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Having participated in those discussions, the author was requested to write out and publish his remarks. This he has done, introducing, however, new trains of thought, and expanding others at which he merely glanced in the hurry of debate. His main purpose has been to establish two propositions: 1, the Sabbath is coeval with our race; 2, the substitution of the first day of the week for the seventh is divinely authorized. The argument is particularly adapted to meet the more recent objections which have been brought against this institution. It is an ingenious and successful vindication of the truth.
11.-Godly Meditations upon the Most Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper. By Christopher Sutton, D. D., late Prebend of Westminster. With a Preface by J. H. Newman, B. D., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. New-York: D. Appleton & Co. 1841. pp. 335.
12.-Disce Mori :-Learn to Die. By Christopher Sutton, D. D., late Prebend of Westminster. New-York: D. Appleton & Co. 1841. pp. 310.
Respecting the author of these volumes, very little is known. He is supposed to have been born about 1565. He entered Oxford University in 1582; in 1587, he was ordained and presented to the vicarage of Raneham, in the county of Essex; in 1588, he became rector of Caston, in Hampshire. In 1605, James I. had made him a prebendary of the Abbey Church of St. Peter's, Westminster, in consequence of his eloquence as a preacher. The only works which he published were his Disce Vivere, Disce Mori and Godly Meditations. These were all very popular in the 17th century. In 1677, the last of these had reached its thirteenth edition.
The two works whose titles we have given above are written in the genuine spirit of the epoch in which their author lived. With fewer defects of style than most writers of that period, he has something of their quaintness and much of their shrewdness. With less affluence of illustration and less splendor of imagery than Jeremy Taylor, he exhibits the same delightful spirit. The work on the Sacrament is practical and devotional. Its object is to assist the believer in directing his meditations before, during and after his approaches to this ordinance. Though somewhat diffuse and immethodical at times, it abounds in useful thought, and its serious perusal cannot fail to do good. The Disce Mori, in plan and execution, is similar to the Godly Meditations. Both volumes are
printed in that beautiful style of typography, which we had occasion to commend in our notice of Patrick's Hearts' Ease and Wilson's Sacra Privata.
13.—The Natural History of Society in the Barbarous and Civilized State: An Essay towards discovering the Origin and Course of Human Improvement, by W. Cooke Taylor, Esq, LL. D. M. R. A. S. of Trinity College, Dublin. Vols. I, II. New-York: D. Appleton & Co. 1841. pp. 332, 328.
This work, we observe, has been favorably noticed in the English Reviews. We are glad to see it so soon issued by an American publisher. It embraces a pleasing variety of curious and interesting topics; and though it is not remarkable for the originality of its views, it exhibits evidences of a commendable extent of research, and embodies many philosophical considerations and conclusions respecting the numerous and diversified facts which are here brought together both in combination and contrast. The subjects discussed in these volumes are--Characteristics and Tendencies of Barbarism and Civilization, Social Relations, Property, Personal Security,State of Nature,-War, Indigence, Superstitious Customs,Varieties of Savage Life, its Arts,-Evidences of Lost Civilization, its Remains in North and South America, Scripture Account of its Origin, described in the book of Job,-Egyptian Civilization, also Babylonian and Assyrian, Persian, Phonician and Carthaginian, Grecian and Roman Civilization,— Polytheism, Christianity and its Influence on Civilization,the Overthrow of the Roman Empire, its Effects,-Progress of Civilization during the Middle Ages,-Circumstances contributing to its advancement, etc. Some of these chapters we have read with interest, particularly those on lost civilization, in which the conclusions of the author, though published before the report of the discoveries of Messrs. Stevens and Catherwood in Central America, will be much strengthened by the remains of ancient art and greatness, which those enterprising travellers have brought to the consideration of the learned world. The chapters on the origin of civilization, as indicated in the Old Testament, and the influence of Christianity upon its increase and extension, are especially good. But we have no space to extend our remarks, and must close by commending the work to our readers, as well worthy of the beautiful style in which Mr. Appleton has brought it before the American public.
14.-Themes for the Pulpit; being a collection of nearly three thousand Topics with Texts, suitable for Public Discourses in the Pulpit and Lecture Room; mostly compiled from the published Works of ancient and modern Divines. By Abraham C. Baldwin. New-York: M. W. Dodd. 1841. pp. 324.
The object and the utility of this book are obvious from the title. The compiler observes with truth that "there are few clergymen who have not at times found it more difficult to select an interesting and useful subject, than to prepare a sermon after a suitable subject has been found." To aid his brethren in such circumstances has been his design in preparing this volume. It has no affinity with books of "Skeletons," and "Outlines of Sermons." It is a naked collection of subjects, accompanied with texts of Scripture, and the names of the authors from whom they have been taken. For those who are young in the ministry in particular, Mr. Baldwin has performed a valuable service.
15.-The Philosophy of History; in a Course of Lectures, by Frederick von Schlegel. With a Memoir of the Author, by James B. Robertson, Esq. In two volumes. New-York: D. Appleton & Co. 1841. pp. 319, 302.
