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ing 120,000 men; and brought the kingdom to the brink of destruction. Judah, being now in a more prosperous condition, is represented as able to receive and to protect the fugitive Moabites. And with those former times of distress, the security and flourishing state of the kingdom under the government of Hezekiah is contrasted.

6. We have heard the pride of Moab-] For Xa, read 1982; two MSS, (one ancient), and Jer. xlviii. 29. Zephaniah, in his prophecy against Moab, the subject of which is the same with that of Jeremiah in his xlviiith chapter, (see above Note on xv. 1.), enlarges much on the pride of Moab, and their insolent behaviour towards the Jews :“I have heard the reproach of Moab;

And the revilings of the sons of Ammon: .
Who have reproached my people;
And have magnified themselves against their borders.
Therefore, as I live, saith JEHOVAH God of Hosts, the God of

Surely Moab shall be as Sodom,
And the sons of Ammon as Gomorrah :
A possession of nettles, and pits of salt,
And a desolation for ever.
The residue of my people shall spoil them,
And the remnant of my nation shall dispossess them :
This shall they have for their pride ;
Because they have raised a reproach, and have magnified

Against the people of Jehovah God of Hosts,”

Zeph. ii. 8—10. . For the men of Kirhares-] A palpable mistake in this place is happily corrected by the parallel text of Jer. xlviii. 31. where, instead of 'D'UN, foundations, or flagons, we read "IN, men. In the same place of Jeremiah, and in ver. 36., and here in ver. 11., the name of the city is Kirhares, not Kirharesheth.

' Ibid. —are put to shame] Here the text of Jeremiah leaves us much at a loss, in a place that seems to be greatly corrupted. The LXX join the two last words of this verse with the beginning of the following. Their rendering is, και ουκ εντραπηση τα πεδια Εσεων. For TN they must have read 58; otherwise, how came they by the negative, which seems not to belong to this place? Neither is it easy to make sense of the rest without a small alteration, by reading, instead of EVTgannon Ta, svTPATNOETA.. In a word, the Arabic version taken

from the LXX, plainly authorizes this reading of the LXX, and without the negative ; and it is fully confirmed by MSS Pachom, and 1. D. II. which have both of them EvrgaTINOETAI FedIC Eo6wv, without the negative; which makes an excellent sense, and, I think, gives us the true reading of the Hebrew

They frequently render the .אד נכלמו שדמות חשבון :text

anstead of it branchesmay perhe

verb or by evTGETTOJCI. And 1953 answers perfectly well to shox, the parallel word in the next line. The MSS vary in expressing the word D'X3), which gives no tolerable sense in this place : one reads O'XD10, two others D'x), in another the 3 is upon a rasure of two letters; and Vulg. instead of it reads Dnips, plagas suas.

8. Her branches extended themselves-] For Yoj a MS has wa); which may perhaps be right: Compare Jer. xlviii. 32. which has in this part of the sentence the synonymous word was.

The meaning of this verse is, that the wines of Sibmah and Heshbon were greatly celebrated, and in high repute with all the great men and princes of that and the neighbouring countries, who indulged themselves even to intemperance in the use of them. So that their vines were so much in request, as not only to be propagated all over the country of Moab, to the sea of Sodom; but to have cions of them sent even beyond the sea into foreign countries.

12577, knocked down, demolished; that is, overpowered, intoxicated. The drunkards of Ephraim are called by the Prophet, chap. xxviii. 1.799 9939507. See Schultens on Prov. xxiii. 25. Gratius, speaking of the Mareotic wine, says of it,

“ Pharios quæ fregit noxia reges.” Cyneg. ver. 312.

.9 .בכי a MS reads בבכי as abith the abeeping


In Jer. xlviii. 32. it is 'Jān. LXX read '92), which I follow.

Ibid. And upon thy vintage the destroyer hath fallen]

In these few words there are two .ועל קצירך הידד נפל

great mistakes; which the text of Jer; xlviii. 32. rectifies :

;בצירך it has ,קצירך for and _ for

both which ;שדד הידך

corrections the Chaldee in this place confirms. As to the first,

“ Hesebon and Elealeh and

The flowery dale of Sibmah clad with vines,” were never celebrated for their harvests ; it was the vintage that suffered by the irruption of the enemy: and so read LXX and Syr. 7797 is the noisy acclamation of the treaders of the grapes : and see what sense this makes in the literal rendering of the Vulgate-super messem tuam “ vox calcantium irruit.” The reading in Jer. xlviii. 32. is certainly right, 53 776, vastator irruit. The shout of the treaders does not come in till the next verse ; in which the text of Isaiah in its turn mends that of Jeremiah xlviii. 33. where instead of the first 777, the shout, we ought undoubtedly to read, as here, 7777, the treader.

10. Ăn end is put to the shouting] The LXX read DUT, passive, and in the third person-rightly ;, for God is not the speaker in this place. The rendering of LXX is TETAUTUI gag redevojce ; which last word, necessary to the rendering of the Hebrew, and to the sense, is supplied by MSS Pachom. and 1. D. II., having been lost out of the other copies.

