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SCENE IV. The same.

Enter LEAR, Fool, and Gentleman.

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Lear. 'Tis strange that they should so depart from home,
And not send back my messenger.

As I learn'd,
The night before there was no purpose in them
Of this remove.

Kent. Hail to thee, noble master!
Lear. Ha?



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SCENE IV.] Steev. SCENE VIII. Pope, 2. messenger) Meffingers F F Han. SCENE IX. Warb. Johns. Jen. 2-4. As...te move.] Two lines, the first SCENE V. Ec. The Scene continued in ending was, Q9. QqFf, Rowe, Cap.

3. in them] Om. Qq. The same.] Sch. Changes again 4. this] his Q9. to the Earl of Glo'ster's Castle. Pope.

Kent.] Kent. [Waking.) Sta. Before Gloucester's castle. Mal. Dyce 5. Ha?] Ha, F., Rowe, Pope, Han. adds Kent in the stocks.

How, Qq, Jen. Steev. Ec. Var. Enter...] Enter King, and a Knight. 5,6. Ha ?...pastime?] Steev.'93. One QzEnter King Qz.

line, QqFf, Sta. 1. home] hence Q4. Italian terms for a fool or madman; and the Flemings had a proverb), 'As unfortunate as Turlupin and his children.' NARES : Seemingly a name for a sort of beggar described in the preceding lines. I cannot persuade myself that this word, however similar in meaning, has any real connection with turlupin, notwithstanding the authority of Warburton and Douce. It seems to be an original English term, being too remote in form from the other to be a corruption from it. COLLIER (ed. 1): Perhaps • Turlygood' is a corruption of Thoroughlygood. We know nothing of any Turlupins (at least by that name) in England.

20, 21. Tom! ... am.] WALKER (Crit. iii, 277): So Rich. II: V, i, 92, 93, short'-heart." What extent of license did Sh. allow himself in his rhymes ? [This question has been answered by Ellis (Early Eng. Pronunciation, iii, 953) in a list of Shakespeare's rhymes and assonances. In this list there are eleven instances (of which four are in this play) of short a rhyming with short o, viz: the present instance, and soppish, apish, I, iv, 161, 163; corn, harm, III, vi, 41, 43; departure, shorter, I, v, 48, 49; dally, folly, R. of L, 554; man, on, Mid. N. D. II, i, 263, also III, ii, 348; crab, bob, lb. II, i, 48; pap, hop, Ib. V, i. 303; cough, laugh, Ib. II, i, 54; heart, short, part, Love's Lab. V, ii, 55.]

21. am) RITSON: In assuming this character, I may preserve myself; as Edgar I am inevitably gone.

The same.] See Schmidt's note, II, iii, and CAPELL’s note on I, v, 1.

3. night before] COWDEN CLARKE calls attention to the effect of advancing day which is given by this allusion, thereby allowing the progress of dramatic time to take place with sufficient rapidity for the spectators to be beguiled into easy cre. dence, when, at the close of the present long scene, Gloucester says, “ The night comes on,” and Cornwall soon after observes, “ Tis a wild night.”'



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Makest thou this shame thy pastime?

No, my lord.
Fool. Ha, ha! he wears cruel garters. Horses are tied
by the heads, dogs and bears by th' neck, monkeys by th’
loins, and men by th' legs; when a man's over-lusty at'
legs, then he wears wooden nether-stocks.

Lear. What's he that hath so much thy place mistook
To set thee here?

It is both he and she :
Your son and daughter.

Lear. No.
Kent. Yes.
Lear. No, I say.


[blocks in formation]

6. this] Om. Pope, Han. thy Theob. Warb. Johns.

thy] ahy F,

Kent. No, my lorit.] Om. Q7. 7-10. Ha,...Nether-stocks.) Five lines, ending garters.....beares....men....legs,.... Pockes. Qq. 7. Ha, ha !!] Hah, ha, F.

he] Ff+, Kiit, Dyce, Sta. Glo.+, Sch. look, he Q1 et cet.

cruel] Cruell F,Fcrewell Qq. crewel F, F., Rowe, Cap.

tied ] tide tide F, 8. head's] heeles Q9. head Bos. Coll.

at'] Ed.

at QqFf et cet. 10. wooden] wodilen F,F,.

nether stocks] neatherstockes , neather.ftockes nether socks Heath.

II, 12, Ilhat's...here?) Rowe. Prose, Qq. Three lines, ending he,...mistook ...hecre? Fr.

12, 13. It...daughter.] One line, QI.



