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ments of a man in a paroxysm of rage against | Seneca his style, and as full of notable morathe whole world. Towards the close of his litie, which it doth most delightfully teach, and days, he seems to have repented of his so obtain the very end of poesie : yet, in truth, excesses; for in a pamphlet called Christ's it is very defectious in the circumstances; Tears over Jerusalem, he writes thus: “A which grieves me, because it might not remain hundred unfortunate farewells to fantasticall| an exact model of all tragedies. For it is faultie satirisme. In those vaines, heretofore I mispent both in place and time, the two necessary commy spirit, and prodigally conspired against panions of all compositions." good bours. Nothing is there now so much in my vowes as to be at peace with all men, and
LODGE. make submissive amends where I have most displeased. To a lillle more wit have my A Doctor of medicine in great practice toincreasing yeeres reclaimed mee than I had wards the end of Elizabeth's reigo. He aebefore; those that have been perverted by any quired considerable extra-professional reputaof my workes, let them reade this, and it shall lion, both as a poet and a wit. His dramatic thrice more benefit them. The autumne 1 works are, Wounds of Civil War, 1594, and imitate, in shedding my leaves with the trees, A Looking Glass for London and England, and so doth the peacocke shead his taile.” Nash 1594. Judging from these compositions, the was peculiarly successful in satire; in an old writer seems to have been most happy in salire; copy of verses he is thus spoken of ;
there is a playful smartness about his jokes
, "Sharply satiric was he, and that way
which is highly agreeable and amusing.
This author, the most popular writer of his Nash composed three p.ays; among tnem times, was born about 1553. He studied first was Dido, Queen of Cartbage. Copies of this at Oxford, but latterly at Cambridge; being of drama are uncommonly scarce. Malone gave good family, he followed the court, expecting 161. 168. for one at Dr. Wright's sale.
to be appointed master of the revels, but he
reaped nothing from attendance on Elizabeth THOMAS SACKVILLE, LORD but disappointinent, the usual wages of cour. BUCKHURST.
tiers. He died in the prime of life, 1597,
universally regretted and respected. His One of the most illustrious noblemen of an dramas are nine in number: Alexander and age when titular honours were bestowed, not Campaspe, 1584, and Mother Bombie, 1594, merely as nominal distinctions, but as the best are the best ; but his claims on the notice of rewards for great and virtuous actions. He is posterity are referable to the two following mentioned here on account of his having been works, of which we shall give the titles at length, concerned in the composition of Ferrex and as he therein made the praiseworthy attempt Porrex, the first regular tragedy ever performed to reform and purify our language from the unon the English stage. Or this drama, surrep-couth, barbarous, and obsolete expressions bị tiliously printed under the lille of Gorboduc, which it was then overrun :-The Anatomie 1565, and with its present designation 1571, of Wit, verie pleasant for all Gentlemen to Norton wrote the first three acts, and Lord read, and most necessary to remember: where Buckhurst, then Mr. Sackville, the last two. in are contayned the Delyghts that Wit followeth It was acted by the gentlemen of the Inner in his Youth by the pleasantnesse of Love, and Temple, at Whitehall, before queen Elizabeth, the Happiness he reapeth in Age by the Per on the 18th of
nuary, 1561, many years fectnesse of Wisdome, quarto, bl. lett. 1581. prior to the appearance of Shakspeare. Sir -Euphues and his England, containing bis Philip Sidney, in bis Defence of Pocsie, says, Voyage and Adventures, mixt with sundrie
Our tragedies and comedies, not without prettie Discourses of honest Love, the Decause cried out against, observing rules neither scription of the Countrie, the Court, and the of honest civilitie, nor skilful poetrie, excepting Manners of that Isle, delightful to be read, and Gorboduc, which, notwithstanding as it is full nothing hurtfull to be regarded : wherein there of stately speeches, climbing to the height of is small Offence by Lightnesse given to the Wise, and less Occasion of Loosenesse proffered | Tho. Nash, or John Heywood.” lo 1608, to the Wanlon, quarto, bl. lett. 1582. lbis same ager maintained at Oxford, a tbesis,
Lyly has commilled many extravagancies in that it was lawful for husbands to beat their these productions, and they were, no doubt, wives; so that his elaborate Lalin dramas bave much overrated; but the excellencies which small chance of finding favour with the blues of they unquestionably contained are now as un- the nineteenth century. justly overlooked; for is, on the whole, Lyly's allempl must be considered a failure, on such
PRESTON. un occasion even failure was glorious, and ensties bim to be remembered with respect.