Every student of history will do well to read these volumes; not that every sentiment which they contain is correct, but while many of the opinions here advanced are sound and just, even those which are questionable will reward a careful exami nation. With all the misdeeds of his political and literary career, it must be admitted that Schlegel had some rare qualifications for writing the philosophy of history. In addition to those extensive attainments which are common to the first scholars of Germany, he possessed an acquaintance with Asiatic learning, equally varied and profound. History, moreover, was his favourite study. To whatever subject his attention was directed, its bearing on the intellectual and social development of our race was diligently scrutinized. The Philosophy of History, it should be remembered, was undertaken in the full maturity of his vigorous and cultivated mind. Indeed these Lectures were the last production which he lived to finish. Having completed their delivery in 1828, he repaired to Dresden near the close of the year, and commenced a course on the Philosophy of Language. While writing the tenth Lecture, his labors were arrested, and he died Jan. 12th, 1829.
The first two Lectures of the work before us embrace the
relation of man to the earth, the division of mankind into nations, and the twofold condition of humanity in the primitive world. In the seven succeeding Lectures are considered the antiquity and institutions of China, the mental culture and philosophy of the Hindoos, the science and corruption of Egypt, the privileges and destinies of the Hebrews, the Persians with their nature-worship, manners and conquests, the Greeks with their learning and power, the Romans with their universal dominion. The next five Lectures treat of Christianity,—its consolidation and diffusion,-the emigration of the Germanic tribes, the Saracens in the brilliant age of the Caliphs, the establishment of a Christian empire in Germany, the great schism of the West, the struggles of the middle age, the Crusades, the discovery of the new world. The three following Lectures are devoted to religious wars, Illuminism, the French Revolution; and the last Lecture considers the prevailing spirit of the age and the universal regeneration of society.
The translator of these volumes is a warm admirer of Schlegel, particularly, it would seem, because of the latter's conversion to Catholicism. But his qualifications for the work he has undertaken are certainly not of the highest order.
15.-Psychology; or a View of the Human Soul, including Anthropology, adapted for the use of Colleges. By Rev. Frederick A. Rauch, D. P., Late President of Marshall College, Penn. Second Edition, Revised and Improved. New York: M. W. Dodd. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. Philadelphia : Thomas, Coperthwait & Co. 1841. pp. 401.
By turning to our notice of the first edition of this work,Repository, July, 1840,-our readers will perceive that the present edition has been enlarged by about thirty pages. The additions and changes which have been made, as far as we have been able to examine them, we regard as improvements in the style and finish of the work. They were principally made by the author's own hand; though he had not quite completed his revision, when it pleased God to arrest his useful and important labors by the hand of death. His decease in the midst of his career is an event which we record with no ordinary feelings of sorrow. In it we have ourselves been called to mourn the loss of a personal friend and helper in our work, while the country has been deprived of one of its most thoroughly educated and accomplished scholars. The Institution over which he presided, the church, and the cause of educa
tion and learning are deeply affected by the removal of one so highly gifted, from so wide a sphere of present and prospective usefulness. But his works will remain to perpetuate, in some degree, the influence which his living labors were beginning to exert. The present volume has been issued under the critical eye of Professor Nevin, of the same Institution, from whose preliminary notice we learn that a systematic work on Moral Philosophy, which was nearly prepared by Dr. Rauch, and intended to follow his Psychology, will probably be given to the public.
16.-Remarks on the "Oxford Theology," in connection with its bearing upon the Law of Nature and the Doctrine of Justification by Faith. By Vanbrugh Livingston. New-York: John S. Taylor. 1841. pp. 227.
The author of this little volume is a highly respectable and educated layman, and, as we understand, a member of the Episcopal church. But we have not heretofore known him as a writer on Theology. He now appears, however, as a defender of the Oxford Divines, especially against the imputations cast upon them by Bishop McIlvaine, in his work which we noticed with commendation in our No. for January last, and also against some strictures on the Oxford Divinity in a late No. of the Princeton Review. His work is a continuous discussion, without any break or division into chapters; and we have found it difficult to divide it into parts for the purpose an analysis. Its aim is single and its argument repetitious. The writer professes not to have read the whole of the "Tracts for the Times," and disavows an entire agreement in all the views of the Oxford writers. But in respect to the Doctrine of Justification by Faith, on which Bishop McIlvaine charges them with holding the prominent error of the church of Rome, in opposition to the doctrine of the Anglican church, our author maintains that the charge is unfounded, and that, on the contrary, the views of Oxfordism on this subject are sustained by the Thirty-nine Articles. Here he takes his ground boldly with the Oxford writers. His views, however, according to our conceptions, are far from being discriminating and just. Regeneration, justification and sanctification are so confounded together, that the real difference between his positions and those which he opposes is often unintelligible; and his reasoning, though respectable, is on the whole unsatisfactory.