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II.

20.

4

SOCIETY.—The Fabian Society consists of Socialists

its Rules, etc., and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary, at the Fabian Office, 276 Strand, London, W.C. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM.

(30th Thousand.) Library Edition, 6/-; or, direct from the Secretary for Cash, 4/6 (postage, 43d.). Cheap Edition, Paper cover, 1l-; plain cloth, 2/-. At all booksellers, or post free from the Secretary for 1/- and 2/- respectively.

FABIAN TRACTS. 1.--Why are the Many Poor? 100th thous. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; 1/- per 100. 5.–Facts for Socialists. A survey of the distribution of income and the con

dition of classes in England, gathered from official returns, and from the works of economists and statisticians. 6th edition ; revised 1893. 55th

thousand. 16 pp., 1d.; or 9d. per doz. 7.-Capital and Land. A similar survey of the distribution of property, with

a criticism of the distinction sometimes set up between Land and Capital

as instruments of production. 4th ed.; revised 1893. 16 pp., 1d.; or 9d. doz. 10.-Figures for Londoners. _20th thous. 4 pp., 6 for 1d. ; 1/- per 100.

-The Workers' Political Program. 20th thous. 20 pp., 1d.; 9d. per doz. 12.-Practicable Land Nationalization. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 13:—What Socialism Is. 80th thous. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 14.—The New Reform Bill. A draft Act of Parliament providing for Adult

Suffrage, Payment of Members and their election expenses, Second Ballot,

and a thorough system of Registration. 15th thous. 20 pp., 1d.; 9d. doz. 15.-English Progress towards Social Democracy. By SIDNEY WEBB. 1d.;

9d. per doz. 16.-A Plea for an Eight Hours Bill. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; 1/- per 100. 17.-Reform of the Poor Law. By SIDNEY WEBB. 20 pp., 1d.; 9d. per doz. 19.-What the Farm Laborer Wants. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100.

- Questions for Poor Law Guardians. pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 21.-Questions for London Vestrymen. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 22.—The Truth about Leasehold Enfranchisement, gives reasons why Soci

alists oppose the proposal. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 23.—The Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 16 pp., 1d.; or 9d. per doz. 24.-Questions for Parliamentary Candidates. 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 25.-Questions for School Board Candidates. 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 26.- Questions for London County Councillors. 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 27.—Questions for Town Councillors. 4 pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 28.-Questions for County Councillors (Rural). 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 29.-- What to Read. A List of Books for Social Reformers. Contains the best

books and blue-books relating to Economics, Socialism, Labor Movements,

Poverty, etc. 2nd ed.; revised 1893. Paper cover, 3d. each; or 2/3 per doz. 38.- A Welsh Translation of No. 1. pp., 6 for 1d.; or 1/- per 100. 39.-A Democratic Budget. 16 pp., 1d.; or 9d. per doz. 40.—The Fabian Manifesto for the General Election of 1892. 16 pp., 1d.

each; or 9d. per doz. 41.—The Fabian Society: What it has done and how it has done it.

By BERNARD SHAW. 32 pp., 1d. each; or 9d. per doz. 42.--Christian Socialism. By the Rev. STEWART D. HEADLAM. 16 pp., 1d.

each; or 9d. per doz. 43.–Vote, Vote, Vote. 2 pp. leaflet; 5/- per 1,000. 44.--A Plea for Poor Law Reform. pp. 6 for 1d. ; or 1/- per 100. 45.--The Impossibilities of Anarchism. By G. BERNARD SHAW. 28 pp., 2d.

each; or 1/6 per doz. 46.—Socialism and Sailors. By B. T. HALL. 16 pp., 1d. each; or 9d. per doz. 47.—The Unemployed. By John BURNS, M.P. 20

FABIAN MUNICIPAL PROGRAM (Tracts Nos. 30 to 37). 1. The Unearned Increment. 2. London's Heritage in the City Guilds. 3. Municipalization of the Gas Supply. 4. Municipal Tramways. 5. London's Water Tribute. 6. Municipalization of the London Docks. 7. The Scandal of London's Markets. 8. A Labor Policy for Public Authorities. Each 4 pp. The eight in a red cover for 1d. (9d. per doz.); or separately 1/- per 100. The Set post free 23. Bound in Buckram (including Tract 8,

“ Facts for Londoners ”') post free for 3/9. Manifesto of English Socialists. Issued by the Joint Committee of Socialist Bodies. In red cover. 8 pp., 1d. each; or 9d. per doz.

Parcels to the value of 10 - and upwards, post free.

4

The Fabian Municipal Program, No. 4.

Municipal Tramways.

.

WHY NOT MUNICIPALISE THE TRAMWAYS?

In London, for instance, the 126 miles of tramways are in the hands of one large and ten smaller companies, whose aggregate capital, swollen, as usual, by legal and Parliamentary expenses, amounts, as stated in the table below, to nearly

THREE AND A HALF MILLIONS STERLING, Their receipts exceed the working expenses by about £240,000 annually, or nearly 7 per cent. on their nominal capital, which goes to maintain the body of eight or ten thousand share and debenture holders, who are at present permitted to derive a tribute from London's need of locomotive facilities. The shareholders of the largest company, owning one-third of the whole of the lines (North Metropolitan), have for many years received a dividend of between 9 and 10 per cent. per annum on their shares: Statistics of the Length, Capital Expenditure, Receipts, Expenditure, and

Net Profit of the Tramway Companies in London, for the year 1890.