This persC... wrote about 1561, A lament
able Tragedie, mixed full of pleasant Mirth; GREEN.
contayning the Life of Cambises, King of
Persia, from the beginning of his Kingdome This highly talented, but most immoral unto his Death; his one good Deede of Execuauthor, was celebrated, in bis day, for a broad tion after the many wicked Deeds and tirranous and coarse, but spirited and characteristic vein Murders commilled by and through him; and of humour, which runs through all his produc- last of all, his odious Death by God's Justice tions. His dramas are very numerous, and appointed; doon on such Order as followeth. many plays are ascribed to him on mere sup- Which Shakspeare is supposed to ridicule, position ; but he undoubtedly wrote The His- when he makes Falstaff talk of speaking in king tory of Friar Bacon and Friar Bongay, 1594; Cambyses’ vein. The Comical llistory of Alphonsus, King of Arragon, 1594; and The Scollishe Story of
WHETSTONE. James the fourthe, slaine at Flodden, intermixed with a pleasant Comedie presented by Oberon, King of the Fairies, 1599. Or this Cassandra, a play of wbich Shakspeare has
This writer is only known by his Promos and last play, Shakspeare seems to have made some undoubtedly availed himself in bis Measure for use in his Midsummer Night's Dream.
Measure. It appears that Whetstone first tried
his fortune at court, and dissipated his patriGASCOIGNE.
mony in vain expectation of preferment. Des
titule of subsistence, he became a soldier, and This author translated The Supposes, from served with so much credit that he was rewarded Ariosto, and Jocasta, from Euripides; besides with additional pay. Honour, however, is a which, be wrote the Glass of Government, bad pay-master, and he was compelled to con1366, and, The Princely Pleasures of Kenil-vert his sword into a ploughshare. His farming worth Castle, 1587. The Supposes is among concerns proved unfortunate, and in his nethe earliest regular dramas produced on our cessity he tried the generosity of his friends. stage; and Gascoigne, both in this translation This he found was “a broken reed, and worse and his original compositions, has displayed than common beggary of charity from strangers. Fery superior endowments.
Now Craft accosted him in his sleepe, and
tempted him with the proposals of several proGAGER.
posals of several professions; but for the knavery
or slavery of them, he rejected all; bis muniA profoundly learned man. His composi- ficence constrained him to love money, and his tions are in the Latin longue, and we should magnanimity lo hale all the ways of getting it.” Bal have noticed him but on account of Anth. He now sought fortune at sea ; but sir Humphrey Wood's singular panegyric of his genius : Gilbert's fleet, in which he had embarked, was
He was an excellent poet, especially in the ruined by an engagement with the Spaniards. Latin language, and reported the best comedian Poor Whetstone was thus reduced to write for of his time, whether it was Edward, ear! of bread. Ascham tells us, that “wits live obOxford, Will
. Rowley, the once ornament for scurely, men care not how, and die neglected, til and ingenuity, of Pembroke Hall in Cam- men mark not where." And where or in what bridge, Richard Edwards, Jobn Lylie, Tho.
manner this amiable man breathed this last, we Lodge, Geo. Gascoigne, Will. Shakspeare,
are lolally ignorant.
from Charles I. After the judicial murder of
that monarch, he retired to the Continent with A native of Warwickshire, much celebrated queen Henrietta and the prince of Wales. for a metrical chronicle of British history, called Being employed in their service, he was taken Albion's England, which is written throughout prisoner, confined at Cowes castle, and his life with great ability, and occasionally evinces a
threatened. Under these trying circumstances, highly poetical spirit
. Percy says of Warner: Davenant's courage was singularly conspicuous —“To bis merit nothing can be objected, un- he was then writing his poem of Gondibert, less, perhaps, an affected quaintness in some of and notwithstanding the almost certain prospect his expressions, and an indelicacy in some of or immediate death, such was his fortitude and his pastoral images.” The following account self possession, that he was able to proceed of his dealh is extracted from the parish register with the work. A fact like this, is more hoof Amwell :—" 1668-9. Master William nourableto Davenant than volumes of panegyric. Warner, a man of good years, and of honest At the intercession of Milton be was spared
, reputation; by his profession, alturney at com- and received permission to open a theatre in mon plese ; author of Albion's England; dyinge Charterhouse Yard. When Charles II. ascended suddenly in the nyght in his bedde, without any the throne, Sir William received a patent to former complaynt or sicknesse, on Thursday act plays at the Duke's theatre, in Lincoln's Inn Dyght, being the 9th daye of March, and was Fields; and here it was that he first introduced buried the Saturday following, and lieth in the the present mode of illustrating the drama by church at the upper end, under the stone of means of appropriate scenery and decorations. Gwalter Sludes." Warner also wrote Syrins, Davenant died at an advanced age, admired or, a Seaven told Historie, handled with va- and beloved by all parties. Dryden, and we rietie of pleasant and profitable, both comicall cannot give nobler praise, estimated his talents and tragicall Argument, 1597.
