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Pietro della Valle, giving a description of his wife, an Assyrian lady, born in Mesopotamia, and educated at Baghdad, whom he married in that country, (Viaggi, tom. i. lettera 17.), says, “ Her eye-lashes, which are long, and, according to the custom of the East, dressed with stibium, (as we often read in the Holy Scriptures of the Hebrew women of old, Jer. iv. 30. Ezek. xxiii. 40.; and, in Xenophon of Astyages the grandfather of Cyrus, and of the Medes of that time, Cyropæd. lib. 1.), give a dark, and at the same time a majestic shade to the eyes.”—“Great eyes (says Sandys, Travels, p. 67., speaking of the Turkish women,) they have in principal repute ; and of those, the blacker they be, the more amiable : insomuch that they put between the eye-lids and the eye a certain black powder, with a fine long pencil, made of a mineral brought from the kingdom of Fez, and called alcohole ; which, by the not disagreeable staining of the lids, doth better set forth the whiteness of the eye; and though it be troublesome for a time, yet it comforteth the sight, and repelleth ill humours.” 66 Vis ejus [stibii] astringere ac refrigerare, principalis autem circa oculos; namque ideo etiam plerique Platyophthalmon id appellavere, quoniam in calliblepharis mulierum dilatat oculos; et fluxiones inhibit oculorum exulcerationesque.” Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxiii. 6. “ Ille supercilium madida fuligine tinctum Obliqua producit acu, pingitque trementes Attollens oculos.”
Juv. Sat. ii. 92. “ But none of those [Moorish] ladies,” says Dr Shaw, (Travels, p. 294. fol.), “ take themselves to be completely dressed, till they have tinged the hair and edges of their eye-lids with al-kahol, the powder of lead ore. This operation is performed by dipping first into the powder a small wooden bodkin of the thickness of a quill, and then drawing it afterwards through the eye-lids, over the ball of the eye.” Ezekiel (xxiii. 40.) uses the same word in the form of a verb, to'y nana, " thou didst dress thine eyes with al-cohol ; which the LXX render £otißiLou TOUS opdar nous dov, " thou didst dress thine eyes with stibium ; just as they do when the word 710 is employed : (compare 2 Kings ix. 30. Jer. iv. 30.): they supposed therefore, that 713 and 977), or, in the Arabic form, al-cahol, meant the same thing; and probably the mineral used of old, for this purpose, was the same that is used now; which Dr Shaw (Ibid. note) says is “a rich lead ore, pounded into an impalpable powder." Alcoholados; the word nipwa, in this place, is thus rendered in an old Spanish translation. Sanctius. See also Russell's Nat. Hist. of Aleppo, p. 102.
The following inventory, as one may call it, of the wardrobe of a Hebrew lady, must, from its antiquity, and from the nature of the subject, have been very obscure, even to the most ancient interpreters which we have of it; and, from its obscurity, must have been also peculiarly liable to the mistakes of transcribers: however, it is rather matter of curiosity than of importance; and indeed it is, upon the whole, more intelligible, and less corrupted, than one might have reasonably expected. Clemens Alexandrinus (Pædag. lib. ii. cap. 12.) and Julius Pollux (lib. vii. cap. 22.) have each of them preserved, from a comedy of Aristophanes, now lost, a similar catalogue of the several parts of the dress and ornaments of a Grecian lady; which, though much more capable of illustration from other writers, though of later date, and quoted and transmitted down to us by two different authors, yet seems to be much less intelligible, and considerably more corrupted, than this passage of Isaiah. Salınasius has endeavoured, by comparing the two quotations, and by much critical conjecture and learned disquisition, to restore the true reading, and to explain the particulars- with what success, I leave to the determination of the learned reader, whose curiosity shall lead him to compare the passage of the comedian with this of the Prophet, and to examine the critic's learned labours upon it. Exercit. Plinian. p. 1148; or see Clem. Alex, as cited above, edit. Potter, where the passage as corrected by Salmasius is given.
Nich. Guil. Schroederus, professor of Oriental languages in the university of Marpurg, has published a very learned and judicious treatise upon this passage of Isaiah. The title of it is, “ Commentarius Philologico-Criticus De Vestitu Mulierum Hebræarum ad Iesai, iii. ver. 16–24. Ludg. Bat. 1745.” 4to. As I think no one has handled this subject with so much judgment and ability as this author, I have for the most part followed him, in giving the explanation of the several terms denoting the different parts of dress of which this passage consists; signifying the reasons of my dissent, where he does not give me full satisfaction.
