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BOTTA. 27

arrived at Baghdad, they are hroken up, the wood sold, often at a profit, and the skins brought back to Mosul, to serve again for the same purpose. Such were the means that Botta successfully employed for transporting the sculptures down the river towards the sea—the rafts of the required solidity being secured by the use of timber of a large size cut in the mountains, and the number of skins proportioned to the dimensions of the raft.

Not content with giving to his countryman, Flandin, all the credit due for the assistance he rendered on the works of Khorsabad, we find in Botta's book a paragraph of grateful praise awarded to a more humble, yet scarcely less valuable assistant whom he found on the scene of operations. "As my principal object," says the savant, "in writing my introductory chapter, was to do justice to those who assisted me in my labours, the reader will, I hope, pardon me for naming the chief of the workmen, Naaman ebn Naouch (Naaman the son of Naouch), who, from the commencement of my researches in the mound of Kouyunjik up to the termination of the works, never failed to give me convincing proofs of two qualities which are very rare in his country—namely, intelligence and probity. It was he whom I charged to go and explore Khorsabad, and it was he who discovered its hidden treasures. Since that time his activity and his spirit of invention were of the greatest assistance to me when in a difficult position; and it is certainly to him that I owe the fact of my having been able to surmount the difficulties I met with during the removal of the sculptures."

Some time elapsed before all the sculptures obtained from the mound at Khorsabad had been successfully landed at Baghdad, and confided to the care and intelligence of the French Consul-General, who was charged to forward them to their ultimate destination. It was not till the month of March, 1846, that the wished-for vessel, the Cormorant, could reach Bassora. The consul then experienced as much difficulty in shipping the ponderous masses on board the boats of that part of the country, as had before been felt in Bending them as far as Baghdad; but he eventually succeeded, and had them carried down the Tigris to the place where the vessel awaited them. In the beginning of June, Lieutenant Cabaret shipped them

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without accident, and setting sail from Bassora, arrived in December, 1846, after a favourable passage, at Havre; where at the close of the year was landed the first collection of Assyrian antiquities that had ever been brought to Europe. They now form one of the greatest attractions in the noble museum of the Louvre.

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TnF, last and most important of the labourers in the field of Assyrian antiquities, is our own countryman, Austen Henry Layard; and to him, therefore, the following chapter is dedicated.

Layard commenced his career, as a traveller, in the summer of 1839, when he visited Russia and other northern countries. Without any very definite plans, he journeyed in succession through various states in Germany, paying special attention to those on the Danube, mastering not only the German language itself, but several of the dialects of Transylvania, anil Montenegro. From Montenegro he travelled through Albania and Roumelia, and not without perilous and troublesome adventures made his way to Constantinople, which he reached about the latter part of the year.

Having by this time seen all that was most remarkable in Europe, a new field seemed opening upon him, full of interest, in Asia. His experience as a traveller had rendered him hardy, and equal to the emergencies of European journeyings; but new languages and new habits—a more perfect reliance upon himself—were requisite before he could plunge into the half

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