SIR PHILIP SYDNEY. The water poet, he having been a sculler on
A hero, in whom the chivalrous virtues wbich the Thames. He was once mad enough to we read of in romance, and which we are aeventure himself, with a companion, in a paper customed to treat as fabulous, were realized. boat to Rochester, when they were both nearly His person was the perfection of the human drowned. He seems to have been very illiterate; form; he was brave lo a fault; his munificence but in spite of the most disheartening obstacles, was princely; and his courteous manners won he applied himself to composition, and his pro- the hearts of all that approached him. In the ductions are far from contemptible. Taylor presence of monarchs bis bumility was that of was a violent royalist. At the commencement an equal; but when the poor and miserable of the rebellion he retired to Oxford, but that surrounded him, his countenance beamed with city being surrendered to the parliament, he welcome and kindliness. To all these amiable returned to London and kept a public-house in qualities, were united a depth of learning and Long Acre. At the king's death, he set up the a felicity of genius, which entitled him to rank sign of the Mourning Crown, which, giving with the best writers of his age. He was the offence, he substituted his own effigy, inscribed darling of England and the admiralion of Euwith this distich :
rope. He was born at Penshurst in Kent,
1554; he remained at Oxford till bis 17th year, There's many a king's head hang'd up for a sign, And many a saint's head too. Then why not mive ?"
and then set out on the grand tour. At his
return, in the pride of his youth and the full SIR WILLIAM DAVENANT.
vigour of his intellect, queen Elizabeth ap
pointed him her ambassador to the friendly Born at Oxford, 1605, and supposed by some, German powers ; but when the fame of his though on very slight grounds, to have been valour and genius became so general, that he was a natural son of Sbakspeare's. At Ben Jonson's put in nomination for the kingdom of Poland, death he was chosen laureate ; and in 1643, she refused to sanction his advancement lest she having distinguished himself on a variety of should lose the brightest jewel in her crown. occasions, he received the honour of knighthood His life was one continued course of glorious
actions, and be died the death of a hero, being her pen being nothing short of his, as I am slain at the battle of Zutphen, in 1586, while ready to attest, so far as so inferior a reason be was mounting the third borse, having pre- may be taken, having seen incomparable letlers viously had two killed under him. He wrote of hers. But, lest I should seem to trespass ede dramatic piece, The Lady of the May, a upon truth, which few do unsuborned (as I masque acted before Elizabeth, in the gardens protest I am, unless by her rhetoric), I shall of Wanstead, in Esser ; but his noblest work is leave the world her epitaph, in which the authe Arcadia, which, with his poems, will live thor (B. Jonson), doth manifest himself a poet as long as the language in which they are in all things but untruth: written.
« Underneath this sable hearse
Lies the subject of all verse;
Sydney's sister, Pembroke's mother;
Death, ere thou kill'st such another,
Marble piles let no man raise
To her fame, for after days dedicated his Arcadia. This lady was a gene
Some kind woman, born as she,
Reading this, like Niobe, rous friend of learning and genius, and her own
Shall turn statue, and become endowments were of the first order. Francis
Both her mourner and her tomb." Osborne, in his Memoirs of King James, says of ber, “She was that sister of sir Philip
And these were Sbakspeare's contemporaries ; Sidney, to whom he addressed his Arcadia, and and a few brief pages is all we afford to the of whom he had no other advantage than what fame of those, who, while living, filled the be received from the partial benevolence of world with their genius. Melancholy reflection ! fortone in making bim a man, which yet she-this, if anything can, must teach us the did, in some judgments, recompense in beauty, nothingness of earthly honours.
Original Actors in Shakspeare's Dramas.