12. when Moab shall seem] For 787) a MS reads 0787, and so Syr. and Chald. « Perhaps 7870 'is only a various reading of 7850 ) :" SECKER. A very probable conjecture.

14. -and without strength] An ancient MS, with



This prophecy by its title should relate only to Damascus; but it full as much concerns, and more largely treats of, the kingdom of Samaria and the Israelites, confederated with Damascus and the Syrians, against the kingdom of Judah. It was delivered probably soon after the prophecies of the viith and viiith chapters, in the beginning of the reign of Ahaz; and was fulfilled by Tiglath Pileser's taking Damascus, and carrying the people captives to Kir, (2 Kings xvi. 9.); and overrunning great part of the kingdom of Israel, and carrying a great number of the Israelites also captives to Assyria ; and still more fully in regard to Israel, by the conquest of the kingdom, and the captivity of the people, effected a few years after by Shalmaneser.

1. A ruinous heap] For yo the LXX read "ys, Vulg. 'y). I follow the former.

2. The cities are deserted for ever] What has Aroer on the river Arnon to do with Damascus ? and if there be

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that the 27 devastates the word for ever, or for a , for yw,

another Aroer on the northern border of the tribe of Gad, (as Reland seems to think there might be), this is not much more to the purpose. Besides, the cities of Aroer, if Aroer itself is a city, makes no good sense. The LXX, for why, Aroer, read my 'TY, EIS TOV cewva, for ever, or for a long duration. The Chald. takes the word for a verb from jny, translating it 1271, devastabuntur. The Syr. read ynty. So that the reading is very doubtful. I follow the LXX, as making the plainest sense.

3. the pride of Syria-] For 780 Houbigant reads ngu, the pride, answering, as the sentence seems evidently to require, to 7), the glory of Israel. The conjecture is so very probable, that I venture to follow it.

5. -as when one gathereth-] That is, the king of Assyria shall sweep away the whole body of the people, as the reaper strippeth off the whole crop of corn ; and the remnant shall be no more, in proportion, than the scattered ears left to the gleaner. The valley of Rephaim near Jerusalem was celebrated for its plentiful harvests; it is here used poe tically for any fruitful country.

8. the altars dedicated to the work of his hands] The construction of the words, and the meaning of the sentence, in this place, are not obvious: all the ancient versions, and most of the modern, have mistaken it. The word guya stands in regimine with 1 193, not in apposition with it: it means the altars of the work of their hands; that is, of the idols; not which are, the work of their hands. Thus Kimchi has explained it, and Le Clerc has followed him.

9. the Hivites and the Amorites ] 7987) W91777. No one has ever yet been able to make any tolerable sense of these words. The translation of the LXX has happily preserved what seems to be the true reading of the text, as it stood in the copies of their time; though the words are now transposed, either in the text, or in their version: oi Ayogunoi nai oi EvalO.. It is remarkable, that many commentators, who never thought of admitting the reading of the LXX, yet understand the passage as referring to that very event which their version expresses; so that it is plain, that nothing can be more suitable to the context. My Father saw the necessity of admitting this variation, at a time when it was not usual to make so free with the Hebrew text. See Lowth on the place.

10. --shoots from a foreign soil] The pleasant plants, and shoots from a foreign soil, are allegorical expressions for strange and idolatrous worship; vicious and abominable practices connected with it; reliance on human aid, and on alliances entered into with the neighbouring nations, especially Egypt to all which the Israelites were greatly addicted; and in their expectations from which they should be grievously disappointed.

12–14. Wo to the multitude] The three last verses of this chapter seem to have no relation to the foregoing prophecy, to which they are joined. It is a beautiful piece, standing singly and by itself; for neither has it any connexion with what follows: whether it stands in its right place, or not, I cannot say. It is a noble description of the formidable invasion, and of the sudden overthrow, of Senacherib; which is intimated in the strongest terms, and the most expressive images, exactly suitable to the event.

12, 13. Like the roaring of mighty waters-] Five words, three at the end of the 12th verse, and two at the beginning of the 13th, are omitted in five MSS; that is, in effect, the repetition contained in the first line of verse 13. in this translation is not made. After having observed, that it is equally easy to account for the omission of these words by a transcriber, if they are genuine; or their insertion, if they are not genuine; occasioned by his carrying his eye back

I shall leave ;ישאון or forwards to ,לאמים wards to the word

it to the reader's judgment to determine whether they are genuine or not.

14. and he is no more] For 133'X, ten MSS (three ancient) and two editions, and LXX, Syr. Chald. Vulg. have 1338). This particle, authenticated by so many good vouchers, restores the sentence to the true poetical form, implying a repetition of some part of the parallel line preceding, thus :

“At the season of evening, behold terror!
Before the morning, and [behold] he is no more!”.

See Prelim. Dissert. p. xi. note.

CHAPTER XVIII. This is one of the most obscure prophecies in the whole book of Isaiah. The subject of it, the end and design of it, the people to whom it is addressed, the history to which it belongs, the person who sends the messengers, and the na

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