon Willeram, saith, that Herald signifieth, Faithful to the army; and I have found in some Saxon treatise, Heold interpreted Summus Præpositus. Nevertheless, this name is rare or not found in the history of Charles the Great, nor in the times ensuing, for a long space, either by our writers, or French writers. The first mention that I remember of them in England, was about the time of king Edward I. For in the statute of arms or weapons, [it was ordained,] that the Kings of Heralds should wear no armour but their swords, pointless; and that they should only have their Houses des Armes, and no more, which, as I conceive, are their coats of arms. The name and honour of them was never greater in this realm than in the time of king Edward III ; in whose time there were Kings of Arms, Heralds, and Poursevants by patent, not only peculiar to the king, but to others of the principal nobility: and Froissart writeth that king Edward III. made a Poursevant of arms, which brought him speedy tidings of happy success in the battle of Auroye in Britanny, immediately upon the
receipt of the news, an herald giving him the name of Windesone; and at that time were liveries of coats of arms first given unto heralds, with the king's arms embroidered thereon, as the king himself had his robe royal set with lions of gold. In France also, as the said Froissart writeth, the same time Philip de Valois increased greatly the state royal of France, with jousts, tourneys, and heralds. As for the privileges of heralds, I refer you to the treatise thereof purposely written by Paul, bishop of Burgos in Spain.
Camden was acquainted either personally, or by correspondence, with the greater part of the most celebrated characters of his time, both at home and abroad. Scarcely a foreigner came to England without visiting Camden. He was visited by six German, noblemen at one time, at whose request he wrote his Lemma in each of their books, as a testimony that they had seen him. He corresponded regularly with the famous Gruter; and Peirescius, the great patron of learning, he ranked among the number of his friends. His epistolary acquaintance with Thuanus the universal historian of the sixteenth century, did not commence till 1606. He cau,
tioned that historian in his account of Scotch affairs, against touching them with too rude a hand; but Thuanus treated the conduct of Mary, queen of Scots, with such severity, as to give great umbrage to her son James I, who employed Camden to write animadversions on that part of the history, which he accordingly did, representing Mary in colours far more favourable than either Thuanus, or Buchanan had painted her. Camden was also intimately acquainted with Hottoman, secretary to Robert, earl of Leicester; with Franciscus Pithæus, and Petrus Puteanus; with Mr. Thomas Savil, and his brother, sir Henry Savil; with archbishop Usher, who assisted him in the affairs of Ireland, and Dr. Johnston of Aberdeen, who did him a similar service in respect of the antiquities of Scotland. Sir Robert Cotton, from whose library he derived great advantage, was his in. timate friend, and his companion both in his studies and in his travels.
He corresponded also with Dr. James, first keeper of the Bodleian Library; and sir Henry Spelman stiles him his ancient friend.
At sixty years of age, his constitution being much impaired, he retired to Chesilhurst,