7. cruel] The similarity in sound between this word and crewel is, as COLLIER says, a fruitful theme for jokes in the old dramatists. Would it not be better to print crewel in the text? HALLIWELL: This word was obvious to the punster, and is unmercifully used by the older dramatists. A pun similar to that in the text is in one of L'Estrange's anecdotes :-A greate zelote for the Cause would not allow the Parliament's army to be beaten in a certaine fight, but consest he did beleeve they might be worsted. To which linsy-wolsey expression, a merry cavaleere reply'd, • Take heede of that, for worsted is a cruell peece of stuffe.'

8. by the heads] Both in the Ff and in Q, the 'the' before • heads' and heeles is not contracted, while it is contracted in every other instance in this speech. Can any inference be drawn from this that the h was not aspirated ?—ED.

9. at' legs] An absorption of the definite article; see II, ii, 116.

10. nether-stocks] STEEVENS: The old word for stockings. Breeches were called overstockes, according to Baret's Alvearie [s. v. Breeches; also called upper stockes, as in the following quotation). Heywood, among his Epigrams [p. 204, ed. Spenser Soc.-WRIGHT), has these lines : “Thy vpper stocks be they stufte with sylke or flocks, Neuer become the lyke a nether payre of stocks.'

11, 12. so ... To] See I, iv, 36.



Kent. I say, yea.
* Lear. No, no, they would not.
* Kent. Yes, they have.*
Lear. By Jupiter, I swear, no!
Kent. By Juno, I swear, ay!

They durst not do't;
They could not, would not do't; 'tis worse than murder,
To do upon respect such violent outrage;
Resolve me with all modest haste which way
Thou mightst deserve, or they impose, this usage,
Coming from us.

My lord, when at their home
I did commend your highness' letters to them,
Ere I was risen from the place that show'd
My duty kneeling, came there a reeking post,
Stew'd in his haste, half breathless, panting forth
From Goneril his mistress salutations;
Deliver'd letters, spite of intermission,



17. I say, yea.] But I say, yea. Han. Cap.

18, 19. Lear. No...have.] Om. Ff +, Cap.

21. Kent. By...ay. Lear.] Om. Q1: 21, 22. doʻt...dot] do it...do it Qz.

22. could...would ] would...could Q1, Jen.

25. mightst] may/Qcmaif Q,

25. impose] purpose Q7.

28. show'd] shewd Pope. thewed, QqFf, Rowe. showed Coll. iii, Sch.

29. came there] came Pope +. there came Jen. (a misprint?)

30. panting] painting F.

31. salutations] salutation F,FF. +, Сар.

32. Deliver'd] Deliuered Qq.


23. upon respect] SINGER was the first to give the true explanation of this phrase : deliberately or upon consideration.' EDWARDS, HEATH, and Johnson all interpreted it as referring it to the respect' or reverence due to the king's messenger. MALONE supposed that respect' was personified. Singer referred to Ham. III, 1, 68. Wright agrees with Singer, and cites a convincing passage from King John, IV, ii, 214: • To know the meaning Of dangerous majesty, when perchance it frowns More upon humour than advised respect,' “That is, rather capriciously than deliberately. Bacon frequently uses “ upon” in similar phrases. See Glossary to the Essays, ed. Wright.'

24. modest] SCHMIDT (Lex.): Filling up the measure, neither going beyond, nor falling short of what is required, satisfactory, becoming. As much haste as may consist with telling the full truth. See also IV, vii, 5.

25, 26. Thou ... Coming] ABBOTT, S 377: That is, ' since thou comest.' The participle is sometimes so separated from the verb that it seems to be used absolutely.

25. usage] According to Schmidt, only used by Sh, in the sense of treatment. 32. intermission] CAPELL: Message intermediate. Though he saw me then Which presently they read; on whose contents

33 They summond up their meiny, straight took horse; Commanded me to follow and attend

35 The leisure of their answer; gave me cold looks. And meeting here the other messenger, Whose welcome, I perceived, had poison'd mineBeing the very fellow which of late Display'd so saucily against your highnessHaving more man than wit about me, drew; He raised the house with loud and coward cries. Your son and daughter found this trespass worth The shame which here it suffers. Fool. Winter's not gone yet, if the wild geese fly that way. 45

Fathers that wear rags



33. whose] those Ff, Rowe, Pope, Han. Knt.

34. meiny) meiney F,F, men Q9. Jen. 37. And] 1, Jen.

39. which] that Qq, Cap. Mal. Steev. Bos. Sing. Ktly, Glo.+.

