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The first American, from the Sixteenth London edition.



Wbich contains some Letters which he wrote in Defence and

Illustration of certain parts of his ConneXIONS.





CHARLESTOwn: (Mass.)

J. M‘Kown, Printer.


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Old and New Testaments



An. 464. Artax. 1.

ARTAXERXES having, by the death of Artabanus, removed one grand obstacle to his quiet possessing of the throne, had still two others to struggle with, his brother Hystaspes in Bactria, and Artabanus' party at home. And this last being nearest at hand, gave him the first trouble: for although - Artabanus was dead, he had left behind him seven sons, and many partisans, who immediately gathered together to revenge his death; whereon a fierce conflict ensued between them and those who stood by Artaxerxes, in which many noble Persians were slain; but at length Artaxerxes having prevailed, did cut off all that were concerned in this conspiracy; and especially he took a signal revenge of every one of those who had an hand in the murder of his father, and particularly of the eunuch Mithridates that betrayed him, whom he caused to be boated to death. The bmanner of this punishment was thus: the person condemned to it being laid on his back in a boat, and having his bands stretched out, and tied fast to each side of it, had another boat put over him, his head only being left out through a place made fit for it. In this posture they fed him, till the worms which were bred in the excrements that he voided as he thus lay, did eat out his bowels, and so caused bis death; which was . usually this way twenty days in effecting, the criminal lying all this while in exquisite torments.


1 Plutarchus in Artaxerxe.

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An. 463.

Artaxerxes, having mastered this difficulty, was at leisure to send an army into Bactria against his brother. But there he did not meet with so easy success;d for a fierce battle ensuing, though Hystaspes did not get the victory, yet he did so well make good his ground, that no advantage was got against him; but both armies parted with equal success, and each retired to make better preparations for a second encounter. But the next year, Artaxerxese having drawn to

gether a much stronger army, as having the Artax. 2: greatest part of the empire at his devotion,

overpowered Hystaspes, and utterly overthrew him in a second battle; whereby having removed all difficulties and oppositions, he now became fully possessed of the whole empire ;f and the better to secure himself in it, he removed all those governours of cities and provinces of whom he had any suspicion, that they had been concerned with, or any way well affected to either of the parties which he had suppressed, and put into their places only such as he had a thorough confidence in. After this he did set himself to reform all the abuses and disorders of the government; whereby he gained to himself much credit and authority throughout all the provinces of the empire, and thoroughly established himself in the affections of the people, wherein lieth the surest interest of princes. After Artaxerxes had obtained these successes, and

thereby firmly settled himself in the peaceaAna 462 ble possession of the whole Persian empire, &

he appointed a solemn rejoicing on this aecount, and caused it to be celebrated in the city of Shushan or Susa in feastings and shows, for the term of one hundred and eighty days, on the conclusion of which he made a great feast for all the princes and people that were then in Shushan for seven days. And Vashti the queen at the same time made a like feast in ler apartment for the women. On the seventh day, the king's heart being merry with wine, he command

c That Hystaspes was governour of Bactria, at his father's death, is attested by Diodorus Siculus, lib. 11, p. 53. d Ctesias.

f Diodorus Siculus, lib. 11. albid,

$ Esther.i. Joseph. Antiq. lib. 11, c 6.

ed his seven chamberlains to bring queen Vashti before him with the crown royal on her head, that he might shew to the princes and people her beauty; for she was exceeding fair. But for her thus to shew herself in such an assembly, beingh contrary to the usage of the Persians, and appearing to her (as indeed it was) very indecent, and much unbecoming the modesty of a lady, as well as the dignity of her station, she refused to comply herewith, and would not come; whereon the king, being very much incensed, called his seven counsellors to take advice with them about it, who fearing this might be of ill example through the whole empire, in encouraging women to contemn and disobey their husbands, advised that the king should put Vashti away for ever from him, and give her royal state to another that should be better than she, and by his royal edict give command throughout the whole empire, that all wives should pay honour and obedience to their husbands, and that every man should bear rule in his own house. Which advice pleasing the king, he commanded it accordingly to be put in execution, and Vashti never more after that came again into the king's presence: for the decree wereby she was removed from him was registered among the laws of the Medes and Persians, and therefore it could never again be altered. After this, orders were given out through the whole empire, for the gathering together to the palace at Shushan all the fair virgins in every province, that out of them one might be chosen whom the king should best like, to be made queen in ber place.

Ati the time when this collection of virgins was made, there lived in Shushan a certain Jew, named Mordecai, who was of the descendants of those who had been carried captive to Babylon with Jeconiah king of Judah, and, by his attendance at the king's gate, seems to have been one of the porters of the royal palace. He having no children, did breed up Hadassah, bis uncle's daughter, and adopted her for his own. This young woman, h Josephus Antiq. lib. 11, c. 6. i Esther ii. Josephus Antiq. lib. 11, c. 6.


An. 641.
Artax, 4.


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