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against him, to controul him at their appetite ; and when they think good, to slay him, or to cut him off, and adopt to themselves any other they please, in his room: or can any pretence of wickedness, or rigour on his part, be a just excuse for his children to put hand into him? And although we see by the course of nature, that love useth to descend more than ascend, in case it were true, that the father hated and wronged the children never so much, will any man, endued with the least spunk of reason, think it lawful for them to meet him with tủe line? Yea, suppose the father were furiously following his sons with a drawn sword, is it lawful for them to turn and strike again, or make any resistance, but by flight? I think surely, if there were no more but the example of brute beasts and unreasonable creatures, it may serve well enough to qualify and prove this my argument. We read often the piety that the storks have to their old and decayed parents; and generally we know, that there are many sorts of beasts and fowls, that with violence and many bloody strokes will beat and banish their young ones from them, how soon they perceive them to be able to fend themselves; but we never read or heard of any resistance

on their part, except among the vipers; which proves such persons, as ought to be reasonable creatures, and yet unnaturally follow this example, to be endued with their viperous nature.

And for the similitude of the head and the body, it may very well fall out, that the head will be forced to garl cut off some rotten member (as I liave already said) to keep the rest of the body in integrity; but what state the body can be in, if the head, for any infirmity that can fall to it, be cut off, I leave it to the reader's judgment.

So as (to conclude this part) if the children may upon any pretext that can be imagin d, lawfully rise up against their father, cut him off, and choose any other whom they please in his room; and if the body for the weal of it, may for any infirmity that can be in the head, strike it off, then I cannot deny that the people may rebel, contre ul, and d splace, or cut off their king at their oun pleasure, and upon respects moving them. And whether tliese similitudes represent better the office of a king, or the offices of masters, or deacons of crafts, or doctois in physic, (which jolly comparisons are used by such writers as maintain the contrary proposition) I leave it also to the reader's discretion.

As a sort of salvo for the unqualified despotisın of the preceding passage, his majesty presently adds:

Not that by all this former discourse of mine, and

i to make, cause.

apology for kings, I mean that whatsoever errors and intolerable abominations a sovereign prince commit, he ought to escape all punishment, as if thereby the world were only ordained for kings, and they without controulinent to turn it upside down, at their pleasure; but by the contrary, by remitting them to God (who is their only ordinary judge) I remit them to the gorest and sharpest school-master that can be devised for them: for the further a king is preferred by God above all other ranks and degrees of men, and the higher that his seat is above iheirs, the greater is his obligation to his maker.

The remaining pieces in the volume are:

6. A Counter-blast to Tobacco; Anony mous.

7. A Discourse of the Powder Treason. Anonymous.

8. An Apology for the Oath of Allegiance, first set out anonymous, and afterwards pub· lished with the præmonition under his majesty's 'Own name.

9. A Præmonition to all Christian Mo. narchs, free Princes and States, written both in English and Latin, by his majesty.

10. A Declaration against Vorstius, written

by his majesty, first in French, after translated into English by his majesty's leave.

11. A Defence of the Right of Kings, against Cardinal Perron, written by bis majesty in French, and thereafter translated into English by his majesty's leave.

To the above are added five speeches on different occasions. The king wrote also various pieces, in Latin, which it were needless to particularize.

The following lines are found under the print of James, prefixed to his works.

Crowns have their compass, length of days their date,
Triumphs their tombs, felicity her fate;
Of more than earth, can earth, make none partaker,
But knowledge makes the king most like his maker,

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