41. drew] I drew Rowe +, Cap. Ec.
44. The shame] This fame Qq.
45-53. Om. Qq.
45. Winter's] Winters F,Fz.

wild] wild F,
46–51. Three lines, Ff, Rowe, Knt.



in the action of presenting a prior letter. STEEVENS: Without pause, without suffering time to intervene; so in Macb. IV, iii, 232. COWDEN CLARKE: 'In defiance of pause required,' for him to take breath or for me to rise from my knee and receive my

We think this interpretation is borne out by the only three other passages in which Sh. uses this word. Mer. of Ven. III, ii, 201, As You Like It, II, vii, 32, and Macb. Schmidt: Though my business was thus interrupted and the answer delayed which I was to receive. [In colloquial phrase, “ in spite of " first come, first served.”' '—En.]

33. presently] Immediately. See Sh. passim.

34. meiny] POPE: People. MASON: The word menial, which is derived from it, is still in use.

KNIGHT: In the old translation of the Bible we find : And Abraham saddled his ass, and took two of his meyny with him, and Isaac his son.' In our present translation, we have young men in place of .meyny.' WRIGHT: Cotgrave gives : “Mesnie: f. A meynie, familie, household, household companie, or seruants.' MOBERLY : Nares quotes the French proverb, de tel seigneur telle mesnie.' It is supposed to occur in the late Latin forms mainada,' .mainata' (familiæ piratarum quæ mainatæ dicuntur), and this may be true if, as Diez supposes, it is connected with the low Latin mansionata.' It should however be re. marked that meyny' means

within' in old Cornish; whence mayn,' a friend, plural mayny.' [For its use in Chaucer and Spenser see Corson's note on line 1057 in his ed. of The Legende of Goode Women:]

41. drew] ABBOTT, S 399 : Where there can be no doubt what the nominative is, it is sometimes omitted. But (S 401) a nominative in the second person plural, or first person (as here, ‘(1) drew'), is less commonly omitted. See also II, ii, 114.

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Do make their children blind.
But fathers that bear bags

Shall see their children kind.
Fortune, that arrant whore,

Ne'er turns the key to th' poor.-
But, for all this, thou shalt have as many dolours for thy
daughters as thou canst tell in a year.

Lear. O, how this mother swells up toward my heart!
Hysterica passio, down, thou climbing sorrow,
Thy element's below !-Where is this daughter?

Kent. With the earl, sir, here within.


52, 53. this...daughters] this, it follozi's......daughters dear Coll. ii (MS), reading 52, 53 as four lines of rhyme.

52. dolours ] Dolors F,F,F:

52. for thy] for thy deare Fz for thy dear F,F, Rowe, Pope. from thy dear Theob. Han. Warb. Cap. Jen. Ec. from thy Sing. Ktly.

54. up toward ] up to Jen.

55. Hysterica) Historica Qq, F,F, Hystorica Fz

57, 58. With...not;] One line, Steev. '93, Bos. Knt, Coll. Del. Sing. Dyce, Wh. Ktly, Glo.

57. here] Om. Qq.



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52. dolours] STEEVENS: The same quibble on • dolours' and dollars occurs in Temp. II, i, 18, and Meas. for Meas. I, ii, 50.

52. for] For other instances of 'for' equivalent to 'on account of,' see Macb. III, i, 120, or ABBOTT, $ 150.

53. tell] WRIGHT: Count or recount, according to the sense in which dolours' is understood.

54. mother] PERCY: Lear here affects to pass off the swelling of his heart, ready to burst with grief and indignation, for the disease called the Mother, or Hysterica Passio, which, in our author's time, was not thought peeuliar to women only. In Harsnet's Declaration of Popish Impostures, Richard Mainy, Gent, one of the pretended demoniacs, deposes, p. 263, that the first night that he came to Denham, the seat of Mr. Peckham, where these impostures were managed, he was somewhat evill at ease, and he grew worse and worse with an old disease that he had, and which the priests persuaded him was from the possession of the Devil, viz. • The disease I spake of was a spice of the Mother, wherewith I had bene troubled ... before my going into Fraunce: whether I doe rightly term it the Mother or no, I know not. ... When I was sicke of this disease in Fraunce, a Scottish doctor of physick then in Paris, called it, as I remember, l'ertiginem Capitis. It riseth ...of a winde in the bottome of the belly, and proceeding with a great swelling, causeth a very painful collicke in the stomack, and an extraordinary giddines in the head.' It is at least very probable, that Sh. would not have thought of making Lear affect to have the Hysterick Passion, or Mother, if this passage in Ilarsnet’s pamphlet had not suggested it to him, when he was selecting the other particulars from it, in order to furnish out his character of Tom of Bedlam, to whom this demoniacal gibberish is admirably adapted. RITSON: In p. 25 of the above pamphlet it is said, “ Ma: Maynie had a spice of the Hysterica passio, as seems, from his youth, he himselse termes it the Moother.'

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