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Hlam ofculari, quâ funt opprefi; manum, proceed to impeach Buckingham; the king commits the managers of that process to the Tower, and res sorting to his prerogative, diffolves his second parliament as suddenly, and more angrily, than his first:
A third parliament meets, and in the interim new grievances of a more awakening fort had fupplied them with an ample field for complaint and remonftrance; in the intermission of their fittings, he had exacted a loan, which they interpreted a tax without parliament, and of course, a flagrant violation of the constitution; this he enforced with fo high a hand, that several gentlemen of name in their counties had been com-, mitted to close imprisonment for refusing payment; ship-money also at this time began to be questioned as an intolerable grievance, and being one of the resources for enabling the crown to govern without a parliament, it was confidered by many as a violation of their rights, an inequitable and oppressive tax, which ought to be refifted, and accordingly it was resisted: This parliament therefore after a fhort and inefficient fitting shared the sudden fate of it's predecessors.
The fame precipitancy, greater blindness, a more confirmed habit of obstinacy and a heightened degree of aggravation marked this period VOL. IV.
of intermiffion from parliaments, for now the leading members of the late house were sent to close imprisonment in the Tower, and informations were lodged against thein in the StarChamber.
The troubles in Scotland made it necessary for the king once more to have resort to a parliament; they met for the fourth time on the thirteenth of April 1640, and the fifth day of the following month fent them back to their conftituents to tell those grievances in the cars of the people, which their fovereign disdained to listen to. III - counselled fovereign ! but will that word apologize for conduct so intemperate? It cannot: A mind, fo flexible towards evil counfel, can poffefs' no requisites for government : What hope now remained for moderate measures, when the people's reprefentatives should again assemble? In this fatat moment the fuel was prepared and the match lighted, to give life to the fames of civil war'; already Scotland had set those sparks into a-blaze; the king unable to extinguifh the conflagration by his own power and resources, for the fifth and last time convenes his parliament; but it was now too late for
any confidence or mutual harmony to subfift between the crown and commons; on the third of November following their last diffolution
the new-elected members take posseffion of their seats and the house foon resounds with resolutions for the impeachment of the minister Strafford and the primate Laud: The humbled monarch confirms the fatal bill of attainder and fends Stafford to the scaffold, he ratifies the act for securing 'parliament against future dissolution, and subscribes to his own death-warrant with
the same pen.
The proceedings of this famous parliament are of a mixed nature; in many we discern the true fpirit of patriotisin, and not a few seem dictated by revenge and violence: The Courts of High Commission and Star-Chamber are abolished; and posterity applauds their deliverers; the city-crosses are pulled down, the bishops sent to the Tower and their whole order menaeed with expulsion from parliament, and here we discover the first dawnings of fanatic phrensy: An incurable breach is made in the constitution; it's branches are dissevered, and the axe of rebellion is laid to the root of the tree: The royal standard is set up; the father of his people becomes the general of a party, and the land is floated with the blood of it's late peaceable inhabitants : Great characters start forth in the concuffion, great virtues and great vices : Equal courage and fuperior conduct at length prevail
for the leaders of the people; a fanatic champion carries all before him ; the sovereign surrenders himself weakly, capitulates feebly, negotiates deceitfully and dies heroically.
And this is the reign, this the exit of a king! Let kings ponder it, for it is a lesson, humbling perhaps to their pride of station, but pointedly addrefled to their instruction.
If there is a trust in life, which calls upon the conscience of the man who undertakes it more strongly than any other, it is that of the educațion of an heir-apparent to a crown: The training such a pupil is a talk indeed; how to open his mind to a proper knowledge of mánkind without letting in that knowledge, which inclines to evil; how to hold off Aattery and yet admit familiarity; how to give the lights of in- , formation and shut out the falle colours of seduction, demands a judgment for diftinguishing : and an authority for controuling, which few governors in that delicate situation ever possess, or cặn long retain:. To educate a prince, born to reign over an enlightened people, upon the narrow scale of secrets and sequestered tuition, would be an abuse of common sense ; to let him loose upon the world is no less hazardous in the other extreme, and each would probably devote him to an inglorious destiny: Thật he should,
know the leading characters in the country he is to govern, be familiar with it's history, it's conftitution, manners, laws and liberties, and correctly comprehend the duties and distinctions of his own hereditary office, are points that no one will dispute : That he should travel through his kingdom I can hardly doubt, but whether those excursions should reach into other states, politically connected with, or opposed to, his own, is more than I will presume to lay down as a general rule, being aware that it must depend upon personal circumstances : Splendor he may be indulged in, but excess in that, as in every thing else, must be avoided, for the mischiefs cannot - be numbered, which it will entail upon him; excess in expence will subject him to obligations of a degrading fort; excess in courtesy will lay him open to the forward and assuming, raise mountains of expectation about him, and all of them undermined by disappointment, ready charged for explosion, when the hand of presumption fhall fet fire to the train : Excess in pleasure will lower him in character, destroy health, respect, and that becoming dignity of mind, that conscious rectitude, which is to direct and support him, when he becomes the dispenser of justice to his subjects, the protector and defender of their religion, the model for their imi