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rule. 3. The History of Nature, as confined or assisted, changed or tortured, by the art of
4. The fourth part he stiles Scala Intellectus, or the Series of Steps, by which the Understanding might regularly ascend in its Philo. sophical Enquiries; and in which his method of philosophising is applied and iỊlustrated.
5. The fifth part, called Anticipationes Philosophia Secunda, was designed to contain philosophical hints and suggestions; but nothing of this remains but the title and scheme.
6. The sixth was intended to exhibit the whole fabric of his system in all its extent and grandeur, comprehending the universal principles of knowledge, deduced from experiment and observation. This, however, was a work not to accomplished by the unaided might of one man. Having therefore fixed his edifice on an immoveable basis, he was compelled to leave its completion to the united labours of after ages,
The plan of this unrivalled work was formed when he was only twenty-six years of age, and yet a student at Gray's Inn. This putline he entitled, Temporis Partum Mais
imum; or, “ The Greatest Birth of Time." But in the greater maturity of his reason, he became ashamed of this pompous title: for in a letter to father Fulgentio, a learned Italian, he laments the puerile folly and vain confidence which 'led him to adopt it. These rudiments of Bacon's philosophy are supposed by Mallet, his editor, to reinain under the more modest title, “Of the Interpretation of Nature;” and we have still the advantage of tracing the steps by which he advanced from one discovery to another, till his philosophical system assumed that comprehensive vastness, which will astonish and enlighten all succeeding generations.
Bacon's works, complete, were published in the year 1803, in 10 vols. 8vo. In this edition, his English works are comprised in the six first volumes; his Latin in the four last.
The character of Bacon and of his philosophy is adınirably drawn by D'Alembert. I extract it from the Annual Register; year 1773, page 80, part 2.
“ On considering attentively the sound, intelligent, and extensive views of this great man, the multiplicity of objects his piercing wit had comprehended within its sphere, the
elevation of his style, that every where makes the boldest images to coalesce with the most rigorous precision, we should be tempted to esteem him the greatest, the most universal, and the most eloquent of philosophers. His works are justly valued, perhaps more valued, than known, and therefore more deserving of our study than eulogiums. Bacon, born amidst the obscurity of the most profound night, perceived that philosophy did not yet exist, though many had undoubtedly flattered themselves for having excelled in it; for, the more an age is gross and ignorant, the more it believes itself informed of all that can be possi. bly known. He began by taking a general view of the various objects of all natural sciences; he divided those sciences into different branches, of which he made the most exact enumeration; he examined into what was already known as to each of those objects, and he drew up an immense catalogue of what remained to be discovered. This was the aim and subject of his admirable work, on the dignity and augmentation of natural knowledge. In his New Organ of Sciences, he perfects the views he had pointed out the first work; he carries them farther, and
shews the necessity of experimental physics, which was not yet thought of. An enemy to systems, he beholds philosophy as only that part of our knowledge, which ought to contribute to make us better or more happy. He seems to limit it to the science of useful things, and every where reeommends the study of nature. His other writings are formed on the same plan. Every thing in them, even their titles, is expressive of the man of genius, of the mind that sees in great. He there collects facts; he there compares experiments, and indicates a great number to be made. He invites the learned to study and perfect the arts, which he deems as the most illustrious and most essential part of human knowledge. He exposes with a noble simplicity bis conjectures and thoughts on different objects worthy of interesting men; and he might have said, as the old gentleman of Terence, that nothing affecting humanity was foreign to him. Science of nature, morality, politics, economics, all seemed to be within the stretch of that luminous and profound wit; and we know not which most to admire, the richness he diffuses over all the subjects he treats of, or the dignity with which he speaks of them.
His writings cannot be better compared than to those of Hippocrates on medicine; and they would be neither less admired nor less read, if the culture of the mind was as dear to mankind as the preservation of their health. But there are none but the chiefs of sects of all kinds, whose works can have a certain splendor. Bacon was not of the number, and the form of his philosophy was against it. It was too good to fill any one with astonishment. The scholastic philosophy, which had gained the ascendant in his time, could not be overthrown but by bold and new opinions ; and there is no probability that a philosopher, who only intimates to men, “This is the little you have learned, this is what remains for your enquiry,' is calculated for making much noise among his cotemporaries. We might even presume to hazard some degree of reproach against the lord chancellor Bacon for having been perhaps too timid, if we were not sensible with what reserve, and as it were with what superstition, judgment ought to be passed on so sublime a genius. Though he confesses that the scholastic philosophers had enervated the sciences by the minutiæ of their questions, and that sound intellects ought to