This personage, who appeared at the head of The brother of the poet, was a performer at the King's Servants, in the royal license of the Globe, lived in St. Saviour's, and was buried 1603, has escaped the notice of the historian or in the church of that parish. The entry in the nur stage ; and, in truth, we know scarcely register runs thus “ 1606, December 31, [was anything of him. Fletcher was, probably, of buried] Edmond Shakspeare, a player, in the St. Saviour's, Southwark, where several fa- church.” Nothing more is known of him ; milies of that name resided, as may be learnt stimulated, most probably, by bis brother's sucfrom the parish register. He was placed be- cess, he came to the metropolis and attached fore Shakspeare and Richard Burbadge in king himself to the theatre; but he died young, and James's license, as much, perhaps, by accident seems to bave made little progress in his proas design, Augustine Phillips, when be made fession. his will, in May, 1605, bequeathed to his fellow, Laurence Fletcher, twenty shillings. RICHARD BURBAGE, And this fellow of Philips and of Shakspeare Sas buried in St. Saviour's church, on the 12th The most celebrated tragedian of our author's of September, 1608. What plays of our author time, was the son of James Burbage, wbo was be performed in is uncertain, nor does it ap- also an actor, and, perhaps, a countryman of fear whether be excelled in tragedy or comedy. Shakspeare's. He lived in Holywell-street, in the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch; from Philpot's Additions to Camden's Remains we which it may be supposed that he originally find an epitaph on this tragedian more concise played at the Curtain Theatre, which was in than even that on Ben Jonson, being only that neighbourhood. It is singular that he “ Exit Burbage.” The following also appears should have resided, from the year 1600 10 bis in a manuscript in the British Museum : death, in a place so distant from the Blackfriars playhouse, and still further from the Globe, in * Epitaph on Mr. Richard Burbage, the Player. which theatres he acted during the whole of
"This life's a play, scean d out by natures arte,
Where every man hath his allotted parte. that time. By his wise, Winifred, he bad four Tais man hat he now (as many more can tell) daughters, two of whom were baptized by the
Ended his part, and he hath acted well.
The play now ended, think his grave to be name of Juliel. His fondness for the name of The detiring bowse of his sad tragedie ;
Where to give his fame this, be not afraid, Juliet, perhaps, arose from his having been the
Here lies the best tragedian ever plaid.” original Romeo in our author's play. Burbage died about the 13th of March, 1619, and was
JOHN HEMINGES buried in the church of St. Leonard, Shoreditch. His will is still exlant in the Prerogative Oflice, but it contains nothing remarkable. Richard
Is said by Roberts, the player, to have been Burbage is introduced in person in an old play
a tragedian, and, in conjunction with Condell, called The Relurne from Parnassus, and in- to have followed the business of printing, but structs a Cambridge scholar how to play the his authority is doublful. As early as November
, part of King Richara the Third, in which 1597, he appears to have been the manager of character Burbage was greatly admired. That the Lord Chamberlain's Company. This station, he represented this part is proved by bishop for which his prudence qualified him, he held, Corbei, who, in his Iter Boreale, speaking of probably, during forty years. There is reason his host at Leicester, tells us,
lo believe that he was originally a Warwickshire
lad, a shire which bas produced so many When he would have said, king Richard died, players and poets; the Burbages, the ShalAnd callid a horse, a horse, he Burbage cry'd."
speares, the Greens, and the Harts. Or HeHe, probably, also enacted the characters of there is only a tradition that he was the first
minges' cast of characters little is known; King John, Richard II., Henry V., Timon,
representative of Falstaff. He was adopted Brutus, Coriolanus, Macbeth, Lear, and Othello. He was one of the principal sharers or pro- theatrical servants; and was ranked the fish in
by king James, on his accession, as one of his prietors of the Globe and Blackfriars theatres ; the royal license of 1603. He had the honour and was of such eminence, that in a letter, to be remembered in Shakspeare's will, and was preserved in the British Museum, written in
the first editor of Shakspeare's works. Не the year 1613, the actors at the Globe are
died at the age of seventy-five, in the parish of called Burbage's Company. Flecknoe writes thus of him in his Short Discourse of the Eng-according to the register, on the 12th of October,
St. Mary, Aldermanbury; and was buried, lish Stage, 1664: “ He was a delightful Pro
1630. His will, still preserved, devises conteus, so wholly transforming himself into his
siderable properly, and provides various kind parls, and pulling off himself with his cloaths, as he never (not so much as in the trying-tokens of remembrance for his relations and
fellows. house) assumed himself again, until the play was done. He had all the parts of an excellent orator, animating his words with speaking, and
AUGUSTINE PHILLIPS speech with action; his auditors being never more delighted than when he spake, nor more Was placed next to Burbage in the royal li sorry than when he held his peace; yet, even cense of 1603. He was an author as well as a then, he was an excellent actor still; never actor, and left behind him some lodicrous rhymes failing in his part when he had done speaking, which were entered in the Stationers' book i but with his looks and gesture maintaining it 1593, and were entitled The Jigg of th still to the height.” The testimony of sir Ri- Slippers. He is supposed to have performe chard Baker is to the same purpose; he pro- characters in low life. Whatever he migt nounces bim lo have been “such an actor as have been in the theatre, he was certainly no age must ever look to see the like.” Jo respectable man in the world. He amasse