Name of Company. .

Length
open.

Paid-up
Capital.

Total Total
Receipts. Expenses.

Surplus.

Mls. Chs.
41 58
21 58
13 40
12 72
8 59
9 73
4 72
5 60

57
1 61

641

4

126

47

£
£
$

£ * North Metropolitan (1869)

1,277,479 405,292 294,432 110.800 London (1869)

660,000 300,220 223,702 76,518 London Street (1870)

379,500 126,442 101,081 25,361 South London (1879)

366,960 74,063 63,647 10,416 West Metropolitan (1873)

202,500 26,917 21.640 5,277 * North London (1879

183.466

17,250 16.009 Southwark and Deptford (1879)

162,389 24.474 19,745 4,729 London Southern (1882)

112,500
14,746

12,617 2,129 Highgate Hill (1882)

No return rendered. Harrow Road, Paddington (1886)

75,000

9,526 7,852 1,674 Woolwich and South-East London (1880)

77
72,220 14,968

11,920 3,048 3,492,014 1,013,898 773,245

240,653 * About to be amalgamated. How this dividend is obtained is known to all men. The 5,000 tramway drivers, conductors, horsekeepers and labourers working London's 1,022 licensed tramcars (C-6,472), are among the hardest worked, most cruelly treated, and worst paid of London's wage slaves. Sixteen hours' work for 4s. wage is no uncommon day's record; whilst Sundays or other holidays are known to them only as times of extra traffic. Tramway servants in other towns (with the one exception of Huddersfield) are in much the same state. Nor is it possible to remedy this “ white slavery” whilst the tramways remain in private hands. Mrs. Reaney and other well-known philanthropists have in vain used every mode of appeal to the consciences of the shareholders. The Trade Union induce them to forego any material part of their dividend in order to improve the condition of the servants by whose toil they live.

But why should London leave its most important lines of internal communication in private hands, to be used as a source of private tribute, wrung from the oppression of the workers? In 29 provincial municipalities and urban districts of Great Britain the local authority itself owns the local tramways, amounting in the aggregate to 214 miles, or more than a fourth of the whole tramway mileage. Most of these corporations lease out the lines to exploiting companies; but they can put what conditions they please in the leases, and if the tram servants of Liverpool, Glasgow, or Birmingham are oppressed, the remedy is in the hands of the municipal electors. But one corporation, at any rate, does not shrink from the

DIRECT ORGANISATION OF LABOUR, and gives no opportunity to the middleman. The Huddersfield Town Council obtained statutory power in 1882 (45 and 46 Vic., c. 236) to work its own tramways; and has done so with marked success and

an annual profit. The Liverpool Corporation demanded similar statutory power in 1889, but has not yet taken over its lines. The Glasgow Corporation has lately resolved to follow the example of Huddersfield. The London County Council already owns and works a free steam-ferry at Woolwich, served by two steamboats lit by electricity.

The public has now an unparalleled opportunity in the matter. The tramway companies only received their concessions on condition that the local authority should have power to take over the whole concern at the expiration of 21 years from the time when the promoters were empowered to construct the line in each case, upon payment only of the actual value of the stock and plant (33 and 31 Vic., cap. 78, sec. 43). The first company completed this period, as regards part of its lines, in 1891 ; and, after fierce opposition from the reactionary members, the London County Council resolved, in October, 1891, to exercise the rights given to it by Parliament, and to take over the four miles of line which had fallen in, on payment of the actual value of the rails and plant.

In nearly every succeeding year a further portion of London's tramways can become London's property in this way. The same is the case in other towns. But the workers must insist upon the rights of the public being exercised, or the capitalists will once more juggle us out of our inheritance. Insist on the taking over of every piece of tramway as soon as possible. But there are two ways of taking over the tramways. Either the public line may be leased out to capitalists to exploit the tram slaves as before; or the Town or County Council may work the line itself without any contractor. The first is the method of Liverpool; the last is the method of Huddersfield, soon to be copied by Glasgow. Under the one system, the worker may still haie to work 16 hours a day; but under the management of the Huddersfield Town Council, the tramway servants work in two shifts EIGHT HOURS a day each.

In most cases, however, it is merely the lines that are owned by the public authority, not the working plant. A special clause in the Tramways Act of 1870 expressly prohibits, indeed, any public authority from itself working á tramway without the intervention of a contracting middleman. This was, perhaps, the last occasion on which the now universally exploded doctrine of “ Administrative Nihilism" was able, unchallenged, to prevail over public industry. It is significant that this deliberate stifling of public enterprise was the work of a President of the Board of Trade (John Bright) who belonged to the old-fashioned Liberalism of the last generation. One of the points to be insisted upon in any grant of further powers to local authorities must be the repeal of this express legal “protection” to the private capitalist of the toll which he levies upon our street communications.