17.—will the Lord humble-] Taterwozi, LXX; and so
ill the Lord hunt give me full satike reasons of my
Ibid. --expose their nakedness] It was the barbarous custom of the conquerors of those times to strip their cap tives naked, and to make them travel in that condition, exposed to the inclemency of the weather; and, the worst of all, to the intolerable heat of the sun. But this to the women was the height of cruelty and indignity; and especially to such as those here described, who had indulged themselves in all manner of delicacies of living, and all the superfluities of ornamental dress; and even whose faces had hardly ever been exposed to the sight'of man. This is al. ways mentioned as the hardest part of the lot of captives. Nahum, denouncing the fate of Nineveh, paints it in very strong colours: “ Behold, I am against thee, saith JEHOVAH God of Hosts ::
And I will discover thy skirts upon thy face ;
Nahum iii. 5, 6. 18.-the ornaments of the feet-rings-] The late learned Dr Hunt, professor of Hebrew and Arabic in the university of Oxford, has very well explained the word day, both verb and noun, in his very ingenious Dissertation on Prov. vii. 22, 23. The verb means to skip, to bound, to dance along; and the noun, those ornaments of the feet which the eastern ladies wore; chains, or rings, which made a tinkling sound as they moved nimbly in walking. Eugene Roger, Description de la Terre Sainte, liv. ii. chap. 2. speaking of the Arabian women of the first rank in Palestine, says, “ Au lieu de brasselets elles ont de menottes d'argent, qu'elles portent aux poignets et aux pieds ; où sont attachez quantité de petits annelets d'argent, qui font un cliquetis comme d'une cymbale, lorsqu'elles cheminent ou se mouvent quelque peu. See Dr. Hunt's Dissertation; where he produces other testimonies to the same purpose from authors of travels.
Ibid.—the net-works] I am obliged to differ from the learned Schroederus, almost at first setting out: he renders the word O'D'Iv by soliculi, little ornaments, bullæ, or studs, in shape representing the sun, and so answering to the following word D'
I , lunulæ, crescents. He supposes the word to be the same with D'Wow, the ' in the second
he noun, theans to skip, tsentation on guage at instanceeing a
syllable making the word diminutive, and the letter > being changed for 2, a letter of the same organ. How just and well-founded his authorities for the transmutation of these letters in the Arabic language are, I cannot pretend to judge; but, as I know of no such instance in Hebrew, it seems to me a very forced etymology. Being dissatisfied with this account of the matter, I applied to my good friend above-mentioned, the late Dr Hunt, who very kindly returned the following answer to my inquiries :
“I have consulted the Arabic lexicons, as well MS as printed, but cannot find D'd'in any of them, nor any thing belonging to it. So that no help is to be had from that language towards clearing up the meaning of this difficult word. But what the Arabic denies, the Syriac perhaps may afford; in which I find the verb VIW, to entangle or interweave, an etymology which is equally favourable to our marginal translation, net-works, with you, to make chequer-work, or embroider, (the word by which Kimchi and others have explained diaw), and has moreover this advantage over it, that the letters w and D are very frequently put for each other, but 3 and D scarce ever. Aben
which immediately precedes) עכסים and שביסים Ezra joins
it) together; and says, that Diav was the ornament of the legs, as DJy was of the feet. His words are, 5w pun D'IU
".שוקים כמו עכס של רגלים
21. The jewels of the nostril-1 987 . Schroederus explains this, as many others do, of jewels, or strings of pearl, hanging from the forehead, and reaching to the upper part of the nose. But it appears from many passages of Holy Scripture, that the phrase is to be literally and properly understood of nose-jewels, rings set with jewels hanging from the nostrils, as earrings from the ears, by holes bored to receive them,
Ezekiel, enumerating the common ornaments of women of the first rank, has not omitted this particular, and is to be understood in the same manner; chap. xvi. 11, 12. (See also Gen. xxiv. 47.)
“ And I decked thee with ornaments;
And I put bracelets upon thine hands,
And in an elegant proverb of Solomon there is a manifest allusion to this kind of ornament, which shows it to have been used in his time:
“ As a jewel set in gold in the snout of a swine ;
Prov. xi. 22. This fashion, however strange it may appear to us, was formerly, and is still, common in many parts of the East, · among women of all ranks. Paul Lucas, speaking of a
village, or clan, of wandering people, a little on this side of the Euphrates; “ The women,” says he, (2d Voyage du Levant, tom. i. art. 24.), “almost all of them, travel on foot: I saw none handsome among them. They have almost all of them the nose bored, and wear in it a great ring, which makes them still more deformed.” But, in regard to this custom, better authority cannot be produced than that of Pietro della Valle, in the account which he gives of the lady before-mentioned, Signora Maani Gioerida, his own wife. The description of her dress, as to the ornamental parts of it, with which he introduces the mention of this particular, will give us some notion of the taste of the eastern ladies for finery. “ The ornaments of gold, and of jewels, for the head, for the neck, for the arms, for the legs, and for the feet, (for they wear rings even on their toes,) are indeed, unlike those of the Turks, carried to great access, but not of great value ; for in Baghdad jewels of high price either are not to be had, or are not used; and they wear such only as are of little value; as turquoises, small rubies, emeralds, carbuncles, garnets, pearls, and the like. My spouse dresses herself with all of them according to their fashion; with exception, however, of certain ugly rings of very large size, set with jewels, which in truth, very absurdly, it is the custom to wear fastened to one of their nostrils, like buffalos : an ancient custom however in the East, which, as we find in the Holy Scriptures, prevailed among the Hebrew ladies even in the time of Solomon: Prov. xi. 22. These nose-rings in complaisance to me she has left off"; but I have not yet been able to prevail with her cousin and her sisters to do the same: so fond are they of an old custom, be it ever so absurd, who have been long habituated to it.” Viaggi, tom. i. lett. 17.
23. The transparent garments-] 0975007, Tu diapaun nazwina, LXX. A kind of silken dress, transparent, like