The Huddersfield Town Council, as already mentioned, rebelled against this restriction, and obtained a local Act overruling it. Notwithstanding the Eight Hours Day on their tramways they make a net profit annually, as the following accounts show:

HUDDERSFIELD CORPORATION TRAMWAYS COMMITTEE. Financial Report for Six Months ended 30th Sept., 1890, and 1889. During both of these periods the Drivers and Conductors were

employed on the Eight Hours system.

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Capital Account, £88,039. Depreciation Account, £3,285.

Loan Account, £84,000. Workers, insist that the Town or County Council shall jbtain power to manage as well as to take over the tramways.

THE MHE FABIAN SOCIETY consists of Socialists. A statement of its Rules, etc., and the following publications can be obtained from the Secretary,

at the Fabian Office, 276 Strand, London, W.C. FABIAN ESSAYS IN SOCIALISM.

(22nd Thousand). Library Edition, 68.; or, direct from the Secretary for Cash, 4,6 (postage 452) Cheap Edition, Paper cover, 1/- ; ditto, plain cloth, 21-. At all booksellers,

or post free from the Secretary for 1/- and 2/- respectively.

FABIAN TRACTS. No. 1.- Why are the Many Poor p 75th thous. Price 6 for id.; 1/- per 100.

No. 5.-Facts for Socialists. A survey of the distribution of income and .be condition of classes in England, gathered from official returns, and from tbe works of economists and statisticians. 35th thousand. 16 pp., id. or 9d. per doz.

No. 7.-Capital and Land. A similar survey of the distribution of property, with a criticism of the distinction sometimes set up between Land and Capital as instruments of production. 15th thousand. 16 pp., id. or gd per doz.

No. 8.-Facts for Londoners. 5th thousand. 56 pp., 6d.; or 4/6 doz.

No. 9.–An Eight Hours Bill. Full notes explain the Trade Option clause and the precedents on which the Bill is founded. 2oth thous. 16 pp., id. ; 9d. doz.

No. 10.-Figures for Londoners.. 20th thous. 4 pp., 6 for id. ; 1/- 100. No. 11.–The Workers'Political Programme. 2oth thous. 2opp., 10., 9d.doz No. 12.-Practicable Land Nationalization. 4 pp., 6 for id; or 1/- 100. No. 13.-What Socialism Is. Both thous. 4 pp., 6 for id. ; or 1/- per 100,

No. 14.- The New Reform Bill. A draft Act of Parliament providing for Adult Suffrage, Payment of Members and their election expenses, Second Ballot, and a thorough system of Registration. 15th thous. 20 pp., id.; or gd. per doz.

No. 15.- English Progress towards Social Democracy. id. ; 9d, doz.
No. 16.-A Plea for an Eight Hours Bill. 4 pp., 6 for id. ; 1/- per 100.
No. 17.-Reform of the Poor Law. 20 pp., id.; od. per doz,
No. 18.-Facts for Bristol. 16 pp, id.; or 9d. doz.
No. 19.—What the Farm Labourer Wants. 4 pp., 6 for id.; or 11- 100,
No. 20.- Questions for Poor Law Guardians. 4 pp., 6 for id.; or 1/- 100.
No. 21.- Questions for London Vestrymen. 4 pp., 6 for id.; or 1/- 100.

No. 22.- The Truth about Leasehold Enfranchisement, gives reasons why Socialists oppose the proposal. 4 pp., 6 for id.; or 1/- per 100.

No. 23.-The Case for an Eight Hours Bill. 16 pp., id.; or gd. per doz. No. 24. - Questions for Parliamentary Candidates. 6 for id or 1/- 100. No, 25.- Questions for School Board Candidates. 6 for id. or 1/• 100. No. 26.-Questions for London County Councillors. 6 for id. or 1/- 100. No. 27.-Questions for Town Councillors. 4 pp., 6 for id. or 1/- 100. No. 28.--Questions for County Councillors (Rural). 6 for id. or 1/- 100.

No. 29.- What to Read. A List of Books for Social Reformers. Contains the best books and blue-books relating to Economics, Socialism, Labour Movements, Poverty, &c. Paper cover, 3d. each or 2/3 per doz.

Each 4 pp.,

8 for id. or 1/- 100.

The Fabian Municipal Programme.
No. 1 (Tract No. 30).—The Unearned Increment.
No. 2 (Tract No. 31).-London's Heritage in the City Guilds.
No. 3 (Tract No. 32.)-Municipalization of the Gas Supply.
No. 4 (Tract No. 33.)-Municipalization of Tramways.
No. 5 (Tract No. 34.)

-London's Water Tribute.
No. 6 (Tract No. 35.)–Municipalization of the London Docks.
No. 7 (Tract No. 36.)-The Scandal of London's Markets.
No. 8 (Tract No. 37.)-A Labour Policy for Public Authorities.

The set post free for two shillings. THE LECTURE List, containing the names of one hundred and ten lecturers, who offer their services gratuitously, may be obtained on application to the Şecretary. Upwards of 1,400 lectures and addresses were delivered by members during the year ended in March, 1891,

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